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Comparison of 3 step-down converters to predict EMC issues

EDN Network - Mon, 03/11/2024 - 06:15

Step-down converters’ switch-node voltage waveform defines the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) behavior for automotive CISPR 25 Class 5 measurements. The ringing frequency in the switch-node waveform is an important signal on the EMC receiver, where a higher ringing amplitude on the switch node often causes EMC issues. Understanding the switch-node waveform enables predicting the converter’s EMC characteristics as well as optimizing EMC filter design at an early design stage.

This article compares three automotive step-down converters to provide practical advice on using switch-node waveforms to predict EMC characteristics for automotive CISPR 25 Class 5 measurements. This is helpful to optimize EMC filter design and PCB layout to meet CISPR 25 Class 5 standards.

Switch-node measurements

Switch-node waveforms are used to compare the EMC characteristics among three automotive step-down converters. Figure 1 shows the switch-node measurement on an evaluation board using an active voltage probe.

Figure 1 Use an active voltage probe for the switch-node measurement on the evaluation board. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

The switch-node voltage waveform typically has a rising time and falling time between 700 ps and 2 ns. This requires a minimum oscilloscope bandwidth of about 1 GHz on the voltage probe tip, where the voltage can be measured with an active probe or a passive probe that has the necessary bandwidth.

For both variants, the ground connection to the PCB must be as short as possible to ensure that the measured ringing on the switch node does not include the additional ringing from the long probe ground connection.

Figure 2 shows the correct voltage probe tip position for the switch-node measurement on the evaluation board. Connect the GND tip as close as possible to the IC’s PGND pin and connect the probe input tip as close as possible to the IC’s switch-node pin. Solder the active probe tip with a 0.7-pF input capacitance directly to the component pads via removable gold-plated measuring tips.

Figure 2 Position the probe tip correctly for the switch-node measurement on the evaluation board. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Histogram and time trend

Figure 3 shows a step-down converter’s switch-node voltage (yellow trace), fSW histogram (pink trace), and time trend (orange trace).

Figure 3 The dual frequency spread spectrum of the MPQ4371-AEC1 includes the switch-node voltage, fSW histogram, and time trend. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

The oscilloscope measures the switch-node voltage for each trigger event across a period of 400 µs and calculates the frequency of each switching cycle. Each calculated frequency is accumulated in the histogram. The total duration of this test is about 10 minutes. For the last trigger event, the measured frequencies are represented as time trend fSW vs. time.

The measured frequencies in Figure 3 verify the fSW vs. time relationship from the MPQ4371-AEC1 datasheet. The time trend waveform confirms the specified dual frequency spread spectrum modulation frequencies of 15 kHz and 120 kHz. By verifying proper IC operation, these frequencies provide an overview of the expected fSW values for CISPR 25 Class 5 measurements.

Voltage waveform

Step down converter’s switch-node voltage waveform is measured with an active probe. Figure 4 shows the rising and the falling edges of MPQ4371-AEC1, in which both waveforms are overlaid on the oscilloscope by an alternating rising and falling trigger. The rising edge has a rising time of 922 ps and a step response with a 273 MHz resonance frequency and a 3.2 V peak-to-peak voltage.

Figure 4 The switch-node voltage waveform for MPQ4371-AEC1 has rising and falling edges. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

The MPQ4371-AEC1 step-down converter’s Quiet-FET technology enables combining fast slewing edges without excessive ringing. Quiet-FET technology does not significantly degrade efficiency like a snubber or bootstrap resistor (RBST), and instead uses a minimum two-step sequential switching action to turn on the internal MOSFETs.

The resonance frequency is determined by the parasitic hot-loop inductances and capacitances. The equivalent hot-loop series inductances (ESL) are defined by the following:

  • ESL of the 100 nF, 0603-sized MLCC (about 800 pH)
  • ESL of the high-side MOSFET (HS-FET) and low-side MOSFET (LS-FET)
  • ESL of the package lead frame
  • ESL of the PCB traces between the MLCC and IC’s VIN and PGND pins (about 700 pH/mm)

The switch-node waveform can also be predicted using a simulation of the PCB hot-loop network.

Frequency domain

Figure 5 shows a fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of step-down converter’s switch-node waveform. The average fSW of 420 kHz is distributed between 384 kHz and 456 kHz (green markers) and corresponds to the measured histogram from Figure 3. The switch-node resonance frequency at 273 MHz is distributed between 250 MHz and 300 MHz (red markers) due to dual frequency spread spectrum modulation and corresponds to Figure 4.

Figure 5 A fast Fourier transformation is applied to the MPQ4371-AEC1’s switch-node waveform. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Radiated emissions (RE) antenna for CISPR 25 Class 5

The vertical monopole, biconical, and log periodic antenna measurements in CISPR 25 Class 5 can be analyzed. Figure 6 shows the radiating switching inductance at peak CISPR 25 (blue) and average CISPR 25 (yellow), where the analyzer resolution bandwidth (RBW) = 9 kHz, fSW = 420 kHz, input voltage (VIN) = 13.5 V, output voltage (VOUT) = 3.3 V, and load current (ILOAD) = 2.5 A. The dual FSS modulation is helpful to maintain RE below the limits.

Figure 6 The vertical monopole antenna measurement of MPQ4371-AEC1 passes CISPR 25 Class 5. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Figure 7 shows the radiating objects (for example, the harness or radiating traces on the PCB) at peak CISPR 25 (blue) and average CISPR 25 (yellow), where RBW = 120 kHz, fSW = 420 kHz, VIN = 13.5 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, and ILOAD = 2.5 A.

Figure 7 The biconical antenna measurement of MPQ4371-AEC1 passes CISPR 25 Class 5. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Figure 8 shows the switch-node resonance frequencies between 250 MHz and 300 MHz (corresponding to Figure 4 and Figure 5) at peak CISPR 25 (blue) and average CISPR 25 (yellow), where RBW = 120 kHz, fSW = 420 kHz, VIN = 13.5 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, and ILOAD = 2.5 A. There is no RE that exceeds the 250 MHz to 300 MHz resonance frequency range.

Figure 8 The log periodic antenna measurement of the MPQ4371-AEC1 passes CISPR 25 Class 5. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Figure 9 shows the 1.2 GHz switch-node resonance frequency within RE at peak CISPR 25 (blue), average CISPR 25 (yellow), and the noise level (gray), where RBW = 120 kHz, fSW = 2.2 MHz, VIN = 13.5 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, and ILOAD = 2.5 A.

Figure 9 The log periodic antenna measurement of the MPQ4323M-AEC1 step-down converter passes CISPR 25 Class 5. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Switch-node waveform for MPQ4323M-AEC1

The MPQ4323M-AEC1’s integrated, 100 nF, hot-loop MLCCs reduce the internal parasitic inductances, which shifts the resonance frequency to higher values and reduces the resonance amplitude. Figure 10 shows an example of a fast slewing, switching converter combined with low internal parasitic inductances. This improves the switch-node waveform and reduces RE.

Figure 10 A fast-slewing switching converter combined with low parasitic inductances improves the switch-node waveform of the MPQ4323M-AEC1 step-down converter. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

Switch-node example on a 2-layer PCB

Figure 11 shows two different step-down converters soldered on the same 2-layer PCB. The left curve shows the MPQ4326-AEC1 with frequency spread spectrum modulation on a 2-layer PCB, with a switch-node resonance at 450 MHz. The right curve shows a step-down converter in a suboptimal set-up without FSS modulation and a 320 MHz resonance. The two converters are compared on the same PCB and with the same external components.

Figure 11 Two step-down converters are compared in a switch-node example on a 2-layer PCB. Source: Monolithic Power Systems

The step-down converter with the suboptimal set-up indicates undesirable resonance on the rising edge (red arrow), meaning there is a timing difference between the HS-FET and LS-FET. This resonance is caused by using a 2-layer PCB instead of a 4-layer PCB. Compared to a 4-layer PCB, a 2-layer PCB layout has higher parasitic inductances within the hot loop, which increases the resonance amplitude and changes the location of the switch-node resonance.

The increased amplitude is observed with both converters. In addition, the 2-layer PCB does not have the important solid ground layer directly under the top layer, resulting in a larger resonance amplitude and stronger RE.

FFT of step-down converters on a 2-layer PCB

Figure 12 shows the FFT of the switch-node voltage waveforms for the MPQ4326-AEC1 (with FSS modulation) and step-down converter with the suboptimal set-up (without FSS modulation) from Figure 11.

Figure 12 A fast Fourier transformation is applied to the switch-node voltage waveforms for the MPQ4326-AEC1 (with FSS modulation) and step-down converter with a suboptimal set-up (without FSS modulation). Source: Monolithic Power Systems

MPQ4326-AEC1 uses frequency spread spectrum modulation, while the step-down converter with the suboptimal set-up is set to a constant fSW. Typically, FSS modulation results in lower fundamentals and harmonics. Whether FSS modulation or a constant frequency is more advantageous depends on the requirements of the application. However, FFT shows the differences between the two methods.

MPQ4326-AEC1’s FFT shows the switch-node resonance at 450 MHz, and the step-down converter with the suboptimal set-up shows the switch-node resonance at 320 MHz. These switch-node resonance frequencies can be found in the CISPR 25 Class 5 measurements.

Understand switch-node waveform

This article analyzed the relationship between the switch-node voltage waveform and the frequency domain, using MPQ4323M-AEC1, MPQ4326-AEC1, and MPQ4371-AEC1 automotive step-down converters as examples. Understanding the switch-node waveform enables predicting PCB behavior for CISPR 25 Class 5 measurements. The measured resonance frequency shows up in RE measurements, enabling improved EMC filter design for suppressing the resonance frequency.

Furthermore, it is possible to assess expected frequency range interferences at an early stage by understanding the switch-node waveform. This helps find a suitable step-down converter according to the application specifications, shorten development times, and reduce costs by simplifying component selection for the EMC filter.

Ralf Ohmberger is a staff applications engineer at Monolithic Power Systems (MPS).

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The post Comparison of 3 step-down converters to predict EMC issues appeared first on EDN.

Digital clock no microcontroller

Reddit:Electronics - Mon, 03/11/2024 - 01:58
Digital clock no microcontroller

Using cd4060 with 32.768khz crystal ocsilator to generate 1.000hz if anyone wnats the schematic diagram just leave comment

submitted by /u/DistributionWise9219
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Lemon energy 🍋⚡

Reddit:Electronics - Mon, 03/11/2024 - 00:49
Lemon energy 🍋⚡

Fun with the children, a small project for this Sunday.

submitted by /u/Nickko_G
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Understanding the 12-Term Error Model and SOLT Calibration Method for VNA Measurements

AAC - Sun, 03/10/2024 - 19:00
The 12-term error model is a simple, effective way of modeling systematic errors in vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements. Learn about this model and an associated error correction technique in this article.

Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 03/09/2024 - 18:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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Solved: Crown CDi1000 amp - won't power on

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 03/09/2024 - 16:33

I was looking for a place to put this where it would be sufficiently on-topic. I hope this sub is the place? I have the above named amp. It had been working (and powered up 24x7) for many years. After a 3 hour power outage recently, it would not power on.

Searching online found many folks mentioning C196, a 220uf 35v cap as the likely culprit. Being powered on 24x7 seems to be a factor in failure as well, but then again, the amp is usually a top choice for installed commercial sound.

Seems like the cap is under voltage rated, at least one person measures ~36v across it. I was told to use caps with a voltage rating of about double the actual circuit voltage in order to be safe.

Long story short, I pulled C196, it failed out of circuit testing, so I replaced it with a two-dollar 60v 10% 220uf cap. That was it, amp works and it's back in production.

Just thought I add my experience as this is yet another case of an apparent weak point in the design of an otherwise very nice amp. TY very much.

submitted by /u/Miss_Page_Turner
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Video API for Business: Leveraging Visual Content for Marketing Success

Electronic lovers - Sat, 03/09/2024 - 04:04

The digital landscape is a crowded marketplace overflowing with voices vying for attention. To stand out, you need engaging content that connects with your audience. Enter video – the undisputed king of engagement. Viewers hold on to 95% of the message compared to 10% with text. But harnessing video’s full potential, particularly at scale, can be complex. Here’s where a Video API for Business steps in. It offers a transformative tool to unlock the true magic of video marketing.

Beyond Brick-and-Mortar: The API Advantage

Traditional methods often must improve and provide the agility and efficiency required in today’s digital landscape. Businesses now seek to enhance connectivity and communication through video calling APIs. These cloud-based solutions seamlessly integrate video calling functionalities into existing applications and workflows. Picture conducting personalized virtual consultations tailored to individual client needs. With video calling APIs, businesses can:

Automate video communication: Facilitate personalized video calls at scale, leveraging predefined templates and dynamic data feeds. This streamlines processes, allowing teams to focus on strategic initiatives.

Foster interactive engagements: Incorporate interactive features such as polls, surveys, and calls-to-action within video calls. This enhances participant engagement and encourages desired actions.

Streamline cross-platform integration: Seamlessly integrate video calling capabilities across various platforms and communication channels. Ensure effective communication reaches audiences regardless of their location or preferred medium.

Customize user experiences: Deliver tailored video calling experiences based on participant demographics and preferences. This personalization strengthens connections and builds trust.

Analyze performance metrics: Track key performance indicators of video calls and optimize strategies for maximum impact. Utilize insights to make data-driven decisions and continuously enhance communication effectiveness.

Real-World Impact: Unleashing the Video Powerhouse

The versatility of a Video API for Business transcends industries. It opens doors to diverse marketing applications. Let’s explore a few:

E-commerce: Showcase products and build loyalty with personalized video demos. You can highlight features and benefits that resonate with individual customers. This will drive purchasing decisions and reduce return rates.

Social media: Create buzz-worthy content with dynamic overlays and user-generated video integrations. This can ignite conversations and amplify brand reach.

Education and training: Deliver interactive video tutorials and personalized learning experiences. This can cater to individual learning styles and boost knowledge retention.

Email marketing: Increase email open rates and engagement with personalized video messages. This can grab attention and stand out in crowded inboxes.

Event marketing: Promote events with dynamic video teasers and personalized invitations. This can generate excitement and drive registrations.Finding Your Perfect Match: Choosing the Right Video API for Business

There’s a treasure trove of Video APIs. Selecting the ideal one requires careful consideration. Here are some key factors to weigh:

Functionality Fit: Ensure the API offers the functionalities you need for video calling. This may include high-quality video and audio streaming, seamless integration with existing systems, and comprehensive analytics capabilities to track call performance and user engagement.

User-Friendliness: Look for an API with an intuitive interface and clear documentation. This is a must if it involves non-technical users.

Scalability and Security: Choose an API to handle your current and future video needs. It should have robust security measures to protect your sensitive data.

Seamless Integration: Confirm seamless integration with your existing workflows and marketing platforms. This is to avoid the creation of data silos.

Pricing and Support: Select an API with transparent pricing and reliable customer support. This ensures you get the most value for your investment.

FAQs: Unveiling the Video API Mystery

What are the key benefits of using a Video API for business?

Video APIs offer many benefits. This includes increased efficiency through automation and personalized content creation for deeper engagement. It also improves audience interaction through interactivity and provides valuable data insights.

What types of videos can you create with a Video API?

The possibilities are endless! The best programmable Video API available in the market can empower you to create diverse video content for your marketing needs. This can range from personalized product demos to interactive tutorials and marketing messages.

Do you need coding knowledge to use a Video API?

Many Video APIs offer easy-to-use interfaces and no-code functionalities. It makes them accessible even to non-technical users. Some APIs need basic coding knowledge for advanced customization options.

How much do Video APIs cost?

Pricing varies depending on the API provider, features offered, and video volume. Many offer free trials or tiered pricing plans to cater to different needs and budgets.

Conclusion: Embrace the Video Revolution

Video APIs represent a transformative force in the marketing landscape. By harnessing their power, businesses can unlock the full potential of video content. So, step into the exciting world of video marketing empowered by a Video API for Business. You can see your brand narratives come alive, propelling your business forward. Embrace the video revolution and unlock the true potential of your marketing strategy.

The post Video API for Business: Leveraging Visual Content for Marketing Success appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

5 Electrical Engineering Research Projects Making Their Mark in 2024

AAC - Sat, 03/09/2024 - 02:00
From 3D processors to self-powered sensors, these academic research projects show how "the next big thing" in electronics may emerge from labs worldwide.

Celebrating Semiconductor Pioneer Dr. Esther M. Conwell

AAC - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 20:00
It's Women's History Month, but today is also International Women's Day! To celebrate, today we spotlight Dr. Esther M. Conwell, an early pioneer in silicon and germanium semiconductor physics who developed a theory pivotal to the birth of integrated circuits.

Optica’s Holonyak Award for Boston University’s Ted Moustakas

Semiconductor today - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 19:09
Theodore Moustakas (ECE, MSE, Physics) — Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Professor of Photonics and Optoelectronics at Boston University (BU) — has been awarded the Nick Holonyak Jr Award by Optica (formerly the Optical Society of America, OSA) for his pioneering contributions to nitride semiconductor materials and optical devices that helped build the foundation for efficient blue and ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs)...

Intel Spins Off Altera as Independent FPGA Supplier

AAC - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 16:00
Eight and a half years after acquiring Altera, Intel has spun off the FPGA division as an independent subsidiary.

Aixtron’s Q4 revenue grows to record €214.2m, aiding full-year growth of 36%

Semiconductor today - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 14:05
For fourth-quarter 2023, deposition equipment maker Aixtron SE of Herzogenrath, near Aachen, Germany has reported record revenue of €214.2m, up 30% on €165m last quarter and up 17% on €183.2m a year ago: This is also about three times first-quarter 2023’s revenue of €77.2m, underlining Aixtron’s flexibility in its supply chain and manufacturing...

Novus Hi-Tech Packs a Punch with its Cutting-edge Robots & Automation Solutions

ELE Times - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 12:13

Novus Hi-Tech Robotic Systemz is a prominent name in the field of Robotics and Automation. Their landmark achievements in providing advanced automation and smart mobility solutions are testimony to the company’s competitive technology-oriented goals. The company empowers many substantial industries like automotive, consumer electronics, cell & battery, oil & gas, etc. Also, Novus’ impressive clientele includes brands like Maruti Suzuki, ITC Ltd., Havells, and Honda, among various others.

Team Novus is well-equipped and technically sustained to handle many aspects of business including factory and warehouse operations, road logistics operations, & smart mobility. With over 100+ patents in its name, and over 1000+ mobile robot solutions deployed, the company is bringing its A game in the segment.

Mr Anuj Kapuria, Founder, CEO, and CTO at Novus Hi-Tech Robotic Systemz

Rashi Bajpai, Sub-Editor at ELE Times interacted with Mr Anuj Kapuria, Founder, CEO, and CTO at Novus Hi-Tech Robotic Systemz on the premise of Novus’ core competencies and R&D goals.

This is an excerpt from the conversation.





ELE Times: What are the key products and solutions you have in the Smart mobility segment?

Mr. Kapuria: In the Smart mobility segment, Novus offers a comprehensive suite of solutions designed to address the pressing challenges facing the transportation industry, particularly in the realm of road safety. Our flagship products include advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and video telematics solutions. Leveraging state-of-the-art edge AI technology, our ADAS products are tailored to the unique demands of road networks, especially in regions with high rates of accidents like India. Through real-time driver warnings and cloud-based insights, our video telematics solution contributes significantly to reducing accidents, decreasing instances of over-speeding, and enhancing fuel efficiency, ultimately fostering a safer and more efficient transportation ecosystem.

ELE Times: Throw some light on your latest R&D on ADAS and also provide us with an overview of the solutions in this domain.

Mr Kapuria: Novus is committed to continuous research and development in the field of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to tackle the pervasive issue of road safety. Our solutions are meticulously crafted to address specific challenges prevalent on Indian roads, leveraging extensive data analysis and innovative AI algorithms. With over 100 patents filed and a unique software-first approach to ADAS, Novus introduces ground-breaking technologies aimed at mitigating road fatalities and injuries. Our video telematics solution, powered by edge AI, not only provides real-time insights but also offers actionable intelligence for fleet operators, contributing to a safer and more efficient transportation infrastructure. We o­ffer a complete connected vehicle solution, covering L0 to L5 levels of autonomy.

ELE Times: Tell us about the NovusFlow and Novus Analytics platforms, and how they enhance the user experience of using your products.

Mr Kapuria: NovusFlow is a fog-based software suite for transforming physical operations. It stands as a testament to our commitment to innovation in optimizing factory, warehouse, and logistics operations. It serves as a connected software and hardware technology platform, integrating cutting-edge technologies to streamline processes and maximize efficiency. Employing a fog architecture with edge computing capabilities, NovusFlow ensures reliability, fault tolerance, and safety in operations. Complemented by the Novus Analytics platform, Novus Analytics is a suite of web-based application which helps to monitor the entire Novus family self-driving vehicle AMR, ABOPT & AGV in real-time. With the use of machine learning and Analytics tools,  logs data consolidates and presents data to the user in such a way that customers can improve processes and increase productivity, which delivers actionable insights to optimize processes further, these platforms collectively enhance user experience by simplifying operations, maximizing throughput, and minimizing costs.

ELE Times: From a manufacturing point of view, what are the key automation products/solutions Novus provides?

Mr Kapuria: Novus offers an array of automation products and solutions tailored to meet the evolving needs of modern manufacturing facilities. At the forefront of our offerings are the innovative Software Defined Mobile Robots, which represent a paradigm shift in assembly line automation. These mobile robots, configurable through software, offer unparalleled flexibility and modularity, thereby reducing line stoppages and enhancing productivity. Our NovusFlow platform orchestrates the behaviour of these mobile robots, optimizing task assignment, traffic management, and process sequences to maximize efficiency. With successful deployments across a diverse range of industries, Novus is driving transformative change in manufacturing processes, delivering substantial cost savings and productivity gains.

ELE Times: How can fleet operators benefit from your Video Telematics solution?

Mr Kapuria: Fleet operators stand to gain immensely from Novus’ video telematics solution, which represents a paradigm shift in fleet management and optimization. By harnessing the power of edge AI technology, our solution provides real-time driver warnings and cloud-based insights, thereby enhancing fleet efficiency and safety. The impact of our solution is profound, with impressive outcomes including a 90% reduction in accidents, a 60% decrease in overspeeding instances, and up to a 5% increase in fuel efficiency. Novus’ video telematics solution not only optimizes fleet operations but also reduces operational costs and improves overall performance, making it an indispensable asset for fleet operators striving for excellence.

The post Novus Hi-Tech Packs a Punch with its Cutting-edge Robots & Automation Solutions appeared first on ELE Times.

Rohde & Schwarz introduces dedicated phase noise analysis and VCO measurements up to 50 GHz with the R&S FSPN50

ELE Times - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 08:52

With the latest model of the R&S FSPN phase noise analyzer and VCO tester, Rohde & Schwarz extends the frequency range for measurements from the previous maximum of 26.5 GHz up to 50 GHz.

By rigorously implementing functions strictly for phase noise analysis and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) measurements, Rohde & Schwarz offers an excellent price-to-performance ratio with all R&S FSPN models. The R&S FSPN provides both high speed measurements and also accuracy for characterizing sources such as synthesizers, VCOs, OCXOs and DROs. Since a trade-off between increasing speed of test and higher accuracy is inevitable, users can choose the setting best suiting their application. This makes the R&S FSPN an ideal solution not only for production test, but also for many oscillator development requirements.

The new R&S FSPN50 covers the frequency range from 1 MHz to 50 GHz and complements the existing 8 and 26.5 GHz models. For engineers both developing and producing high quality oscillators, the R&S FSPN50 supports applications in the Ka band from 26.5 to 40 GHz, and in the Q band (36 to 46 GHz) and in the lower V band up to 50 GHz. Typical applications at these frequencies include commercial point-to-point wireless and microwave communication systems, satellite communications including high throughput satellite services, military satellite and communication systems operating up to 50 GHz, close-range targeting radars, and practically the entire 5G FR2 frequency range from 21.84 GHz to 50.20 GHz.

The excellent phase noise sensitivity of the R&S FSPN is based on two low noise internal local oscillators enabling real-time cross correlation. The user can increase the number of correlations for higher accuracy or reduce them for higher speed. The current cross-correlation sensitivity gain is shown in real-time together with the current result trace. Phase noise and amplitude noise are measured separately and simultaneously, providing both an excellent analysis of phase noise performance, and a direct route for identifying the cause of any problems, without any compromise in measurement speed. Accurate VCO measurements are enabled by three low-noise DC sources. OCXO and DRO technologies as well as VCO can all be measured. For easy remote control and production automation, sequences of SCPI commands can be recorded automatically.

The new R&S FSPN50 phase noise analyzer and VCO tester up to 50 GHz is now available from Rohde & Schwarz. For further information, go to: https://www.rohde-schwarz.com/product/FSPN

The post Rohde & Schwarz introduces dedicated phase noise analysis and VCO measurements up to 50 GHz with the R&S FSPN50 appeared first on ELE Times.

ST’s Latest Wireless MCUs Meet Stringent IoT Security Standards

AAC - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 02:00
ST says its newest wireless MCU reduces size and power without sacrificing performance or security.

Multichannel driver controls automotive LEDs

EDN Network - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 01:12

A PWM linear LED driver, the AL1783Q from Diodes, provides independent control of brightness and color on all three of its channels. Used for automotive interior and exterior lighting, the AL1783Q delivers 250 mA per channel to support higher LED current ranges in a wider range of lighting applications.

The device allows vehicle occupants to change interior lighting colors to suit their mood. It simultaneously enables animated turn-indicator signals and exterior grill lighting for different road conditions. Three external REF pins are used to set LED current for each channel, while 40-kHz PWM provides independent dimming control.

Since higher voltage rails are often used to power vehicle subsystems, the AL1783Q operates from a 55-V rail, allowing it to accommodate increasing LED chain voltages. Protection functions include undervoltage lockout, overvoltage, and overtemperature, as well as LED open and short-circuit detection.

Qualified to AEC-Q100 requirements, the AL1783Q operates over a temperature range of -40°C to +125°C. It comes in a TSSOP-16EP package that has an exposed cooling pad for improved heat dissipation. The AL1783Q LED driver costs $0.43 each in lots of 2500 units.

AL1783Q product page


Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Octal high-side switches minimize footprint

EDN Network - Fri, 03/08/2024 - 01:12

Two 8-channel high-side switches from ST combine smart features with typical on-resistance of just 110 mΩ/channel to preserve system efficiency. Housed in tiny 8×6-mm packages, the IPS8200HQ and IPS8200HQ-1 provide output current of 0.7 A and 1.0 A, respectively, on each channel. They can control capacitive, resistive, or inductive loads with one side connected to ground.

Each device operates from 10.5 V to 36 V and includes 3.3-V/5-V compatible logic inputs. For added design flexibility, the switches are controlled via a parallel or 4-wire serial (SPI) interface. Typical applications include programmable logic controllers, distributed I/O, industrial PC peripherals, and CNC machines.

The IPS8200HQ and IPS8200HQ-1 integrate LED drivers to indicate the status of each output channel. An embedded 100-mA DC/DC voltage regulator powers the LED driver, SPI logic, and input circuitry. It can also be used to supply external components, such as optocouplers or digital isolators. In addition, the switches offer multiple device protection features. 

The IPS8200HQ and IPS8200HQ-1 switches are in production now, with prices starting at $5.11 each in lots of 1000 units.

IPS8200HQ product page


Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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