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How SiC turbocharges EV infrastructure building blocks

EDN Network - Mon, 10/30/2023 - 10:39

Designers of automotive subsystems constantly strive to develop innovative solutions to extend the range and reduce the charging time of electric vehicles (EVs). In the pursuit of these goals, they have pushed silicon-based technologies close to their physical limits in terms of size, weight, and power efficiency and are transitioning to silicon carbide (SiC) solutions to address these challenges. In comparison to silicon, SiC devices offer lower on-resistance, faster switching speeds, and the ability to withstand larger voltages and currents at higher junction temperatures.

The trend toward higher voltages like 800 V within EVs is also driving new designs for traction-inverters, DC-DC converters, onboard chargers, and compressors for heat-pumps and fuel-cells. Here, high-voltage SiC MOSFET’s and diode’s rugged performance are well-suited for EVs, especially in commercial and off-road applications where availability is key.

At the same time, the existing network of 400-V charging infrastructure for the mainstream vehicles will also need to accommodate the newer 800-V vehicle designs. As a result, the increasing need for high voltages is driving the development of booster DC-DC modules in the car to bring the voltage rails together.

SiC technology can also act as the switching element in a solid-state circuit breaker, or E-Fuse, to protect electric components in the vehicle and diagnose fault events before becoming a hard failure. Downtime for repairs and cost can be saved by improved diagnosis and configuration options compared to mechanical solutions.

Next, there is an increasing demand for fast DC charging infrastructure to charge a vehicle quickly. This is particularly important for commercial applications—ranging from trucks and buses to mining and construction equipment—that must work for as long as possible.

Below is a sneak peek at three EV design areas where SiC power semiconductors offer higher levels of power conversion efficiency, power density, and reliability.

1. Solid-state circuit breakers

Using SiC for a solid-state circuit breaker brings several advantages compared to traditional circuit protection solutions. The technology can switch fast using a software configurable trip profile, for instance, via a LIN interface, to interrupt a circuit in microseconds. That’s 100–500 times faster than traditional mechanical approaches because of its high-voltage solid-state design.

The E-Fuse is resettable to avoid the need to replace physical fuses, which provides a reliable, long-term solution if a circuit is regularly interrupted. The potential risks of electric arcs when switching high voltage DC currents with mechanical contacts are eliminated when using a solid-state E-Fuse solution.

Figure 1 The E-Fuse demonstrator comprises 700-V and 1,200-V MOSFET switches alongside current sensing, amplifiers, LIN interface and an 8-bit PIC microcontroller featuring core independent peripherals. Source: Microchip

2. Fast charging

EVs, commercial, and off-road vehicles require fast charging capability. While a car can sit on the driveway overnight to charge, transport busses or construction equipment need to operate effectively throughout the day or night. So, they are moving to battery packs at 800 V or even 1,000 V to provide the power levels necessary for larger vehicles with heavy hauls.

These onboard charger designs mandate higher levels of power, and here, SiC technology can provide an optimal solution. Devices rated at voltages of 1,200 V and even 1,700 V provide developers with higher design margin. This can translate into higher peak performance for the vehicle, less redundancy, and easier manufacturing of elements. The higher efficiency of SiC compared to silicon IGBTs also means smaller heatsinks are needed, reducing the weight of the vehicle.

A technology demonstrator of an isolated 30 kW DC-DC charger, shown in Figure 2, is based on avalanche-rated 1,200-V MOSFETs and 1,200V diodes. The design features >98% peak efficiency, 650–750 V input voltage and 150–600 V output voltage at 50–60 A maximum at 140 kHz switching frequency. The PCB layout is optimized for safety, current, mechanical stress, and noise immunity.

Figure 2 The 30-kW DC-DC converter employs SiC MOSFETs and diodes. Source: Microchip

In addition, power factor correction (PFC) devices are generally required to do the AC-to-DC conversion and to keep the AC input current phase shift within well-defined limits against the AC input voltage, ensuring a near-unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion (THD).

Moreover, in the future, powering energy from the vehicle battery back into the grid will be a required option. This capability of bidirectional charging can be demonstrated by an 11 kW SiC-based PFC design in a Totem-Pole scheme.

3. 150-kW infrastructure charger

Silicon carbide is also key for the charging infrastructure. The same advantages of higher voltages and currents coupled with higher efficiency for smaller cooling elements lead to smaller designs of chargers. While the size of the charger is not as critical for commercial and off-road vehicles that are stored in a depot overnight, it’s relevant for domestic bidirectional DC chargers, which are gaining popularity.

Similarly, public Level 3 DC fast chargers bypass the onboard charger (OBC) of the vehicle to directly charge the battery via the EV’s battery management system (BMS). Bypassing the OBC enables significantly higher charge rates, with charger output power ranging from 50 kW to 350 kW.

Using a modular design approach means a PFC front-end is used for the AC-to-DC conversion, often from higher AC voltages such as 480 V, with a series of isolated DC-DC converter modules in parallel to provide the power to the vehicle.

Figure 3 SiC power semiconductors are becoming critical in EV charging infrastructure. Source: Microchip

This design approach allows a range of chargers to be developed from the basic modules to meet the different requirements of a vehicle operator. As the needs of the vehicles evolve, requiring higher power for faster charging, the charging infrastructure can be varied using SiC devices. This approach is being used for fast charging systems up to 150 kW and for even higher performance systems.

Using digital power management and a combination of SiC MOSFETs and diodes enables designs that offer high system efficiency and integration, high-power density, and advanced digital control loops and increased flexibility in various power topologies for DC fast charger applications. These can be coupled with analog, power management, wireless and wired connectivity, energy metering, memory, security, and human machine interface (HMI) devices to complete a Level 3 DC fast charging design.

Andreas von Hofen is marketing manager at Microchip Technology’s Automotive Products Group.

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Xilinx Distributors and Its Family Series

Electronic lovers - Mon, 10/30/2023 - 03:46

Distributors of Xilinx

The distribution of Xilinx goods and services is handled by Xilinx Distributors. Their prompt and precise delivery makes it effortless for users to make purchases. The major distributors of Xilinx include Digi-Key Electronics, Mouser Electronics, Element 14, and so on. With a big inventory in stock, same-day shipping for same-day orders, support for RMB, and an extensive assortment of authentic direct line goods, DigiKey is an authorized small-volume distributor of genuine Xilinx products. CPLDs, FPGAs, SoCs, and other Xilinx products are stocked by Xilinx Distributor Traders. Traders provides Xilinx product pricing, inventory, and datasheets.


What is Xilinx?

With only a few dozen workers when it was founded in 1969 in Silicon Valley, Xilinx has spent the entire time innovating and setting the standard for semiconductor devices. Now, Xilinx is a cutting-edge, international business that pioneered several ground-breaking technological advancements and established the benchmark for contemporary computing. As a pioneer in high-performance and adaptable computing, Xilinx offers goods and services that support our clients in meeting important deadlines. The data center, embedded systems, gaming, and PC industries are leading the way in the future thanks to our technology.

In terms of high-performance and adaptive computing technology, Xilinx leads innovation. With top-tier research facilities devoted to elevating ideas and creativity to new heights, the Xilinx research team is redefining the future of technology. Our steadfast dedication to holding our products to the highest industry standards is reflected in Xilinx’s quality policy.

Xilinx Family Series

Xilinx Zynq-7000 SoC

For optimal performance-per-watt and maximum design flexibility, Zynq 7000 devices include dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processors combined with 28nm Artix 7 or KintexTM 7 based programmable logic. Zynq 7000 devices enable very distinctive designs for a variety of embedded applications, including multi-camera driver assistance systems and 4K2K Ultra-HDTV, and are available with transceivers ranging from 6.25Gb/s to 12.5Gb/s. Zynq-7000 SoC devices can be applied to ADAS, Medical Endoscope, Small Cell Baseband, Professional Cameras, Machine Vision, Carrier Ethernet Backhaul, and Multi-function Printers.

Xilinx FPGA Spartan-7

The newest devices in the Cost-Optimized Portfolio, SpartanTM 7, combine tiny form factor packaging and outstanding performance per watt to satisfy even the most exacting specifications. Built on 28nm technology, these devices have a MicroBlazeTM soft processor capable of over 200 DMIPs and 800 Mb/s DDR3 compatibility. Furthermore, all commercial Spartan 7 devices come with Q-grade (-40°C to +125°C) and an integrated ADC, in addition to certain security measures. These devices are perfect for any-to-any communication, sensor fusion, and embedded vision applications in the consumer, automotive, and industrial domains. FPGA Spartan-7 characteristics include a 1.0V or 0.95V core voltage option, 30% quicker performance compared to 45nm generation devices, 50% lower total power consumption, and a flexible, soft memory controller with a peak DDR3-800 memory bandwidth of 25.6Gb/s.

FPGA Spartan-7

Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA

High performance-per-watt fabric, transceiver line rates, DSP processing, and AMS integration are all offered by ArtixTM 7 devices in an FPGA that is designed for cost. The series offers the greatest value for a range of pricey and power-sensitive applications, such as software-defined radio, machine vision cameras, and low-end wireless backhaul, thanks to its MicroBlazeTM soft processor and 1,066Mb/s DDR3 compatibility. AXI IP, analog mixed signal integration, and up to 215K LCs are among the characteristics of the Artix-7 FPGA. Up to 16 x 6.6G GTs, 930 GMAC/s, 13Mb BRAM, 1.2Gb/s LVDS, DDR3-1066, Small wire bond packaging, up to $5 analog component savings, 50% and 65% less power consumption compared to 45nm generation devices, scalable optimized architecture, extensive tools, and intellectual property is all included.

Artix-7 FPGA

Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs

VirtexTM 7 FPGAs offer remarkable performance/watt fabric, DSP performance, and I/O bandwidth to your designs. They are tailored for system performance and integration at 28nm. Applications for the series include portable radar, 10G to 100G networking, and ASIC prototyping. Virtex-7 FPGA characteristics include AXI IP, AMS integration, VCXO component, and up to 2M logic cells Up to 16 x 28.05G GTs, 96 x 13.1G GTs, 5,335 GMACs, 68Mb BRAM, DDR3-1866, and a maximum total serial bandwidth of 2.8 Tb/s less expensive than a multi-chip system by up to 40% Compared to multi-chip solutions, scalable optimized architecture, extensive tools, IP, and TDPs can save up to 50% of power.

Virtex-7 FPGAs

Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGAs

KintexTM 7 FPGAs provide your designs exceptional price/performance/watt at 28nm with to their high DSP ratios, affordable packaging, and compatibility with widely used standards like PCIe® Gen3 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The Kintex 7 family is ideal for applications like 3G and 4G Kintex-7 FPGAs wireless, video over IP solutions, and flat panel displays. AXI IP, AMS integration, VCXO component, and up to 478K logic cells are some of the features of Kintex-7 FPGAs. 32 × 12.5G GTs, 2,845 GMACs, 34Mb BRAM, DDR3-1866, 50% less power consumption than prior generation 40nm devices, scalable optimized architecture, extensive tools, IP, Boards and Kits, and half the cost of similar density 40nm devices are just a few of the features.

Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA

The VirtexTM 6 FPGA Connectivity Kit is intended for high-performance connectivity development, debugging, and demonstration. It provides a full platform for high-bandwidth and high-performance applications across multiple industry sectors. The Virtex 6 FPGA Connectivity Kit provides a high-performance 10G DMA IP core from Northwest Logic, a Virtual FIFO memory controller that interfaces to an external DDR3 memory, soft IP for the XAUI protocol, and built-in blocks for PCI Express and GTX transceivers. Enabling serial connectivity with PCIe Gen2x4, Gen1x8, 1 SFP, 1 SMA Pair, and UART are among the main advantages of the Virtex-6 FPGA. Other advantages include supporting embedded computing with MicroBlaze and soft 32bit RISC, expanding I/O with the FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) interface, and 10/100/1000 Tri-Speed Ethernet (RJ-45).

Virtex-6 FPGA

Major Distributors of Xilinx

Digi-Key Electronics

Authorized Xilinx distributors in the Americas, China, Asia Pacific, Japan, Africa, Middle East, and Europe are Digi-Key Electronics. Additionally, Digi-Key is renowned across the world for being a constant pioneer and leader in high service delivery of electronic components and automation products.

This business was founded in 1972 and is regarded as a valuable asset for design engineers. Presently, the corporation provides the world’s widest range of both stocked and expedited-shipping electrical components. Being acknowledged as leaders in overall performance, timely delivery, product availability, and an engineer-friendly website makes Digi-Key pleased.

Mouser Electronics

Authorized Xilinx distributors in the Americas, China, Asia Pacific, Japan, Africa, Middle East, and Europe are Mouser Electronics. Mouser Electronics is a well-known distributor of semiconductors and electrical components for over 1200 top brands in the industry on a global scale. The business also specializes in the prompt release of novel products and technology targeted at design engineers and buyer communities.

Mouser Electronics has 27 locations worldwide. Additionally, they operate in 21 languages and 34 different currencies. Their global distribution center is equipped with the latest wireless management technology. This allows them to handle orders around-the-clock. It also performs operations that are nearly flawless.

Element 14

Element 14 are authorized Xilinx distributors in China, Asia Pacific, and Japan. Founded in 2009, this company has set the benchmark for electronic communication in the sector.

Additionally, the organization is well-known for its technical blogs, videos, and webinars that provide knowledge on the newest developments in electronics, such as Internet of Things and Wireless Technologies. Additionally, this company runs a video project that allows users to interact, create, learn, and get inspired.

Vemeko Electronics

Vemeko is a non-authorized distributor of Xilinx FPGA. But Vemeko is an experienced FPFA distributor that can help you save time, money, and effort by providing a wide range of goods together with our effective self-customized service. Order preparation and delivery are both very careful. Our platform has many benefits, including a strong corporate management system, a warehouse management system, a strict product quality inspection system, and an easy-to-use delivery system.

How do I buy Xilinx chips?

The standard purchasing model for AMD Adaptive Computing products is through Distribution. Authorized Distributors offer a comprehensive set of AMD Adaptive Computing design tools, IP cores, devices, development boards and kits. First, click here for a list of Authorized Distributors and Non-authorized Distributors. Second, select the country nearest to where you are located. Third, contact your Distributor via one of the available options.

The post Xilinx Distributors and Its Family Series appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 10/28/2023 - 18:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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Intel’s Vision Soars High: Groundbreaking Plans to Transform Semiconductor Development in Oregon

ELE Times - Sat, 10/28/2023 - 10:47

Intel, a global technology giant, has revealed its ambitious vision for advancing its semiconductor technology development facilities situated at Gordon Moore Park within the scenic landscapes of Ronler Acres, Hillsboro, Oregon. This facility serves as Intel’s central hub for pioneering semiconductor research, technology innovation, and manufacturing in the United States. These plans come to fruition with the invaluable support of the state of Oregon, the city of Hillsboro, Washington County, and in hopeful anticipation of backing from the U.S. CHIPS and Science Act.

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Intel’s substantial investments in its research and development (R&D) and manufacturing operations in Oregon play a pivotal role in the company’s pursuit of technological leadership. As part of its grand strategy to infuse more than $100 billion into the United States over a five-year span, Intel’s CEO, Pat Gelsinger, outlined this vision at September’s Intel Innovation event.

The intricate details of Intel’s plans encompass the following:

  1. Revamping Existing Technology Development Facilities: The company is committed to enhancing its current technology development facilities at the Gordon Moore Park campus, equipping them with state-of-the-art process technology and tools, thereby propelling the campus to the forefront of innovation.
  2. Introduction of Cutting-Edge Technology: A noteworthy feature includes the anticipated arrival of the world’s first high-numerical aperture extreme ultraviolet (high-NA EUV) lithography tool later this year.
  3. Permit Application for Expansion: Furthermore, Intel is set to initiate the application process for permits that would pave the way for a potential multibillion-dollar expansion of Intel’s R&D and manufacturing capacity.

These investments, mirroring similar commitments across other Intel locations in the U.S., hinge on support from the U.S. CHIPS Act. They are projected to yield thousands of new permanent and construction jobs, while also securing Oregon and the Pacific Northwest’s position as the epicentre of U.S. semiconductor research and technology development for years to come.

It’s essential to note that Intel stands as the sole leading-edge semiconductor manufacturer with its research and development and technology development headquarters in the United States. Oregon, through its support, plays a vital role in Intel’s strategy to regain technological leadership by 2025 and realize the company’s IDM 2.0 vision. Incentives provided by the U.S. CHIPS Act hold the potential to significantly expedite advancements at the site, thereby ensuring the United States maintains its supremacy in leading-edge semiconductor technology.

Hillsboro, Oregon, is home to Intel’s facilities that constitute the core of the most influential semiconductor innovation cluster in the nation. The company nurtures strong partnerships with the local government, educational institutions, construction trades, and nonprofits. On April 5, 2023, during her visit to Oregon, U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo commended the unity and strength of this diverse ecosystem, expressing being “blown away” by the collaboration between Intel, the community, and the government in driving the semiconductor industry in Oregon.

Intel’s Technology Development Group, headquartered in Oregon, conducts research that peers into the technological future, with teams exploring new process technologies a decade or more ahead. Simultaneously, Intel is committed to mitigating its environmental impact by investigating eco-friendly chemistries and treatment methods, contributing to its pledge to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions across its global operations by 2040.

As part of its broader mission, Intel is dedicated to widening access to opportunities, empowering the next generation of innovators, and expanding the talent pool within the industry. Collaborative investments in programs with universities, community colleges, and local school districts across the state underscore Intel’s commitment to STEAM education and fostering accessible workforce pathways.

The post Intel’s Vision Soars High: Groundbreaking Plans to Transform Semiconductor Development in Oregon appeared first on ELE Times.

Infineon AIROC CYW5551x combines Wi-Fi 6/6E performance surpassing standards and advanced Bluetooth connectivity for IoT applications

ELE Times - Sat, 10/28/2023 - 09:53

Infineon Technologies AG (FSE: IFX / OTCQX: IFNNY) today announced the company is extending its AIROC portfolio with the AIROC CYW5551x Wi-Fi 6/6E and Bluetooth 5.4 solution. The versatile family delivers secured, reliable 1×1 Wi-Fi 6/6E (802.11ax) connectivity that goes beyond the standard, plus advanced ultra-low power Bluetooth (BT) connectivity. The optimized CYW55512, a dual-band Wi-Fi 6 solution, and CYW55513, a tri-band Wi-Fi 6/6E solution, feature power-efficient designs ideal for smart home, industrial, wearables and other small form-factor IoT applications.

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“Infineon’s new CYW5551x family brings the range, reliability, and network robustness from our 2×2 Wi-Fi 6/6E CYW5557x family of devices to an IoT optimized family,” said Sivaram Trikutam, Vice President of Wi-Fi Products of Infineon. “As part of the company’s digitalization and decarbonization strategy, this family is optimized for very low power consumption, making it ideal for battery-operated devices like wearables and IP cameras. Tuned for best performance across a wide temperature range, it serves industrial and infrastructure applications such as electric vehicle charging, solar panel controls, logistics and others”

The new solution also offers support for the “greenfield” 6 GHz band for Wi-Fi 6E, delivering lower latency and reduced interference. Bluetooth 5.4 low energy (LE) with Audio is range and power-optimized with up to 20 dBm transmit power. Other features include improved multi-layer security (PSA Level 1-certifiable); and design versatility supported by a wide ecosystem of module and platform partners. As with other members of the AIROC CYW5551x family, the devices feature Linux, RTOS and Android support, and have a fully validated Bluetooth stack and sample code to accelerate development time.

The post Infineon AIROC CYW5551x combines Wi-Fi 6/6E performance surpassing standards and advanced Bluetooth connectivity for IoT applications appeared first on ELE Times.

How BAW addresses spectrum coexistence challenges in Wi-Fi 7

EDN Network - Fri, 10/27/2023 - 10:03

The transition from Wi-Fi 6 to Wi-Fi 7 has been a game changer, more than doubling the available frequency for wireless network. Traditionally, Wi-Fi has used the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz super high frequency (SHF) radio bands. But Wi-Fi 7 introduces a new swath of spectrum at 6 GHz frequency, which enables faster connection and greater capacity for applications like video conferencing, 8K gaming, and AR/VR.

Furthermore, this spectrum offers an added advantage to its predecessors: the ability to leverage 320-MHz wide channels (rather than 160 MHz). While consumers may rejoice at the vast amount of increased bandwidth and improved speeds that they will eventually experience, technology developers must first overcome the coexistence challenges that Wi-Fi 7’s additional spectrum will bring.

Figure 1 The 6-GHz spectrum in Wi-Fi 7 brings new opportunities for consumers and new challenges for design engineers. Source: Infinity Business Insights

Challenges of Wi-Fi 7’s additional spectrum

The 6 GHz spectrum essentially doubles Wi-Fi capacity overnight. However, it also requires more power amplification, precision-switching, low-noise amplification, matching and packaging—resulting in added design complexity, router board space, and cost.

Figure 2 Here is how Wi-Fi 6 IEEE 802.11ax operation looks like with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. Source: Skyworks

Figure 3 Wi-Fi 7 IEEE 802.11be operation is shown with simultaneous use of 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 6 GHz bands. Source: Skyworks

Wi-Fi 7’s 6 GHz band can deliver over 40 Gbps of peak throughput, which is significant when considering the amount of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) it supports. QAM, used to translate digital packets into analog signals for seamless data transfer and to provide more spectrum usage efficiency, has been a part of Wi-Fi for more than a decade. However, while Wi-Fi 6/6E capped out at 1K QAM, Wi-Fi 7 supports up to 4K QAM. The challenge with higher-order modulation formats like 4K QAM is increased difficulty in transmitting and receiving data error-free. Thus, it requires higher RF performance.

Figure 4 A comparison is shown between Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 7 relating to 1024 vs 4096 QAM support. Source: Skyworks

Because the 6 GHz spectrum is traditionally unused in Wi-Fi devices today, it creates coexistence complexity in filtering and antenna management because it lies around the sub-7 GHz 5G band. Common filter technologies like low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and lumped element LC unfortunately fall short as they are too coarse and can block a significant amount of 6 GHz channels.

Moreover, this new band of spectrum will not support the operations of legacy devices that are based on the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz spectrums. Given only routers with Wi-Fi 7 or Wi-Fi 6E support can operate on this band, it leads to limited device availability and interoperability issues with current Wi-Fi devices using the previous spectrums. This means that equipment and device providers will need to invest in new technologies for routers, laptops, and smartphones with Wi-Fi 7 capabilities, incurring more costs.

How BAW addresses Wi-Fi 7’s coexistence challenges

Wi-Fi 7 will bring great benefits, but its difficulties and complexities cannot be understated. To overcome these coexistence challenges, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) technology has arisen as a solution. BAW, an advanced filtering solution for mobile, radar and other communications systems, is a type of compact, cost-efficient RF filter that can be applied to several applications up to 6 GHz.

The frequency gap between 5 GHz and 6 GHz bands is minuscule, only about 50 MHz wide. Although traditional bandpass filters require a gap of about 200 MHz between channels to operate optimally, BAW filters can bypass this gap easily by enabling 110 MHz separation between 5 GHz and 6 GHz.

BAW filter technology can boost Wi-Fi 7 performance and reduce the impact of interference from other systems by providing high selectivity and low insertion loss necessary to operate on higher and more crowded frequency ranges. Then there is insertion loss, which is directly impacted by the device and a room’s temperature, making the device prone to fluctuation. Here, BAW filters come into play as they have temperature stability and can thus sustain performance.

Lastly, a growing trend among communications service providers (CSPs) is the emergence of connectivity-as-a-service (CaaS), an integrated solution that provides network connectivity across connectivity types. CaaS aims to streamline and simplify how operators deliver their services and new capabilities to customers. As part of this, more CSPs are looking to integrate solutions like 5G, IoT, edge and Wi-Fi 6 into a holistic service to improve customer outcomes. And with Wi-Fi 7 already on the horizon—and 6G anticipated to arrive within the next decade—the ability to integrate Wi-Fi 7 into this service will be critical.

Wi-Fi 7, 5G and 6G networks tout similar benefits: faster speeds, reduced latency, and more efficient spectrum use. At first glance, the choice between Wi-Fi and cellular for consumers and enterprises might seem black and white, with Wi-Fi being the clear winner for “untethered” connectivity needs. However, the pandemic has drastically shifted the connectivity needs of consumers, resulting in a demand for cellular connectivity outside the home to enable applications like telehealth and eLearning. So, ensuring the ability to use Wi-Fi and private network technology in a hybrid environment is critical.

BAW technology is uniquely situated to address the needs of 5G and 6G coexistence with Wi-Fi 7 because it manages the use of 6-GHz bands, which is frequently shared by all three networks. And it can isolate specific frequency bands used by wireless technologies to allow them to exist harmoniously within the same frequency while reducing interference between them. As a result, it delivers the enhanced and efficient performance needed for service providers to seamlessly deliver CaaS to stay competitive in the market.

Figure 5 Wi-Fi 7 calls for investment in new devices like routers, laptops, and smartphones. Source: Skyworks

Time is now for BAW and Wi-Fi 7

As Wi-Fi 7 products started shipping in 2023, it is anticipated many will transition directly from Wi-Fi 6 to Wi-Fi 7 to make the most out of its significantly increased transfer speeds, reduced latency, and increased network capacity. This mass upgrade to Wi-Fi 7, including by smartphone providers, will be a strong catalyst for the rest of the market to make the full transition to ensure their routers, security cameras, endpoint applications, PCs, and TVs are compatible with the latest smartphone devices.

To ensure providers are well equipped for this transition, they should look at investing in the latest BAW technology that has the capability to support 6GHz spectrum and below, and the ability to go higher as well.

Chung Liang Lee is global product marketing director at Skyworks Solutions Inc.

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1956 Simpson Colorscope blew a fuse

Reddit:Electronics - Fri, 10/27/2023 - 09:14
1956 Simpson Colorscope blew a fuse

Acquired a Simpson 458 colorscope. The cord was dry rotted so I replaced. It turned on for a minutes, green dot on the screen, then the dot moved vertically of screen and the fuse blew. Anyone have experience with repairing?

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One-tube ham transmitter showing its Halloween colors

Reddit:Electronics - Fri, 10/27/2023 - 05:12
One-tube ham transmitter showing its Halloween colors

By day I'm a micro HW/SW guy, but by night I build tube stuff such as one-tube CW transmitters. Here's one putting out about 12W from a 6DB5 audio tube and looking very October.


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Spectrum analyzer identifies uplink interference

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 20:04

Software for Anritsu’s Field Master spectrum analyzer performs uplink interference measurements in 5G and LTE time division duplexing (TDD) networks. This measurement is now included in the analyzer’s 5G and LTE measurement options. It provides a dual display of the LTE or 5G frame structure with automatic placement of gates on the uplink slots alongside the RF spectrum of the gated time slots.

Anritsu’s uplink interference measurement offers detailed insights into the common causes of interference in new TDD networks. The update provides configurations for common frame slot formats recommended by international standards organizations, including GSMA, ITU-R, and ECC/CEPT.

5G and LTE measurement options are available for the Field Master Pro MS2090A, which covers FR1 and FR2 frequency bands, and the Field Master MS2080A for FR1-only networks. Also available is a real-time spectrum analyzer option for capturing detailed transmitter spectrum, as well as a cable and antenna analyzer accessory for sweeping feeder cables.

MS2090A product page

MS2080A product page


Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Optical network chips power home gateway units

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 20:03

Gemtek has selected MaxLinear’s PRX 10G passive optical network (PON) chips for its mid-market Wi-Fi 6 AX3000 PON home gateway units (HGUs). In addition to the PRX series G-PON and XGS-PON devices, the HGUs integrate MaxLinear’s Wi-Fi 6 SoCs.

Gemtek’s TB-362 and TB-380 are dual-band Wi-Fi 6 PON HGUs with single-port 2.5-GbE and quad-port GbE LAN capabilities. The TB-362 provides high-speed XGS-PON internet access, while the TB-380 offers G-PON internet access. Both of the mainstream home gateway units are available now from Taiwan-based Gemtek.

MaxLinear’s PRX series of SoCs enables a smooth transition when scaling from gigabit to 10G fiber access. They support various ITU-T PON environments, including G-PON, XG-PON, XGS-PON, and NG-PON2, as well as active optical Ethernet point-to-point connections. The 10G PON devices can be used in fiber to the home (FTTH) optical network units and fiber to the distribution point (FTTdp) applications.

Outfitted with essential components, the PRX SoCs include a dual-core, multithread processor; 10G PON MAC; SerDes; XFI; 2.5 GbE PHY; PCIe 3.0 interfaces; and a DDR3/4 controller. Power management, timing synchronization, and OAM hardware acceleration are also provided.

To learn more about the PRX family of 10G PON chips, click here.


Gemtek Technology 

Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Inductive position sensor achieves high resolution

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 20:03

Renesas has developed an inductive position sensor (IPS) technology that delivers a resolution of up to 19 bits and accuracy of up to 14 bits. The magnet-free, dual-coil technology can replace magnetic and optical encoders used in motor control systems for robotics, industrial, and medical applications.

According to Renesas, the IPS technology uses sensing elements consisting of copper coils etched on a pc board to detect the position of a metallic target. IPS products are able to operate at 600 krpm (electrical) and detect motor position at startup. Propagation delay is less than 2 µs, useful for motors that operate at high rotational speeds.

IPS technology supports auto-calibration and linearization features, and it is adaptable to any full-scale angle range through coil design. IPS devices will support UART, ABI, and I2C communication interfaces and offer two voltage supply ranges: 3.3 V ±10% and 5.0 V ±10%.

Samples of the new induction position sensor are available in limited quantity by contacting IPS@lm.renesas.com. Product names and specification details will be available in Q2 2024 when mass production begins. For information about the company’s current inductive position sensors, click here.

Renesas Electronics

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Image sensor excels in difficult lighting

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 20:03

With improved sensitivity and minimized readout noise, Omnivision’s OS08C10 8-Mpixel image sensor is well-suited for home and professional security cameras. The sensor provides both staggered high dynamic range (HDR) and single-exposure dual analog gain (DAG) for capturing images in challenging lighting environments.

The OS08C10 is a backside illuminated (BSI) sensor built on the company’s PureCell Plus-S stacked die technology. Its 1.45-µm BSI pixel supports 4K2K resolution and frame rates of 60 fps with power consumption of just 300 mW. The image sensor also employs a small 1/2.8-in. optical format commonly used in security, IoT, and action cameras.

Staggered HDR extends dynamic range in both bright and low light, while single-exposure DAG HDR reduces motion artifacts. Selective conversion gain technology ensures optimal image quality and best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across all lighting conditions. The OS08C10 features on-chip defective pixel correction, as well as correlated multisampling to further reduce readout noise and improve SNR1.

The OS08C10 image sensor is sampling now and will be in mass production in Q1 2024.

OS08C10 product page


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Carrier links Arduino Pro with Raspberry Pi

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 20:03

Arduino Pro’s Portenta Hat Carrier transforms the Portenta system-on-module (SOM) into an industrial single-board computer using Raspberry Pi Hats. Outfitted with a Raspberry Pi-compatible 40-pin header, the carrier board provides access to the vast ecosystem of Raspberry Pi add-on boards, called Hats.

The Portenta Hat Carrier works with any Portenta X8, H7, and C33 SOM. It provides a MicroSD card slot for storage, along with USB and Ethernet interfaces. In addition, the carrier offers dedicated JTAG pins for debugging, an onboard CAN transceiver, MIPI camera connector, eight analog I/Os, and a PWM fan connector.

Intended to meet the requirements of professionals using Raspberry Pi technology in commercial applications, the Portenta Hat Carrier can be used for robotic motion control, intelligent sorting, anomaly detection, vehicle monitoring, and smart sensing.

Arduino Pro’s Portenta Hat Carrier is available to order today in the Arduino Store and through major distributors for $45.

Portenta Hat Carrier product page 


Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Toward better behaved Sallen-Key low pass filters

EDN Network - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 17:34

The most common type of filter is probably the low pass. Among active filters, the Sallen-Key is the most widely used topology (Figure 1).

Figure 1 A first order op-amp-based Sallen-Key low-pass filter with broadband gain 1+Rf0/Rg0.

Wow the engineering world with your unique design: Design Ideas Submission Guide

The transfer function of this filter is H(s) = (Rf0/Rg0) / (1+s·C0·R0). The op-amp-configured gain has no effect on the C0-R0 filter, for which C0·R0 = 1/ω0. The values of C0 and R0 can be varied without modifying the filter characteristics as long as their product remains unchanged.

Figure 2 A second order op-amp-based Sallen-Key low-pass filter with broadband gain 1+Rf/Rg.

The transfer function of the filter in Figure 2 is shown in Equation (1):

H(s) = (Rf/Rg) / [1 + s·(C2·(R1+R2) – Rf·R1·C1/Rg) + s2·R1·R2·C1·C2] = (Rf/Rg) / [1 + s/(Q·ω0) + (s/ω0)2]     (1)

From Equation (1), equating like powers of s yields Equations (2) and (3):

ω0 = 1/sqrt(R1·R2·C1·C2)         (2)


Q = 1/((C2·(R1+R2) – Rf·R1·C1/Rg)·ω0)         (3)

If you are unfamiliar with s, Q or ω0, this reference [1] gives a good and brief tutorial.

Complete filters might consist of a first and/or second order section or, of multiple second order sections possibly cascaded with a first. Even for a given cutoff frequency, second order sections can have various values of Q which depend on response types such as Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebyshev, etc. It is somewhat of an art to arrange multiple sections in an order which enhances both noise and clipping headroom. Noise can be reduced while maintaining the same filter characteristics by reducing resistor values, but for those resistors other than Rf and Rg, this unfortunately results in physically larger and generally more expensive capacitors. And for response accuracy, higher Q sections place greater demands on op amp gain-bandwidths. But this Design Idea will not be addressing any of these issues. Instead, its goal will be to specify how to select resistor and capacitor value sets which lessen the effects of their tolerance-associated variations on the responses of second order sections. To accomplish this, use can be made of a filter design tool of the kind available from multiple semiconductor manufacturers [2-4]. Such tools have the advantage of automatically generating component values from a set of performance requirements. Unfortunately, none of these tools addresses the aforementioned goal. But calculations employing these values can evaluate the sections’ Q and ω0 parameters, which can in turn be used to generate new component value sets that realize more stable responses.

Taming response variations

To quote a reference [5], “desensitization is obtained in a dual way by increasing the value of the capacitance ratio ρ while keeping the resistance ratio r equal to unity.” In the case of Figure 2 above:

ρ = C1/C2         (4)


r = 1 = R2/R1      so that      R1 = R2 = R         (5)

 Applying Equations (4) and (5) to (3), we obtain Equation (6):

R·(2·C1/ρ – C1·Rf/Rg) = 1/(Q·ω0)         (6)

Substituting the value of ω0 from Equation (2) into (6) and again making use of Equations (4) and (5), we find that:  

Rf/Rg = 2/ρ – 1/(Q·sqrt(ρ))         (7)

It’s clear that the largest value of ρ that produces a non-negative, and therefore realizable value of Rf/Rg (one where Rf/Rg = 0 and which would be implemented by making Rf a short and removing Rg from the circuit), is ρ = 4·Q2, so that C1 = 4·Q2·C2. For a filter in which R1 = R2 having a given Q, this would yield the response with the least possible sensitivity to component values. Let’s apply some of these findings to an example.

An example

This is a second order section obtained from one manufacturer’s tool:

Figure 3 An example of a second order section from a manufacturer’s tool.

Right away, we notice one thing that’s odd: every component is of a standard value with the exception of C1. To get within 1% of C1, at least two capacitors would have to be used. As we’ll see, a redesign can avoid this extra component. Applying Equations (2) and (3), we find that Q = 3.127 and ω0 = 5048. Let’s keep the value of C2 and choose the next higher standard value for C1 from what is shown, 33n. Solving in Equation (6) for R = R1 = R2, we obtain 11693, the nearest standard value of which is 11.8k. Since ρ = 3.3, from Equation (7), Rf/Rg = .4300. We can therefore let Rg = 2490 and Rf = 1071 ≈ 1070.

Figure 4 shows a 100 sample Monte Carlo run with capacitor tolerances of 5% and resistor tolerances of 1%. Here, the revised design is superimposed on top of the original one from Figure 3. (The broadband filters’ gains due to Rf/Rg have been normalized to unity so that the response variations can be more readily compared.) Note that the revised filter has less variation. This is mostly because R1 and R2 have been made equal and less so because ρ has been (only) slightly increased.

Figure 4 A 100 sample Monte Carlo run of the original Figure 3 filter and a revised version where R1 and R2 have been set to be equal and the ratio C1/C2 only slightly increased. The filters’ Q’s and ω0’s are identical. The broadband gains due to Rf/Rg have been normalized to aid in the comparison of response variations.

However, things can get better. If we retain 10n for C2 and set ρ to be slightly less than 4·Q2 so as to use the standard value of 390n for C1, the nearest standard R value becomes 3160. Rf/Rg falls almost to 0, so we replace Rf with a short and remove Rg. Figure 5 shows the result.

Figure 5 A 100 sample Monte Carlo run of the original Figure 3 filter and a newly revised version. R1 and R2 have been set to be equal, and the ratio C1/C2 increased to a near optimal value slightly less than the realizable maximum of 4·Q2. The broadband gains due to Rf/Rg have been normalized to aid in the comparison of response variations.

The Rf/Rg ratio in the manufacturer’s Figure 3 design comes from a requirement for a total gain of 10dB in a four-section filter of which this section is a part. The manufacturer decided to require each section to have a gain of 2.5 dB = 20·log10(1 + Rf/Rg). From a sensitivity point of view, this is obviously not the best choice. Ideally, second order sections’ op-amps should be configured for unity gain (Rf/Rg = 0). We know this from the previously quoted statement from a reference [5] to minimize sensitivity by setting r to 1 and maximizing ρ, and from applying that maximized value to Equation (7).

You don’t need a manufacturer’s tool

You can design filter sections from tables of filter characteristics [6]. These tables list the Q’s and the ω0’s (shown in the reference as F0’s) for filters of multiple response types and orders from 2 through 10. Even number E orders require E/2 second order sections, while odd number O orders demand (O – 1)/2 second order sections and one first order section. The F0’s (which are the same as the ω0’s in this Design Idea) are shown for a 3 dB attenuation frequency in radians per second listed in the column labeled -3 dB FREQUENCY. Simply multiply all F0’s by 2·π·F to change the 3 dB attenuation frequency from 1 radian per second to F Hz. The Q’s are unchanged. The Q’s and resulting ω0’s are required for deriving the component values for each section. Working from the tables is actually more accurate than working from the tools. This is because some or all of the tools’ component values have been approximated with standard values.


This Design Idea shows how to create filters whose amplitude responses are minimally affected by tolerance-associated variations in components’ values. First order filters’ ω0’s and second order filters’ ω0’s and Q’s can be obtained from semiconductor manufacturers’ tools or from filter design tables. Using these values, one can proceed by first choosing a standard capacitor value C. For a first order filter, set:

C0 = C and R0 = 1/(C0· ω0)

and choose the nearest standard value for R0.

For each second order filter, choose a value of ρ which is the ratio of two standard value capacitors. ρ should be greater than unity and large enough to attain the desired reduction in response sensitivity, but no larger than 4·Q2 for the section. Then set:

C2 = C

C1 = C2·ρ

R1# = R2# = 1/(ω0· sqrt(C1·C2) )

Rf/Rg = 2/ρ – 1/(Q·sqrt(ρ))

Choose the nearest standard value for all components with the # superscript. Approximate Rf/Rg by choosing standard values for two resistors, considering that smaller values minimize noise contributions but could overload the op amp’s output stage and/or exceed AC power consumption requirements.

Consider employing aggregate filters of only odd orders and placing all the requirement’s gain in the first order section where it will generally have the least effect on the aggregate frequency response. To maximize both noise and headroom, connect the output of the lowest Q second order section to the input of the next higher Q section and so on so that the last stage is the first order one. Reversing the connection order minimizes noise and headroom. Some compromise between the two would likely be the best choice.

One more note: because in high pass Sallen-Key filters the placements of resistors R1 and R2 are swapped with those of capacitors C1 and C2, response sensitivities for this topology are minimized when the capacitor values are equalized and the resistor ratio is maximized! Perhaps this is a topic for a future Design Idea. (Oops, I just spilled the beans! Not much more to it than that.)

The design procedure presented in this Design Idea provides the opportunity to minimize filter response sensitivities to variations due to the tolerances of resistor and capacitor values. You may wish to consider this for your next design.


  1. https://www.ti.com/lit/an/sloa049d/sloa049d.pdf?ts=1695449683656, see especially sections 3 and 6.
  2. https://webench.ti.com/filter-design-tool/filter-response
  3. https://www.microchip.com/en-us/development-tool/filterlabdesignsoftware
  4. https://tools.analog.com/en/filterwizard/
  5. https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/78626
  6. https://www.analog.com/media/en/training-seminars/design-handbooks/basic-linear-design/chapter8.pdf, specifically Figures 8.26 through 8.36. This reference does a great job of describing the differences between the filter response types and filter realization in general.

Christopher Paul has worked in various engineering positions in the communications industry for over 40 years.

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STMicroelectronics Reports 2023 Third Quarter Financial Results

ELE Times - Thu, 10/26/2023 - 15:34

STMicroelectronics Reports 2023 Third Quarter Financial Results

  • Q3 net revenues $4.43 billion; gross margin 47.6%; operating margin 28.0%; net income $1.09 billion
  • YTD net revenues $13.00 billion; gross margin 48.7%; operating margin 27.6%; net income $3.14 billion
  • Business outlook at mid-point: Q4 net revenues of $4.30 billion and gross margin of 46%

STMicroelectronics, a global semiconductor leader serving customers across the spectrum of electronics applications, reported U.S. GAAP financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2023. This press release also contains non-U.S. GAAP measures (see Appendix for additional information).

ST reported third quarter net revenues of $4.43 billion, gross margin of 47.6%, operating margin of 28.0%, and net income of $1.09 billion or $1.16 diluted earnings per share.

Jean-Marc Chery, ST President & CEO, commented:

  • “Q3 net revenues of $4.43 billion came in above the midpoint of our business outlook range, and Q3 gross margin of 47.6% was slightly above guidance.” 
  • “Q3 net revenues increased 2.5% year-over-year. As expected, the revenue performance was driven mainly by continued growth in Automotive, partially offset by lower revenues in Personal Electronics.”
  • “On a year-over-year basis, gross margin remained stable at 47.6%, while, as expected, operating margin decreased to 28.0% from 29.4% and net income was stable at $1.09 billion.”
  • “First nine months net revenues increased 11.1% year-over-year, driven by growth in ADG and MDG Product Groups, partially offset by a decline of AMS Product Group. Operating margin was 27.6% and net income was $3.14 billion.”
  • “Our fourth quarter business outlook, at the mid-point, is for net revenues of $4.30 billion, declining year-over-year and sequentially by about 3%; gross margin is expected to be about 46%.”
  • “The midpoint of this outlook translates into full year 2023 revenues of about $17.3 billion, representing 7.3% year-over-year growth and a gross margin of about 48.1%.”

Quarterly Financial Summary (U.S. GAAP)

(US$ m, except per share data) Q3 2023 Q2 2023 Q3 2022 Q/Q Y/Y
Net Revenues $4,431 $4,326 $4,321 2.4% 2.5%
Gross Profit $2,109 $2,119 $2,059 -0.5% 2.4%
Gross Margin 47.6% 49.0% 47.6% -140 bps
Operating Income $1,241 $1,146 $1,272 8.2% -2.4%
Operating Margin 28.0% 26.5% 29.4% 150 bps -140 bps
Net Income $1,090 $1,001 $1,099 8.9% -0.8%
Diluted Earnings Per Share $1.16 $1.06 $1.16 9.4%


Third Quarter 2023 Summary Review

Net Revenues By Product Group (US$ m) Q3 2023 Q2 2023 Q3 2022 Q/Q Y/Y
Automotive and Discrete Group (ADG) 2,025 1,955 1,563 3.6% 29.6%
Analog, MEMS, and Sensors Group (AMS) 990 940 1380 5.3% -28.3%
Microcontrollers and Digital ICs Group (MDG) 1412 1427 1374 -1.0% 2.8%
Others 4 4 4
Total Net Revenues 4431 4326 4321 2.4% 2.5%

Net revenues totaled $4.43 billion, representing a year-over-year increase of 2.5%. On a year-over-year basis, ADG and MDG revenues increased 29.6% and 2.8% respectively, while AMS decreased 28.3%. Year-over-year net sales to OEMs and Distribution increased 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. On a sequential basis, net revenues increased 2.4%, 130 basis points better than the mid-point of ST’s guidance. ADG and AMS both reported an increase in net revenues on a sequential basis, and MDG slightly decreased, as expected.

Gross profit totaled $2.11 billion, representing a year-over-year increase of 2.4%. Gross margin of 47.6% was stable year-over-year, as improved product mix was offset by higher manufacturing costs and unused capacity charges.

Operating income decreased 2.4% to $1.24 billion, compared to $1.27 billion in the year-ago quarter. ST’s operating margin decreased 140 basis points on a year-over-year basis to 28.0% of net revenues, compared to 29.4% in the 2022 third quarter

Corporate developments

On September 19, 2023, the ST Supervisory Board announced that it would propose for shareholder approval at ST’s 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, the reappointment of Jean-Marc Chery for a three-year mandate as the sole member of the Company’s Managing Board and its President and Chief Executive Officer, and that Mr. Chery had accepted the proposal.

Business Outlook

ST’s guidance, at the mid-point, for the 2023 fourth quarter is:

  • Net revenues are expected to be $4.30 billion, a decrease of about 3% sequentially, plus or minus 350 basis points.
  • Gross margin of 46%, plus or minus 200 basis points.
  • This outlook is based on an assumed effective currency exchange rate of approximately $1.08 = €1.00 for the 2023 fourth quarter and includes the impact of existing hedging contracts.
  • The fourth quarter will close on December 31, 2023.

Conference Call and Webcast Information

ST will conduct a conference call with analysts, investors and reporters to discuss its third quarter 2023 financial results and current business outlook today at 9:30 a.m. Central European Time (CET) / 3:30 a.m. U.S. Eastern Time (ET). A live webcast (listen-only mode) of the conference call will be accessible at ST’s website, https://investors.st.com, and will be available for replay until November 10, 2023.

Use of Supplemental Non-U.S. GAAP Financial Information

This press release contains supplemental non-U.S. GAAP financial information.

Readers are cautioned that these measures are unaudited and not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be considered as a substitute for U.S. GAAP financial measures. In addition, such non-U.S. GAAP financial measures may not be comparable to similarly titled information from other companies. To compensate for these limitations, the supplemental non-U.S. GAAP financial information should not be read in isolation, but only in conjunction with ST’s consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

See the Appendix of this press release for a reconciliation of ST’s non-U.S. GAAP financial measures to their corresponding U.S. GAAP financial measures.

Forward-looking Information

Some of the statements contained in this release that are not historical facts are statements of future expectations and other forward-looking statements (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 or Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended) that are based on management’s current views and assumptions, and are conditioned upon and also involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance, or events to differ materially from those anticipated by such statements, due to, among other factors:

  • changes in global trade policies, including the adoption and expansion of tariffs and trade barriers, that could affect the macro-economic environment and adversely impact the demand for our products;
  • uncertain macro-economic and industry trends (such as inflation and fluctuations in supply chains), which may impact production capacity and end-market demand for our products;
  • customer demand that differs from projections;
  • the ability to design, manufacture and sell innovative products in a rapidly changing technological environment;
  • changes in economic, social, public health, labor, political, or infrastructure conditions in the locations where we, our customers, or our suppliers operate, including as a result of macroeconomic or regional events, geopolitical and military conflicts (including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine), social unrest, labor actions, or terrorist activities;
  • unanticipated events or circumstances, which may impact our ability to execute our plans and/or meet the objectives of our R&D and manufacturing programs, which benefit from public funding;
  • financial difficulties with any of our major distributors or significant curtailment of purchases by key customers;
  • the loading, product mix, and manufacturing performance of our production facilities and/or our required volume to fulfill capacity reserved with suppliers or third-party manufacturing providers;
  • availability and costs of equipment, raw materials, utilities, third-party manufacturing services and technology, or other supplies required by our operations (including increasing costs resulting from inflation);
  • the functionalities and performance of our information technology (“IT”) systems, which are subject to cybersecurity threats and which support our critical operational activities including manufacturing, finance and sales, and any breaches of our IT systems or those of our customers, suppliers, partners and providers of third-party licensed technology;
  • theft, loss, or misuse of personal data about our employees, customers, or other third parties, and breaches of data privacy legislation;
  • the impact of intellectual property claims by our competitors or other third parties, and our ability to obtain required licenses on reasonable terms and conditions;
  • changes in our overall tax position as a result of changes in tax rules, new or revised legislation, the outcome of tax audits or changes in international tax treaties which may impact our results of operations as well as our ability to accurately estimate tax credits, benefits, deductions and provisions and to realize deferred tax assets;
  • variations in the foreign exchange markets and, more particularly, the U.S. dollar exchange rate as compared to the Euro and the other major currencies we use for our operations;
  • the outcome of ongoing litigation as well as the impact of any new litigation to which we may become a defendant;
  • product liability or warranty claims, claims based on epidemic or delivery failure, or other claims relating to our products, or recalls by our customers for products containing our parts;
  • natural events such as severe weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcano eruptions or other acts of nature, the effects of climate change, health risks and epidemics or pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic in locations where we, our customers or our suppliers operate;
  • increased regulation and initiatives in our industry, including those concerning climate change and sustainability matters and our goal to become carbon neutral on scope 1 and 2 and partially scope 3 by 2027;
  • potential loss of key employees and potential inability to recruit and retain qualified employees as a result of epidemics or pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, remote-working arrangements and the corresponding limitation on social and professional interaction;
  • the duration and the severity of the global outbreak of COVID-19 may continue to negatively impact the global economy in a significant manner for an extended period of time, and also could materially adversely affect our business and operating results;
  • industry changes resulting from vertical and horizontal consolidation among our suppliers, competitors, and customers; and
  • the ability to successfully ramp up new programs that could be impacted by factors beyond our control, including the availability of critical third-party components and performance of subcontractors in line with our expectations.

Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which may cause actual results and performance of our business to differ materially and adversely from the forward-looking statements. Certain forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward looking terminology, such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “are expected to,” “should,” “would be,” “seeks” or “anticipates” or similar expressions or the negative thereof or other variations thereof or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.

Some of these risks are set forth and are discussed in more detail in “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022 as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 23, 2023. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described in this press release as anticipated, believed, or expected. We do not intend, and do not assume any obligation, to update any industry information or forward-looking statements set forth in this release to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.

Unfavorable changes in the above or other risks or uncertainties listed under “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors”

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