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Perovskite Photodetectors with Fast Response Times

ELE Times - Tue, 08/30/2022 - 15:24

Researchers at the University of Toronto and the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology have recently created new solution-processed perovskite photodetectors that exhibit remarkable efficiencies and response times. These photodetectors have a unique design that prevents the formation of defects between their different layers.

“There is growing interest in 3D range imaging for autonomous driving and consumer electronics,” Edward H. Sargent told. “We have worked as a team for years on finding new materials that enable light sensing technologies such as next-generation image sensors and striving to take these in a direction that could have a commercial and societal impact.”

Photodetectors, sensing devices that detect or respond to light, can have numerous highly valuable applications. For instance, they can be integrated in a robotic systems, autonomous vehicles, consumer electronics, environmental sensing technology, fiber optic communication systems ,and security systems.

“In these applications, fast photodetection is required in wavelength ranges beyond human vision,” Amin Morteza Najarian said. “Silicon, the legacy approach—and ideal for electronic readout—does not on its own unite high efficiency with high-speed, as a result of its indirect bandgap, a property of silicon’s band structure that produces weak absorption (hence a need for thick silicon) in the near-infrared.”

In a series of initial computational studies, Sargent and his team identified a binary perovskite with high-carrier mobility and a high absorption coefficient that could compete with currently employed materials in terms of both efficiency and speed. The photodetector introduced in their recent paper is based on this newly identified, active material.

“When light is absorbed by the perovskite active layer, the photogenerated electrons and holes are extracted through electron and hole transport layers,” said coauthor Maral Vafaie. “To achieve fast response times, these charge carriers must move rapidly across the devices, including the transport layers. Nickel oxide (NiOx) is characterized by high crystallinity and mobility, making it an ideal option for hole transport layer (HTL).”

When they first started testing their devices, the researchers found that there was a chemical incompatibility between the established anti-oxidation strategy for PbSn perovskites and the NiOx layer. They thus devised a method to remove oxygen from the device, converting unwanted tin species and ensuring that no harmful residues are left behind.

In initial evaluations, the photodetectors created by Sargent, Najarian, Vafaie, and their colleagues achieved very promising results, both in terms of quantum efficiencies and response times. The team also showed that their devices can resolve sub-millimeter distances with a typical 50 µm standard deviation.

“We demonstrated that photodetectors fabricated using binary perovskites convert near infrared light into an electrical signal with an efficiency better than 85% with a response time faster than a fraction of nanosecond,” Sargent and Morteza Najarian said. “This is a 100 times improvement compared to previously reported solution-processed photodetectors. We showcase these performance metrics in spatially resolving sub-millimeter distances, i.e., providing depth resolution.”

In the future, the new solution-processed perovskite photodetectors created by Sargent, Morteza Najarian and their colleagues could prove valuable for creating LiDAR technology (i.e., tools for determining variable distances between objects) and sensors for autonomous vehicles or robots. Meanwhile, the researchers plan to continue searching for advantageous materials and designing new components for sensing technologies.

“In long-range light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications, only a small fraction of the scattered light from the objects reaches the photodetector,” Sargent and Morteza Najarian added. “If one shifts illumination, and sense, to the short-wave infrared region (e.g., 1550 nm), a higher power of illuminating light becomes possible without posing eye safety issues. We are working on the next-generation III-V semiconductors with this in mind.”

The post Perovskite Photodetectors with Fast Response Times appeared first on ELE Times.

A new EMI threat?

EDN Network - Mon, 08/29/2022 - 19:34

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues have a long history of stirring up troubles and much attention has been devoted to addressing such matters under the watchful eyes of regulatory agencies all over the globe.

However!!!! Have we got a new EMI issue and threat on our hands?

The following is an excerpt from a Google search result from “no am radio in electric cars”:

This is alarming indeed. Some auto manufacturers are planning to keep AM radio capability, but are those manufacturers who cannot solve their AM radio EMI problems going to be allowed to market products that will take us back to the middle of the twentieth century?

Back in 1967, I was watching an episode of the “I Spy” television program starring Robert Culp and Bill Cosby. There was going to be one last vignette just after a final commercial when a 1957 Ford station wagon pulled up on the street just outside my window and sat there idling while putting out so much EMI that my television reception was totally disabled.

By the time that station wagon was driven away, the next program had come on and I had completely missed what I had wanted to see.

Are electric vehicles going to bring those kinds of scenarios back again?

John Dunn is an electronics consultant, and a graduate of The Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (BSEE) and of New York University (MSEE).

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Portable scope offers automotive presets

EDN Network - Mon, 08/29/2022 - 17:00

The Micsig SATO1004 4-channel, 100-MHz automotive tablet oscilloscope, available from Saelig, comes with a comprehensive set of vehicle diagnostics. Suitable for portable or bench use, the scope includes a power cable, adapter, and built-in 7500-mAh Li-ion rechargeable battery that affords 5 hours of operation.

Sampling at a rate of 1 Gsample/s, the SATO1004 serves as a vehicle test tool for evaluating systems such as ABS, actuators, ignition, accelerator, throttle position, fuel pressure, crankshaft, camshaft, and more. Network tests cover CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and K-line communications.

The automotive software diagnostic presets package is complemented by the scope’s 8-in. TFT LCD touchscreen for easy tap, drag, and swipe operation. Smart bus trigger and decode features include UART, LIN, SPI, CAN, I2C, MIL-STD-1553B, and ARINC 429. Remote operation via Wi-Fi is possible using a host computer or even an Android or iOS mobile device.

The Micsig SATO1004 oscilloscope costs $899, including a 2x passive probe and accessories. It can be purchased directly from Saelig using the link to the product page below.

SATO1004 product page

Saelig

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VPX development platform employs adaptive AI SoCs

EDN Network - Mon, 08/29/2022 - 16:59

Mercury Systems’ turnkey 6U VPX development system is powered by Xilinx Versal Adaptive Compute Acceleration Platform (ACAP) SoCs. Specifically, the Model 8258 chassis houses the company’s SCFE6931 signal processing module, which packs two Versal AI Core VC1902 SoCs for developing compute-intensive applications for the aerospace and defense market.

The preconfigured development platform allows customers to rapidly deploy Versal AI Core technology, giving soldiers the ability to react quickly and make real-time tactical decisions that are essential for survivability and mission success. It combines a heterogeneous mix of Versal ACAP scalar processing, vector processing, and programmable logic that enables designers to assign compute power to the most suitable processing engine and adaptively reassign resources as required.

Coupled with the development system is the Navigator FPGA development kit, which allows users to develop custom FPGA IP to add application-specific features. A Navigator board support package includes software functions and libraries to program the board and control the Navigator IP. Further, the 8258 can be configured with up to eight optional MPO optical connectors to support the 100-GigE interfaces on the SCFE6931 module.

The platform is well-suited for developing artificial intelligence applications such as target classification, signal intelligence, electronic warfare, image recognition, and pattern recognition.

Model 8258 product page

Mercury Systems

Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Searching for a manufacturer of an isolation switch

Reddit:Electronics - Mon, 08/29/2022 - 02:51

Got this isolation switch for an e-bike for the Netherlands.

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How to make finding electronic components easy

Electronic lovers - Sun, 08/28/2022 - 20:37

Finding electronic components can be difficult sometimes. But with a little help, and a few suggestions, you can find exactly what you’re looking for. There may be a local spot in your city to source components, but many other suppliers will need to order the parts. It may be easier and less expensive to order the part yourself.

The best option for finding electronic components is to cut out the middleman and order directly online. There are a number of retailers that will have almost anything you need. The difficult part is knowing exactly the right part and finding it easily among thousands of other listed items.

While some websites will show a listing for a part or component, it may not be clear how to order it. Many sites will list components from different manufacturers with a link to follow in order to make the purchase. Finding a website that lets you locate the part and then buy it at the same time is a much better choice.

One more thing you may run into is a component or Arduino board that has been discontinued. But don’t worry: there are several places that have hard to find components. With a little luck, they’ll have the components you need. Usually discontinued parts can eventually be found with a bit of diligent searching. If you run into trouble, you can try asking about it on an electronics forum.

Online parts

There are basically two types of websites for finding parts. There are sites that list components you can search for across different manufacturers. And there are distributor websites that show only their own products that are available. Most online parts websites will offer a wide range of components. To find a part, you can search by category or by using a brand name. There will be multiple sellers listed, but you can usually see what’s available.

The downside to component searches is you can’t always tell what’s in stock and the prices may not be clear. Distributor websites will show prices and available stock, but you’re not going to be able to easily compare them with other manufacturer options.

Distributors

Distributors will have the newest parts. Distributor websites will also have a powerful search engine making it easy to find what you’re looking for. Your search can include specific manufacturers and parts that are currently available will be listed. It’s also easier to learn about components and their specifications on a distributor’s website. Distributor websites are great for newer parts.

Electronic parts search engines

It should be no surprise that there are search engines designed specifically for finding electronic parts. The search engines will locate a part and list all the important information, prices, available stock, specifications, and datasheets. There are several of these search engines online and it only takes a quick search to find one. However, some are ad or sponsor-driven, so definitely consider more than the first option you find. Every option is going to be similar, but be sure to search for more than one if you’re not satisfied with the results. Sponsor and ad-driven sites tend to favor and showcase promoted parts, so consider that before buying.blue and black circuit board

Arduino

Finding Arduino project parts is a little different. The best Arduino parts suppliers make finding the parts you need extremely easy. Arduino sensors and electrical drive systems can be found on supplier sites. Some suppliers are located in the US, but always check before placing your order — many may come directly from manufacturers and factories overseas, which can mean exorbitant shipping prices and weeks to months of shipping time.

Conclusion 

Finding parts doesn’t have to be difficult. Local retailers will usually have to order the components themselves, and that means you have to wait. By searching online yourself, you can find just about any component you want. Websites will sometimes show components, but it may not display a link for making a purchase. The best websites will show the component and offer an option to purchase from them directly, or at least link to a site where you can.

There are search engines designed specifically for finding electronic parts and components. You are able to see the various options and make comparisons. Searching can be done using the part number or by searching manufacturers. Many of these search engines are sponsored or ad-driven, so it’s best to shop around for better pricing.

Distributor websites will offer more information, display what’s in stock, and have an easy way to complete a purchase. The downside is that you are not able to compare the part or component with other options or manufacturers.

The post How to make finding electronic components easy appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 08/27/2022 - 17:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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PAM4 equalizer increases copper cable reach

EDN Network - Fri, 08/26/2022 - 18:00

Semtech’s CopperEdge GN8112 quad-channel linear equalizer extends copper cable reach up to 5 meters at 112-Gbps PAM4 data rates. Aimed at 400G (4x100G) an 800G (8x100G) data center applications, the device offers both low power and low latency for active copper cable and backplane interconnects.

As data center interconnects transition to 112-Gbps PAM4 per lane to meet higher bandwidth and throughput demands, passive copper cables only enable a reach of up to 1.5 meters. This severely limits the use cases of passive copper cables in data centers at 112 Gbps and has created a demand for active copper cables (ACCs) that extend the copper cable reach to allow for the high-volume switch-to-server connections.

According to Semtech, the GN8112 equalizer enables low cost, manufacturable ACCs that can deliver a reach of up to 5 meters over a copper twinaxial cable assembly. This reach extension enables ACCs to service the large-volume 400G and 800G data center interconnects, while offering ultra-low power (<0.75 Watt per 400G) and ultra-low latency (<10ps). The GN8112 provides programmable equalization of up to 15 dB.

The GN8112 112-Gbps PAM4 equalizer is now available for sampling. Semtech also offers ACC reference design kits for the GN8112.

GN8112 product page

Semtech

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UMC-certified design flow speeds analog/mixed-signal design

EDN Network - Fri, 08/26/2022 - 18:00

The Cadence analog/mixed-signal (AMS) IC design flow is now certified for UMC’s 22-nm ultra-low power and ultra-low leakage process technologies. This flow optimizes process efficiency and shortens design cycle time, accelerating the development of 5G, IoT, display, and other advanced IC designs.

The UMC-certified Cadence AMS flow provides a Unified Reliability Interface (URI), which enables customers to better monitor a circuit’s reliability and service life when designing on UMC’s 22ULP/ULL process. The AMS flow also includes an actual demonstration circuit that can be applied during design to enhance efficiency and precision.

The Cadence AMS design flow comprises the following integrated solutions and methodologies enabled by the UMC 22-nm process design kit:

  • Virtuoso design platform, including schematic editing, the analog design environment (ADE), and layout XL tool enablement
  • Spectre AMS Designer, which combines the Spectre X simulator and Xcelium logic simulation engine for designs consisting of transistor, behavioral, timing, and parasitic block representations.
  • Voltus-Fi Custom Power Integrity Solution for electromigration and IR drop (EM-IR) analysis

“The Cadence AMS flow that has been optimized for use on UMC’s 22ULP/ULL process technologies provides customers with comprehensive solutions across design, verification, and implementation, said Ashutosh Mauskar, vice president, product management in the Custom IC & PCB Group at Cadence. “By collaborating with UMC, we’re enabling mutual customers to rapidly achieve innovative mixed-signal designs on 22ULP/ULL.”

Cadence Design Systems

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Developer kit builds LoRa-based IoT device clusters

EDN Network - Fri, 08/26/2022 - 17:57

IoT startup Blues Wireless offers the Sparrow gateway paired with Sparrow sensors to accelerate the prototyping of IoT device clusters. Sparrow sensors connect to gateway hardware using the LoRa wireless protocol, while the latter also provides cellular or Wi-Fi cloud backhaul. A development kit contains everything needed to get started, including reference hardware, example firmware, and an easy-to-deploy web application.

The Sparrow development kit includes the following hardware components:

  • A Wi-Fi Notecard
  • A Notecarrier A with upgraded antennas and Qwiic connectors
  • 2 Sparrow Reference Sensors with onboard motion (PIR), temp, and humidity (BME280) sensors in a ready-to-deploy enclosure
  • 3 Sparrow Essentials Boards (one for Gateway and two for adding your own sensors)
  • 4 AAA Lithium Batteries for the Reference sensors
  • 3 CR2032 Coin cell batteries for the Essentials boards
  • 1 STLINK-V3MINI for sensor programming
  • 1 USB Cable
  • 1 Female-to-Female JST SH (Qwiic) connector for turning the Notecard and Notecarrier into a LoRa gateway 

Sparrow is an efficient and economical solution to the last mile problem of internet-connecting a group of low-cost, low-power device sensors for shared data backhaul to the cloud. The development kit costs $199 and can be purchased here. FCC certification of the Sparrow module is expected to be finalized in September 2022.

Sparrow product page

Blues Wireless

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Getting rid of the diode voltage drop in a charge pump circuit

EDN Network - Fri, 08/26/2022 - 17:38

Nowadays microcontrollers and microprocessors are powered with a DC voltage of 3.3V (even 2.5V, or 1.8V, etc.). So, the well-known forward voltage drop of diodes really becomes an issue for many electronic circuits such as the AC/DC bridge, HF detector, and charge pump to name a few. Let’s talk about a classic charge pump circuit: In a nutshell, it is composed of two capacitors and two diodes, and the circuit is supposed to double its input voltage. In practice, we obtain Vout=2*Vin–2*Vd (where Vd=0.4V for Schottky diodes); so, for instance, if Vin=3.3V, we obtain 5.8V instead of 6.6V (a loss of about 12%). Since MOSFET technology has tremendously enhanced, its cost “collapses”, so it is interesting to use MOSFETs instead of diodes in order to get rid of the forward voltage drop.

Wow the engineering world with your unique design: Design Ideas Submission Guide

The following circuit (Figure 1) uses two identical P-MOSFETs T1 and T2, where the crucial point is to choose them with a very low RDS(ON) feature, to increase the overall efficiency, e.g., IRF9310, IRF7410, AOD403, etc. N-MOSFETs T3 and T4 are general purpose low power (e.g., BS170, 2N7000, etc.) which drive T2 and T1 respectively.

Figure 1 Charge pump circuit with MOSFETs instead of diodes.

Here is a brief description of how this circuit works:

  • At power ON, pin RA5 is configured as output LOW. Capacitor C1 begins to charge through the body diode of T1 (same thing for capacitor C2, through the body diodes of T1 and T2). MOSFET T4 turns ON and drives T1 ON also, which exhibits RDS(ON) (hence, capacitor C1 charges close to Vdd but capacitor C2 charges to Vdd-0.6V). Meanwhile, MOSFET driver T3 is OFF which keeps T2 OFF also.
  • When pin RA5 outputs a HIGH level, MOSFET T3 goes ON and drives T2 ON, then capacitor C2 charges up to a value very close to 2* Vdd. Meanwhile, T4 goes OFF, and drives T1 OFF (which keeps C1 charged to Vdd and holds the drain potential value of T2 to 2* Vdd).

The PWM signal from pin RA5 must have a duty cycle of 50%, but the frequency is not critical—some are in the range of kHz to tens of kHz (the higher the frequency, the lower the capacitors C1 and C2). The values of resistors R1 and R2 are also not critical—about hundreds of kΩ if we prefer to obtain a very low quiescent current, or about tens of kΩ if we prefer to decrease the swap time commutation for T1 and T2.

Hichem Benabadji is a freelancer and has a Master’s degree in industrial and automatic computing. 

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