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∆Vbe differential thermometer needs no calibration

EDN Network - Tue, 02/06/2024 - 17:17

Differential temperature measurement is a handy way to quantify the performance of heatsinks, thermoelectric coolers (TECs), and thermal control in electronic assemblies. Figure 1 illustrates an inexpensive design for a high-resolution differential thermometer utilizing the ∆Vbe effect to make accurate measurements with ordinary uncalibrated transistors as precision temperature sensors. 

Here’s how it works.

Figure 1 Transistors Q1 and Q2 perform self-calibrated high resolution differential temperature measurements.

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Diode connected transistors Q1 and Q2 do duty as precision temperature sensors driven by switches U1and U1c and respective resistors R2, R3, R13, and R14. The excitation employed comprises alternating-amplitude current-mode signals in the ratio of (almost exactly):

10:1 = (100 µA via R3 and R13):(10 µA via R2 and R14).

With this specific 10:1 excitation, most every friendly small-signal transistor will produce an AC voltage signal accurately proportional to absolute temperature with peak-to-peak amplitude given by:

∆Vbe = Absolute Temperature / 5050 = 198.02 µV/oC.

The temperature-difference-proportional signals from Q1 and Q2 are boosted by ~100:1 gain differential amplifier A1a and A1d, synchronously demodulated by U1b, then filtered by R11, C2, and C3 to produce a DC signal = 20 mV/oC. This is then scaled by a factor of 2.5 by A1c to produce the final Q1–Q2 differential temperature signal output of 50 mV/oC, positive for Q1 warmer than Q2, negative for Q2 warmer than Q1.

Some gritty design minutiae are:

  1. Although the modulation-current setting resistors are in an exact 10:1 current ratio, the resulting modulation current ratio isn’t quite…The ∆Vbe signal itself subtracts slightly from the 100 µA half-cycle, which reduces the actual current ratio from exactly 10:1 to 9.9:1. This cuts the ∆Vbe temperature signal by approximately -1%.
  2. Luckily, the gain of the A1a/d amplifier isn’t exactly the advertised 100 either but is actually (100k/10k + 1) =101. This +1% “error” neatly cancels the ∆Vbe signal’s -1% “error” to result in a final, acceptably accurate 20mV/oC demodulator output.
  3. The modulating/demodulating frequency Fc generated by the A1b oscillator is deliberately set by the R4C1 time constant to be half the power mains frequency (30 Hz for 60 Hz power and 25 Hz for 50 Hz) via the choice of R4 (160 kΩ for 60 Hz and 200 kΩ for 50 Hz). This averages a couple mains-frequency cycles into each temperature measurement and thus improves immunity to stray pickup of power-line coupled noise. It’s a useful trick because some differential-thermometry applications may involve noise-radiating, mains-frequency-powered heaters. For convenience, the R5/R6 ratio was chosen so that Fc = 1/(2R4C1).
  4. Resistor values adorned with an asterisk in the schematic denote precision metal-film types. Current-ratio-setting R2, R3, R13, and R14 are particularly critical to minimizing zero error and would benefit from being 0.1% types. The others are less so and 1% tolerance is adequate. No asterisk means 5% is good enough.

Stephen Woodward’s relationship with EDN’s DI column goes back quite a long way. Over 100 submissions have been accepted since his first contribution back in 1974.

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Faraday to manufacture 64-bit Arm processor on Intel 1.8-nm node

EDN Network - Tue, 02/06/2024 - 16:16

The paths of RISC processor powerhouse Arm and x86 giant Intel have finally converged after they signed a collaboration pact to manufacture chips on Intel’s 1.8 nm process node in April 2023. Hsinchu, Taiwan-based contract chip designer Faraday Technology will manufacture Arm Neoverse cores-based server processors on Intel Foundry Services (IFS) using the Intel 18A process technology.

Chip design service provider Faraday is designing a 64-core processor using Arm’s Neoverse Compute Subsystems (CSS) for a wide range of applications. That includes high-performance computing (HPC)-related ASICs and custom system-on-chips (SoCs) for scalable hyperscale data centers, infrastructure edge, and 5G networks. Though ASIC designer won’t sell these processors, it hasn’t named its end customers either.

Figure 1 Faraday’s chip manufactured on the 18A process node will be ready in the first half of 2025. Source: Intel

It’s a breakthrough for Arm to have its foot in the door for large data center chips. It’s also a design win for Arm’s Neoverse technology, which provides chip designers with whole processors unlike individual CPU or GPU cores. Faraday will use interface IPs from the Arm Total Design ecosystem as well, though no details have been provided.

Intel, though not so keen to see Arm chips in the server realm, where x86 chips dominate, still welcomes them to its brand-new IFS business. It will likely be one of the first Arm server processors manufactured in an Intel fab. It also provides Intel with an important IFS customer for its advanced fabrication node.

Intel’s 18A fabrication technology for 1.8-nm process node—boasting gate-all-around (GAA) RibbonFET transistors and PowerVia backside power delivery—offers a 10% performance-per-watt improvement over its 20A technology for 2-nm process. It’s expected to be particularly suitable for data center applications.

Figure 2 The 18A fabrication technology is particularly considered suitable for data center chips. Source: Intel

Intel has already got orders to manufacture data center chips, including one for 1.8-nm chips from the U.S. Department of Defense. Now, a notable chip designer from Taiwan brings Intel Arm-based chips, boosting IFS’ fabrication orders as well as its credentials for data center chips.

The production of this Faraday chip is expected to be complete in the first half of 2025.

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IBASE Technology Inc. Launches AMI240 Fanless System with Exceptional Connectivity and Performance

ELE Times - Tue, 02/06/2024 - 13:01

IBASE Technology Inc. has introduced its latest innovation in the realm of computing solutions – the AMI240 fanless system. This cutting-edge system, powered by the IBASE MBE240AF motherboard, promises unparalleled performance and connectivity options, catering to diverse applications across various industries.

Designed to accommodate 14th and 13th Gen Intel Core processors, including the Intel® i9-14900T processor with 24 cores and 36M cache, the AMI240 system offers exceptional processing power while maintaining energy efficiency. With a 35W TDP, it ensures optimal performance for demanding tasks, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

One of the standout features of the AMI240 system is its compatibility with Sierra 5G modules, providing high-speed connectivity for advanced networking needs. Additionally, the system boasts a compact and space-efficient design, measuring just 210mm(W) x 285mm(D) x 77mm(H), making it suitable for installations where space is limited.

The system’s robust construction allows it to operate reliably in temperatures ranging from -20°C to 70°C, making it ideal for environments with extreme thermal conditions. This feature ensures that the system maintains its performance and functionality even in challenging operating environments.

Key features of the AMI240 fanless system include:

  • Fanless design featuring the IBASE MBE240AF motherboard
  • Support for 14th and 13th Gen Intel Core processors (i9/i7/i5/i3) with a 35W TDP
  • Dual SIM slots for WWAN redundancy (5G/4G/LTE)
  • Four RJ45 Ethernet ports (dual 2.5GbE + dual PoE+ supporting 802.3at)
  • Three M.2 slots (B-Key/E-Key/M-Key), iAMT (16.1), TPM (2.0)
  • Single 24V DC input with voltage protection (over/under/reverse)
  • Wide operating temperature range (-20°C to 70°C)

Furthermore, the AMI240 system offers comprehensive connectivity options, including dual SIM slots for WWAN redundancy, four RJ45 Ethernet ports with dual 2.5GbE and dual PoE+ support, and multiple M.2 slots for additional expansion. It also includes features such as iAMT (16.1), TPM (2.0), and PCI-E slots for further customization and expansion capabilities.

Overall, the AMI240 fanless system from IBASE Technology Inc. stands as a testament to the company’s commitment to delivering cutting-edge computing solutions with unparalleled performance, reliability, and connectivity options.

The post IBASE Technology Inc. Launches AMI240 Fanless System with Exceptional Connectivity and Performance appeared first on ELE Times.

element14 incorporates new, industry leading resistors from KOA Corp. into portfolio

ELE Times - Tue, 02/06/2024 - 09:04

Exceptional power and reliability at the core of the new resistor range adds new capabilities, temperature tolerance and space-saving options for developers.

element14 is now stocking a range of special flat chip resistor solutions from KOA Corporation (KOA).

Important to design engineers in a wide range of demanding markets, KOA resistors are an ideal choice for designers working in automotive, industrial, aerospace, medical, instrumentation and power conversion sectors.

Among the new resistors featured is the RN73R, a high-precision, high-reliability thin film resistor, that replaces the RN73 series with improved electrolytic corrosion resistance and higher stability.

The RN73H resistor in the series is designed for tough environments and is ideal for high-precision circuits for automotive, aerospace and other challenging applications. Despite their ultra-thin film, these resistors have excellent moisture resistance due to an additional inner protective layer.

A high-precision resistor now carried by element14 that uses thick film technology is the RS73, which makes it ideal for long-term stability when designing high-accuracy sensing or voltage detection circuits in automotive, industrial and measuring applications where ESD sensitivity is an issue.

The SG73P is an endured pulse power thick film resistor that has approximately seven times the pulse handling capability of standard flat chip resistors. Its special trimming gives it a higher power rating, which means that a SG73P device can be dropped onto the pads of a similar-sized conventional part, thus increasing the power capability without changing the PCB layout.

For designers who need to conserve board space, the new WK73R wide termination thick film resistor offers several advantages. For example, the 0612 chip size allows a 6x power rating compared to standard 1206 parts, which saves board space by improving heat dissipation. The larger terminals also enhance terminal strength and the smaller distance between the terminals reduces expansion stress.

element14’s new stock of KOA resistors also includes:

  • Flat chip resistors for high voltage applications, represented by KOA’s HV73(V)-series, designed for voltages up to 3 kV (2512 size with special coating and trimming insulation to ensure that higher voltages can be applied at operating temperatures up to +155 °C.
  • TLR low-ohm, high-power metal plate shunt resistors are offered in the ultra-low 0.5mΩ…20mΩ resistance range. Special trimming gives the device low inductance and removes any hotspots from the design.
  • The TLRZ series metal plate zero-ohm jumpers handle high currents in very small sizes. These low-profile jumpers are the perfect replacement for thick film devices in existing designs.
  • UR73 resistors are low resistance, low TCR thick film resistors that offer a cost-efficient approach for current sensing in the power range from 0.125 to 1 Watt and are available in sizes from 0402 to 2512.
  • KOA’s UR73V low resistance, low TCR thick film resistors for automotive applications cover the 10mΩ – 1Ω range and are a highly cost-effective approach to current sensing in automotive, power supply, motor control and many other industrial automation applications.

element14 Product Segment Leader, Resistors, Euan Gilligan, said, “KOA is known for the quality and reliability of their resistors and other products. We are delighted to make the benefits of their capabilities readily available to developers worldwide.”

The post element14 incorporates new, industry leading resistors from KOA Corp. into portfolio appeared first on ELE Times.

Defence Scenario in India & Role of Indian Startups in Defence Exports & Imports of India

ELE Times - Tue, 02/06/2024 - 08:28

Author: Capt. Nikunj Parashar, Founder & CMD, Sagar Defence Engineering Pvt. Ltd. 

In recent times, the Indian Defence sector has emerged as a focal point for the ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative, emphasizing self-reliance and indigenous manufacturing. With a strong commitment from the government, the Defence and Aerospace sector is witnessing a transformative phase. Recognizing the significance of a robust domestic defence industry, the vision of the government that is steering towards transparency, predictability, and ease of doing business has led to the establishment of an indigenous manufacturing infrastructure, supported by a robust research and development ecosystem, that is at the forefront of this transformative journey.

Capt. Nikunj Parashar, Founder & CMD, Sagar Defence Engineering Pvt Ltd

In the quest for self-reliance, the Indian defence manufacturing industry has seen a surge in innovation driven by a vibrant ecosystem of startups. Contributing to the development of cutting-edge technologies that empower and support the country’s defence efforts, such startups have become key players in the larger goal of reducing dependency on external sources for defence procurement. To foster the growth of the domestic defence industry, the government has implemented various initiatives and measures such as de-licensing, de-regulation, export promotion, and liberalization of foreign investments aimed at creating a conducive environment for startups. The ‘Make in India’ and ‘Startup India’ initiatives, supported by other policy measures, have modernized the armed forces and boost indigenous manufacturing.

One significant step towards fostering innovation in the Defence and Aerospace ecosystem is the Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) program. By providing a platform for collaboration between startups and the defence forces, iDEX accelerates the integration of innovative technologies into the country’s defence capabilities. In addition to iDEX, the government has implemented various supportive schemes to encourage innovation within the Defence and Aerospace sector. These schemes provide financial support, mentorship, and resources to startups, nurturing a culture of innovation and research. The ‘Make in India’ initiative is not just a slogan but a strategic move to reduce external dependency for defence procurement by promoting indigenous manufacturing, the government has enhanced the self-sufficiency of the Indian Defence sector. Startups, with their agility and innovation, play a crucial role in this process, contributing to the development of state-of-the-art technologies and products.

While the journey towards self-reliance in the defence sector is promising, it is not without challenges. Indian startups face obstacles such as funding constraints, regulatory hurdles, and the need for skilled manpower. However, the opportunities are immense. The government’s commitment to simplifying regulations, promoting exports, and encouraging foreign investment presents a favourable environment for startups to thrive. The role of Indian startups in defence exports is gaining prominence on the global stage with a focus on creating innovative solutions, these startups are well-positioned to cater to the evolving needs of the global defence market. Collaborations with foreign partners, facilitated by the government’s export promotion measures, have opened avenues for Indian startups to showcase their capabilities and contribute to global security. With continued support from the government and collaborative efforts, Indian startups are poised to play a pivotal role in shaping the future of the country’s defence industry. The journey towards an Atmanirbhar Bharat is not just a vision but a collective effort, with startups leading the way into a new era of self-sufficiency and technological prowess.

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