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What does Flanders Semiconductors stand for?

EDN Network - Mon, 09/11/2023 - 18:43

In a season of chip industry-centric initiatives, here comes Flanders Semiconductors, a non-profit organization that aims to create a new European hub for semiconductor innovation in the Flemish region. Its founding members include BelGan, Caeleste, Cochlear, easics, ICsense, NXP, Pharrowtech, Sofics, and Spectricity.

These companies have joined hands to create a unified platform that can represent the semiconductor industry at every level. That includes infrastructure, equipment, materials, processing, testing, and devices.

Figure 1 Flanders Semiconductors aims to represent member companies’ local, regional, and international interests.

The Flemish semiconductor industry employs over 3,000 people, with more than 50 companies having semiconductors as their core business and over 100 firms defining, testing, and integrating semiconductor devices or technologies. The idea is to have an outfit that can foster collaboration, drive innovation, and catalyze growth within the semiconductor industry in this region.

Flanders Semiconductors, based in Leuven, Belgium, will have imec as its high-tech neighbor, which is expected to be a vital support to this aspiring semiconductor technology hub. Then there are local facilities inside universities and research institutes that will likely support Flanders with their semiconductor R&D, education, and training.

Flanders, while open to all qualifying companies with semiconductors as their primary business, is also welcoming universities, R&D organizations, and non-qualifying companies as associate members. The unveiling of the Flanders Semiconductor association is set for 13 September 2023 in Leuven.

Flanders Semiconductors aims to grow the talent pool, share industry roadmaps, maintain a yearly business events calendar, and represent members’ interests at international level. The new organization itself boasts a dedicated team of seasoned semiconductor professionals led by Lou Hermans, who has over three decades of industry expertise.

Figure 2 Lou Hermans, president of Flanders Semiconductors, is a European semiconductor industry veteran. Source: Flanders Semiconductors

Flanders Semiconductors is focused on semiconductor design and complementary areas like materials, processing, and testing. More importantly, it’d most likely want to build a presence on top of the progress that its high-tech neighbor imec has made in advanced semiconductor technologies and translate that into creating a viable design ecosystem for the Flemish semiconductor business.

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Playin’ with Google’s Pixel 7

EDN Network - Mon, 09/11/2023 - 16:58

Back in December 2021, I told you about the smartphones I was prepping to transition to next in my periodic end-of-support forced-replacement sequence: a pair of Google Pixel 4a 5G handsets, one for my “day job” mobile  account (Verizon) and the other for my personal account (AT&T). I ended up actualizing that aspiration, at least halfway…as readers who subsequently perused my October 2022 5G “rant” may remember, a Pixel 4a 5G ended up assigned to my Verizon phone number (with another in storage as its all-important spare).

For AT&T, on the other hand (and as regular readers may also recall), I ended up going with a first-generation Microsoft Surface Duo dual-screen foldable.

Fast-forward a year-plus, and both phones are nearing the end of their guaranteed-update lives: the Surface Duo drops off Microsoft’s support list this very month (as you read this; I’m writing these words in early August), with the Pixel 4a 5G following it in November. So, it’s time for another periodic end-of-support forced-replacement cadence, although the subsequent one will hopefully be much further in the future than has historically been the case.

I’ve gone with a pair of 128GB Google Pixel 7 smartphones this time, the first “Obsidian” in color and the second “Snow” (not my preferred tint, but it was on sale for $100 less than its also-on-sale “Obsidian” sibling at the time, and I’ll have a case on it anyway). I’ve already activated and transitioned to them, actually, back in in mid-July, followed by donations of their predecessors to charity, timed to potential recipients’ back-to-school preparation needs:

The bargain-shopping story of how I obtained the first “Obsidian” one is intriguing, at least to me, so I hope you’ll indulge a brief diversion. My wife had bought me a Pixel 6 back in July of 2022 as an early-anniversary present, on sale for $474.05. A couple of months later, Google introduced the Pixel 7 line, and for reasons that still escape me (although I suspect that they had to do at least in part with the Pixel 6 generation’s chronic buggy cellular subsystem and Google’s desire to move users to the improved successor in order to reduce its support-cost burden) offered aggressive trade-in pricing: $490, which yes, is less than we paid for it. The Pixel 7 was $599 (its original MSRP) at the time, so our out-of-pocket cost was only $109. Not bad!

Here’s how the Pixel 6 and Pixel 7 stack up against each other, as well as compared to my Pixel 6a “spare” and the Pixel 4a precursor (“Pro” versions of both the Pixel 6 and 7, which I haven’t included in this table, offer larger screens and more elaborate rear camera subsystems):


Pixel 4a (5G)

Pixel 6a

Pixel 6

Pixel 7

















6.06 x 2.91 x 0.32 in (153.9 x 74 x 8.2 mm)

5.99 x 2.83 x 0.35 in (152.2 x 71.8 x 8.9 mm)

6.24 x 2.94 x 0.35 in (158.6 x 74.8 x 8.9 mm)

6.13 x 2.88 x 0.34 in (155.6 x 73.2 x 8.7 mm)


5.93 oz (168 g)

6.28 oz (178 g)

7.30 oz (207 g)

6.95 oz (197 g)


6.2” OLED (83% screen-to-body ratio), 2340 x 1080 pixels (416 PPI), 60 Hz refresh

6.1” OLED (83% screen-to-body ratio), 2400 x 1080 pixels (429 PPI), 60 Hz refresh

6.4” OLED (83.4% screen-to-body ratio), 2400 x 1080 pixels (411 PPI), 90 Hz refresh

6.3” (84.9% screen-to-body ratio), 2400 x 1080 pixels (416 PPI), 90 Hz refresh

SoC (and lithography)

Qualcomm Snapdragon 765G (7 nm)

Google Tensor (5 nm)

Google Tensor (5 nm)

Google Tensor G2 (4 nm)


Octa-core (1×2.4 GHz Kryo 475 Prime & 1×2.2 GHz Kryo 475 Gold & 6×1.8 GHz Kryo 475 Silver)

Octa-core (2×2.80 GHz Cortex-X1 & 2×2.25 GHz Cortex-A76 & 4×1.80 GHz Cortex-A55)

Octa-core (2×2.80 GHz Cortex-X1 & 2×2.25 GHz Cortex-A76 & 4×1.80 GHz Cortex-A55)

Octa-core (2×2.85 GHz Cortex-X1 & 2×2.35 GHz Cortex-A78 & 4×1.80 GHz Cortex-A55)


Adreno 620

Mali-G78 MP20

Mali-G78 MP20

Mali-G710 MP7


Hexagon 696

Tensor (G1)

Tensor (G1)

Tensor (G2)

Battery capacity

3,885 mAh

4,410 mAh

4,614 mAh

4,355 mAh

Cellular data (most advanced)

5G (sub-6, mmWave Verizon-only)

5G (sub-6 and C-Band, mmWave Verizon-only)

5G (sub-6 and C-Band, mmWave Verizon-only)

5G (sub-6 and C-Band, mmWave Verizon-only)

Front camera

8 MP, f/2.0, 24mm (wide), 1/4.0″, 1.12µm

8 MP, f/2.0, 24mm (wide), 1.12µm

8 MP, f/2.0, 24mm (wide), 1.12µm

10.8 MP, f/2.2, 21mm (ultrawide), 1/3.1″, 1.22µm

Rear camera(s)

12.2 MP, f/1.7, 27mm (wide), 1/2.55″, 1.4µm


16 MP, f/2.2, 107˚ (ultrawide), 1.0µm

12.2 MP, f/1.7, 27mm, (wide), 1/2.55″, 1.4µm


12 MP, f/2.2, 17mm, 114˚ (ultrawide), 1.25µm

50 MP, f/1.9, 25mm (wide), 1/1.31″, 1.2µm


12 MP, f/2.2, 17mm, 114˚ (ultrawide), 1.25µm

50 MP, f/1.9, 25mm (wide), 1/1.31″, 1.2µm


12 MP, f/2.2, 114˚ (ultrawide), 1/2.9″, 1.25µm

Wireless charging





Dust/water resistance





Analog headphone jack





Fingerprint sensor





Introduction date

September 2020

May 2022 (available July 2022)

October 2021

October 2022

End-of-support date

November 2023

July 2025 (Android updates), July 2027 (security updates)

October 2024 (Android updates), October 2026 (security updates)

October 2025 (Android updates), October 2027 (security updates)

Usage and other observations follow, both in general and related to specific features listed in this table, and in no particular order save how they streamed out of my noggin:

  • So far, I really like the Pixel 7. This isn’t surprising, for at least a couple of reasons:
    • It’s well reviewed, along with its “Pro” big brother, not to mention its Pixel 6a and (especially) 7a siblings, and
    • Per common practice, I began using it around nine months after its initial introduction, which gave Google plenty of time to squelch any initial bugs
  • I’ve long reiterated in multiple writeups the high value I attach to the ability to comfortably fit a smartphone in my front jeans pocket. The only reason I tolerated the Surface Duo, for example, was that when folded up (whether when not in use or when leveraging a wireless earbud or headset while on a call) it was modestly svelte. Note that the Pixel 7 is nearly identical in size to the Pixel 4a 5G, and is tangibly smaller than its Pixel 6 forebear.
  • I’m admittedly surprised at how little I miss the analog headphone jack. Then again, USB-C headphone adapters are generally modest in price and solid in quality.
  • It’s nice to have NFC support on my personal smartphone again; this feature had been missing from my first-generation Surface Duo. I started using Google Pay wherever possible instead of a credit card during the height of COVID, and the habit has stuck.
  • I hadn’t found the Pixel 4a 5G to be performance-deficient in any notable regard; then again, I’m not a “gamer” or otherwise a demanding smartphone user. That said, the Pixel 7 is noticeably “snappier” than its predecessor, although I doubt my perception has much if anything to do with the higher display refresh rate (a topic discussed further in another of my EDN blog posts this month).
  • My biggest frustration with the Pixel 7 so far, albeit modest-at-worst in the grand scheme of things, is its less-than-reliable in-display optical fingerprint sensor. I’d already anticipated this shortcoming from reviews I’d perused prior to purchasing; in fairness, the Pixel 7 supposedly works better than the Pixel 6 in this regard, and both handset generations worked better after Google added a “Screen Protector” enhanced-sensitivity mode in the settings. Plus, the front camera-based face unlock generally works well as an alternative although, since it relies on a conventional image sensor instead of Apple’s infrared “LiDAR” approach, it’s not usable in dim light or after dark.
  • Speaking of screen protectors, I also proactively avoided the worst aspects of the in-display fingerprint sensor “feature” by going with a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film-based one instead of the tempered glass ones I’d used in the past. PET still prevents scratches, although unlike tempered glass, it won’t shoulder the “crack” burden of a more severe phone drop. Tempered glass screen protectors, especially unless they’re extremely thin (which defeats the purpose, yes?) apparently give in-display fingerprint sensors fits. All other factors equal, I’d still prefer the rear dedicated fingerprint sensors I’ve used in the past (on whose quicker-response longstanding reliance, I’m increasingly realizing, is part of the problem; in-display sensors work much better when I dial down my impatience and wait an extra fraction of a second for them to do their thing!).
  • I suspect Google’s getting away from dedicated rear-mounted fingerprint sensors both for BOM cost reasons and because they complicate the overall system design, considering that the wireless charging circuitry is also on the rear of the phone. Wireless charging is something I’ve admittedly dissed in the past due to its comparative inefficiency versus legacy wired charging. That said, ironically I use Qi almost exclusively now, delivered by first-generation Pixel Stand chargers, and for a reason I hadn’t previously comprehended; it saves wear and tear that the phone’s USB-C connector would otherwise endure to due to repeated insertion-and-removal cycles.
  • Last but not least, I had to laugh at myself the first time I fired up my personal-account Pixel 7 after transferring the AT&T SIM from the Surface Duo to it. I saw it reporting 5G and thought I’d caught a break with the carrier, until I squinted (presbyopia, don’cha know) and noticed the small “E” at the end of the symbol. This “5GE” is AT&T’s relabeled enhanced-LTE scam that I discussed in my October 2022 piece. That said, the reason I’m not getting “true” 5G on AT&T is admittedly a bit obscure; I continue to cling to a “grandfathered” true unlimited-data (with no throttling) cellular plan that I’ve had for over a decade, and while the carrier previously upgraded the plan from 3G to LTE capabilities, the same isn’t true for 5G. And re. my “work” phone, on Verizon it supports not only the “sub-6” (6 GHz) 5G band of its Pixel 4a 5G predecessor, but also emerging C-bands although, since neither handset is Verizon carrier-locked, not mmWave (UWB).

This all said, of course, rumors of Google’s upcoming Pixel 8 successor family are beginning to reach critical mass, with an introduction (if, in contrast to financial disclosures’ qualifiers, past performance is a guarantee of future results) roughly two months from now as I write these words. That said, however, thanks to Google’s extended five-year support guarantee with its latest smartphone families (the result, I suspect in no small part, of Google’s self-developed SoCs, therefore the company’s greater control of its software destiny) I don’t anticipate upgrading beyond the Pixel 7 any time soon. Feel free to chide me for having written these words a year or few down the road when I’m lusting after some new smartphone offering 😉. Sound off with your Pixel 7 (or other mobile device) thoughts in the comments!

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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So close to being restored completely. Bell Sound Division 2418 TwR Stereo Tube Amp.

Reddit:Electronics - Mon, 09/11/2023 - 02:21
So close to being restored completely. Bell Sound Division 2418 TwR Stereo Tube Amp.

I’ve been working on this amp for a while now. Every foil 0.05 mf total of 8 were bad. Replaced with sprague orange drops.

Can cap C1 a 40/40 mf 350vdc was also bad. Replaced with a 50/50 mf 500vdc.

Can cap C2 20/20/150 mf 350/350/50 vdc was shot replace with a 150mf 250vdc. I haven’t replaced the 2 20 mf sections yet. I don’t have the right caps. They are bad Tom reading 39-33 mf.

Replaced volume pot and re wired leads to it.

All tubes are excellent all 12AX7s from the same 10 pack ge box form 76. 6v6gts all Ken rad black glass. Rectifier 6CA4 is used but strong. All tested for shorts / gas / micromhos with my TV-7 completed with all accessories and documentation. Fully restored.

Have spent hours cleaning it.

Currently, the replacement of the caps has fix a ton of issues. Distortion/Phase issues between channels.

The only issue right now is the left and right Channels are not balanced when pot is in the center and volume is at 50%. The left channel is about 33% higher than the right, turning the balance knob from 12 o’clock to 2-3 o’clock lines both channels up smack dab on top of each other. I was thinking it was an issue when I rewired the pots. However, I can’t rule that out until I replace the can cap with the 2 20 mf 350vdc.

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I made a mistake and reversed polarity of power jack to my router

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 09/09/2023 - 19:55
I made a mistake and reversed polarity of power jack to my router

I was developing a ups system that can provide power backup to my router and the pihole. It was in its second iteration, I soldering the jack in with reversed polarity and tried powering my dlink router and killed it.

Typical reverse polarity will kill most of boards, but this one only killed the input switching regulator and spared rest of circuitry. The regulator was an unknown sot23-6 package. I initially didn't know what this regulator output was. The power output was branching to two sections on board. One section was powered by a second regulator, but the other section is directly powering rtl8211. Fetched the datasheet of rtl8211 and found it works on 3.3V. I then soldered a buck converter module in place of burnt input regulator and set it 3.3V and powered the router again and et voila! The routers alive. The router ups system works well with very fast switching between battery and primary power.

submitted by /u/mkomkomkomkomkomko
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Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Sat, 09/09/2023 - 18:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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SK hynix’s memory chips next in Huawei’s 5G phone saga

EDN Network - Fri, 09/08/2023 - 17:15

Last week’s relatively low-key launch of Huawei’ Mate 60 Pro 5G phone is still making waves for China’s breakthrough in cutting-edge semiconductor manufacturing technology with a 5G system-on-chip (SoC) produced on SMIC’s 7-nm process node. Especially, when SMIC doesn’t have access to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography equipment.

Figure 1 Huawei’s Mate 60 Pro 5G phone is powered by the Kirin 9000s chip fabricated on SMIC’s 7-nm process node. Source: Bloomberg

While trade media has constantly been digging in for more details, social media in China is celebrating this breakthrough in semiconductor technology. According to Dan Hutcheson, vice-chair of TechInsights, nearly two-thirds of silicon in Huawei’s 5G phone is homegrown, and it’s a major advance.

The Ottawa, Canada-based TechInsights has been examining parts of Huawei’s Mate 60 Pro 5G phone since its launch in the first week of September. However, while the discovery of Huawei’s Kirin 9000s 5G chip manufactured at SMIC’s 7-nm process node was initially making rounds in trade media, there was another surprise in store.

The next saga

Soon after uncovering the SMIC-made 7-nm SoC in Huawei’s Mate 60 Pro 5G phone, TechInsights discovered the presence of SK hynix’s 12 GB LPDDR5 chip and 512 GB NAND flash chip inside the handset. In fact, some early users of the 5G phone also posted videos of the phone containing NAND flash memory chips manufactured by the Icheon, South Korea-based SK hynix.

SK hynix immediately responded that the company abides by the U.S. government’s export restrictions and no longer does business with Huawei. It also announced that it’s starting an investigation to find more details.

Figure 2 TechInsights’ teardown shows that Huawei’s Mate 60 Pro phone has used SK hynix’s LPDDR5 and NAND flash memory chips. Source: Bloomberg

It’s plausible that Huawei purchased the memory chips from the secondary markets. Industry insiders even don’t rule out the possibility that Huawei might have stockpiled memory chips just before the U.S. export curbs kicked in.

Huawei’s smartphone business was disrupted back in 2019 when the United States began restrictions on technology exports to the Shenzhen, China-based tech giant for the risk of chip technology being diverted for military end-use. Now, when the world is wondering where these memory chips came from, there are also jitters about Huawei’s ability to produce a 5G phone with mostly China-made components.

Double-edge sword

Huawei’s 5G smartphone saga cuts both ways. On one hand, Huawei’s ability to produce a 7-nm SoC in collaboration with SMIC has demonstrated sound technical progress without SMIC having access to EUV lithography tools. In fact, there is talk about SMIC having violated the U.S. sanctions by supplying the 7-nm manufacturing technology to Huawei.

On the other hand, there is a reckoning about China’s tech self-sufficiency, which could potentially impact the commercial interests of the U.S. companies. Especially when U.S. semiconductor houses like Qualcomm and Nvidia have been arguing for fewer sanctions to tame China’s motivation for semiconductor technology breakthroughs.

TechInsights’ Hutcheson notes that China has been able to stay 2-2.5 nodes behind the leading fabs like TSMC and Samsung. But he also reminded that people thought China would be stopped at the 14 nm process node.

In a Reuters story, Hutcheson also talked about SMIC’s 7-nm process yield, which is considered below 50% by some research firms compared to the industry norm of 90% or more. In his view, “above 50%” is reasonable because Huawei’s 5G chip has been manufactured in a cleaner fashion. He thinks it’s far more competent than the 7-nm chip SMIC produced for a Bitcoin miner last year.

For now, it’s benefitting Huawei as its new 5G phones are enjoying a brisk sale in China, and it’s winning accolades on Chinese social media. But will it be able to compete with 5G phones built around the 3-nm SoCs manufactured in TSMC and Samsung fabs? Time will tell.

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Time Dependent Capacitance Drift of X7RMLCCs Under Exposure to a Constant DC Bias Voltage

ELE Times - Fri, 09/08/2023 - 08:39

A Comparative Case Study on 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V MLCCs (Vishay and Three Competitors)


Until recently, it was assumed that multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturers’ data stating the typical voltage coefficient of capacitance (VCC) and capacitance loss due to aging (no bias) could be additive, and that further capacitance drift over time will not be significant. However, recent research of the time-dependent capacitance drift of X7R MLCCs under exposure to a constant DC bias voltage – referred to as DC bias aging – has shown there is a time-related capacitance drift that can be much larger than the typical VCC and normal aging effect combined. Further, an automotive manufacturer reported an issue in critical systems that was related to capacitance loss and DC/AC bias aging. [1] This issue prompted Vishay to conduct a comparative study of DC bias aging on four manufacturers’ 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V MLCCs.

Vishay and three other manufacturers’ MLCCs were subjected to 40 % and 100 % of their rated voltage for DC bias aging analysis, which spanned over 1000 hours. After periodic intervals of time, the capacitance was measured on all samples with the same DC bias voltage level applied. Results confirmed that prolonged exposure of X7R capacitors to a DC bias voltage leads to a capacitance decrease that is much stronger than the natural drift due to aging. All competitors’ capacitors show a greater rate of capacitance loss over time compared to Vishay capacitors. Beyond 1000 hours, the Vishay capacitors have the highest remaining capacitance. It was also observed that once bias is removed, Vishay’s capacitance recovers much quicker than competing parts.


For several decades, multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) have been the preferred choice for many surface-mount applications because of their high capacitance, low equivalent series resistance, low cost, and insensitivity to high-temperature solder assembly. The stability of their electrical characteristics largely depends on the nature of the dielectric material used. The two commonly used types of ceramic dielectrics are class I and class II. Class I – being a very stable, low-loss dielectric material based on paraelectric ceramics – allows only a more limited capacitance range because of its relatively low dielectric constant. Class I capacitors are excluded from this study because of their natural stability with time, temperature, and voltage. Class II has high dielectric constant materials based on ferro-electric ceramic compositions. High capacitance values can be achieved, but at the cost of higher losses and reduced stability of the electrical characteristics. Several factors will affect the stability of the electrical characteristics in class II capacitors. Among these factors, the most well-known are temperature, DC/AC voltage amplitude, frequency, and the aging of capacitance over time.

Although the effects of DC voltage on capacitance and the gradual decrease of capacitance because of unbiased aging are well-known in the industry, little to no attention has been paid to the long-term effects of applied DC voltage on capacitance over time. Recently this characteristic, termed DC bias aging, received more attention after application problems were encountered. For a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to DC bias aging, it is helpful to quickly review the specifics of unbiased aging and the VCC effect.

The VCC effect and unbiased aging are specifically related to the ferroelectric nature of class II MLCCs. A characteristic of ferroelectric dielectrics is the appearance of a spontaneous, permanent polarization. As a result of this spontaneous polarization, the dipoles in a ferroelectric crystal tend to line up, giving rise to ferroelectric domains in which all dipoles have the same direction. [2, 3] Since the concentration of domains and dipole alignments directly impact the dielectric constant K, any changes or re-orientation of the domains will influence K, and thus capacitance per the following formula:

C = nAεoK / t


C = capacitance

n = number of dielectric layers

A = overlap area of each conductive plate (m2)

εo = dielectric permeability of free space (8.854 x 10-12 F/m) K = dielectric constant

t    = thickness separating each dielectric layer (m)

The VCC Effect Explained

In class II dielectrics, the spontaneous polarization of the ceramic and the associated development of domains is responsible for the initial high capacitance. If the polarization is plotted as a function of the exciting field, as in Fig. 1, a hysteresis loop is obtained. The hysteresis curve shown is typical of barium titanate-based dielectrics. Initially, the polarizability is high, but it gradually levels off as the electrical field is increased. As a result, the capacitance decreases with increasing applied bias voltage, as can be seen in the VCC plot of Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 – Ceramic Domain Polarization vs. Applied Field (Hysteresis) Fig. 2 – Typical Class 2 Capacitance as a Function of the Applied DC Bias Field (VCC) Aging Phenomena in Ferroelectric Ceramics

Above the Curie temperature, barium titanate exhibits a cubic structure. In this state the dielectric is not ferroelectric, and no spontaneous polarization is observed. Upon cooling down below the Curie temperature, the crystal structure changes to tetrahedral. This allows the titanium atom to permanently move off-center in the crystal lattice, giving rise to a permanent polarization. Over time, the domains re-arrange continually, reducing internal strain. This slow re-arrangement of domains causes the capacitance to decrease over time. Typically, aging follows a logarithmic law whose mathematical expression is described as:


C = capacitance after time t C0 = initial capacitance

A = aging constant

Usually, aging rates are in the order of 1 % or 2 % per decade. Practically, this means that the capacitance will drop by 1 % or 2 % between 1 hour and 10 hours after de-aging. A similar capacitance drop will occur between 10 hours and 100 hours and between 100 hours and 1000 hours. The aging process can be reversed by heating the dielectric above its Curie point to eliminate the domains. Upon cooling down below the Curie point, the domains are created again, and the aging process restarts from the beginning. This is depicted graphically in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 – Aging Phenomena in Ferroelectric Ceramics [4]Normally, the VCC effect and the aging effect are largely independent phenomena. Until recently, it was assumed that the application of a DC bias voltage would reduce the capacitance to a defined level. Upon continuous exposure to a fixed DC bias voltage, only a slow decrease of capacitance due to the aging rate was expected. However, recent reports of the capacitance change over time under the influence of a DC bias voltage indicate that there is a time-related capacitance drift that can be much larger than the normal aging effect. [5][6] If in an application, the capacitors are exposed to a DC bias voltage for a long time, the knowledge of the VCC and aging effects alone is not sufficient to predict the correct evolution of capacitance over time.

The DC BIAS Aging Test Setup and Procedure

10 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V-rated capacitor samples from Vishay and three other MLCC manufacturers were mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB). Complete de-aging was performed on all capacitors at 150 °C for a duration of 1 hour prior to testing. These capacitors on PCBs were inserted into a fixture and subjected to a constant DC bias voltage of 40 % and 100 % rated voltage over the entire duration of the test. After defined periods of time, the PCBs were temporarily removed from their fixtures with parts still holding most of their electrical charge. Capacitance was then measured while applying the same test voltage level and polarity. PCBs were then returned to their fixtures to continue DC bias aging up to 1000 hours.

Long-Time Exposure to 40% Rated Voltage at Room Temperature

On one set of samples, all capacitors were subject to 40 % of the rated voltage (20 VDC). The capacitors were soaked at this voltage for 10 minutes to allow the initial effect of VCC to settle. Fig. 5 shows the percent capacitance loss over time. This plot references the relative capacitance loss after the immediate effect of bias voltage and VCC. This reference normalizes the initial rate of capacitance loss to 0% and focuses on each manufacturer’s DC bias aging rate.

Relative Capacitance Change as a Function of Time in 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V MLCC with 20 V Bias Applied Fig. 5 – % Capacitance Loss Over Time Referenced After the Immediate Effect of 20 V Bias

As shown in the plot of Fig. 5, the DC bias aging rates for all competing parts were far more significant than the 1% to 3% per decade usually specified. For example, after 100 hours, competitor 2’s part lost an average of 10 % per decade. After 1000 hours, all competing MLCCs lost more than 20% of their capacitance. While loss rates were far from linear, on average the competitors’ loss rates after three decades (1 hour to 1000 hours) exceeded 7% per decade with 40 % rated DC bias aging. The Vishay capacitor remained relatively stable throughout the entire test duration, but between 100 hours and 1000 hours, the rate increased slightly. Due to its lower capacitance drift, Vishay’s capacitor had the highest remaining capacitance – in total losing an additional 5% after 1000 hours. DC bias aging for all capacitors appeared to slow down at 1000 hours and was expected to settle to an ultimate value characteristic for the dielectric used.


On a second set of samples, the capacitors were subjected to 100% of the rated voltage (50 VDC). The interest here was to see how DC bias aging is affected by a higher field. Fig. 6 shows the capacitance loss over time, again referenced from the capacitance after the 50 V bias was applied. Comparing Fig. 5’s loss with 40% bias, and Fig. 6’s loss with 100% bias, the plot of Fig. 6 shows that capacitance loss proceeds at a faster rate. Competing capacitors initially showed much more capacitance drift under the influence of DC bias than Vishay capacitors, which again remained more stable for up to 100 hours. However, this advantage was gradually lost at around 1,000 hours of bias exposure.

Relative Capacitance Change Over Time in 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V MLCC with 50 V Bias Applied Fig. 6 – % Capacitance Loss Over Time Referenced After the Immediate Effect of 50 V Bias Capacitance Recovery Rate After Long 100% Bias Exposure

To evaluate the recovery behavior of capacitors after long exposure to 100% bias, the voltage was removed (0 V) and the terminals of parts were constantly shorted to prevent the buildup of any remanent voltage. Effective capacitance with no bias was then measured at intervals.

Capacitance Recovery (Zero Bias) in 0603 X7R 100 nF, 50 V MLCC Following 1000 Hours of Exposure to 50 V Bias Fig. 7 – Capacitance Recovery (0 V Bias) Following 1000 Hours of 50 VDC Bias

Referring to Fig. 7, after the DC bias voltage was removed, the capacitors slowly recovered from the capacitance drift the y experienced from long exposure to 100 % bias voltage. At room temperature, the recovery process for competing parts was slower, taking between 50 hours and 1000 hours to approach 95%. In comparison, Vishay’s capacitor recovered quite fast to almost 95% of its initial value. All capacitors tested recovered to 100% after thermal treatment at 150°C for one hour (complete de-aging and capacitance drift recovery).

Summary Long-Time Exposure to 40% Rated Voltage at Room Temperature

Prolonged exposure of X7R capacitors to a DC bias voltage led to a capacitance decrease that was much stronger than the natural drift due to aging. Competing capacitors experienced much more capacitance drift under the influence of DC bias than Vishay’s device, which remained more stable for up to 1000 hours. Due to their low capacitance drift under the influence of DC bias voltage, Vishay capacitors have the highest remaining capacitance after a longer exposure time. The conclusions are valid for DC bias fields in the order of up to 2.5 V/μm. Since MLCCs are seldom used at 100 % rated voltage, this voltage stress condition is applicable to the majority of the MLCCs in the field.

Long-Time Exposure to 100% Rated Voltage at Room Temperature

As in the case of exposure to DC bias at 40 % of rated voltage, prolonged exposure of X7R capacitors to a DC bias voltage leads to a relatively strong capacitance drift. Exposed to the full rated voltage, the capacitance drift proceeds at a much higher rate. Competing capacitors initially showed much more capacitance drift under the influence of DC bias than Vishay’s capacitor, which remained more stable for up to 100 hours. Vishay’s advantage gradually diminished around 1000 hours of exposure. The conclusions are valid for DC bias fields in the order of 6 V/μm and higher.

Recovery Rates

When the DC bias voltage was removed, competing capacitors recovered much more slowly than Vishay’s device, which saw a 95% capacitance recovery in just a few minutes after the bias was removed. Competing capacitors took between 50 hours and 1000 hours or more to reach 95% recovery. All tested capacitors recovered to 100% after thermal treatment at 150°C for 1 hour.


Vishay’s introductory testing of the effects of DC bias aging on class II MLCCs supports prior reports. The Vishay capacitor tested proved to be the least affected by DC bias aging, as it had the smallest capacitance drift over time.

This study was not an investigation into the physical, chemical, or material reasons for differences in performance between MLCC manufacturers. However, the complete recovery of the capacitance after heating above the Curie temperature seems to indicate that DC bias aging is related to time-dependent changes in the domain structure resulting from prolonged exposure to a bias field. Also, Vishay MLCCs are produced using noble metal technology. The three competing parts tested were made using base metal technology. These material differences could be a factor explaining the contrast in aging behavior observed.

It is now clear that capacitance loss vs. DC bias aging is a critical characteristic that engineers need to know during design evaluation. In response, Vishay is beginning DC bias aging tests on our X7R dielectric systems to provide this data. Vishay’s DC bias aging tests will be conducted for at least 100 hours or greater, with 20%, 40%, and 60% of the rated voltage applied at room temperature.

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12-bit oscilloscope operates up to 65 GHz

EDN Network - Thu, 09/07/2023 - 17:08

Teledyne LeCroy’s WaveMaster 8000HD oscilloscope offers analog bandwidths spanning 20 GHz to 65 GHz and 12 bits of vertical resolution. All six models in the scope series are outfitted with four channels, while the highest bandwidths are achieved when using only two channels.

At 65 GHz and a maximum sample rate of 320 Gsamples/s, the WaveMaster 8000HD doubles the available bandwidth and sample rate of its predecessor. It also supplies 8 Gpts of acquisition memory. SDA Expert serial data analysis software allows the capture and analysis of multi-level PAM3 and PAM4 signals used in USB4 V2.0 and PCIe 6.0, respectively.

The WaveMaster 8000HD enables high-speed serial-bus characterization, validation, compliance, and debug. CrossSync PHY control and integration software links the oscilloscope to a protocol analyzer, providing an integrated trigger, capture, and view of physical and protocol logic layers of serial data signals.

Prices for the WaveMaster 8000HD oscilloscope start at $270,000. Configure and request a quote for the oscilloscope using the product page link below.

WaveMaster 8000HD product page

Teledyne LeCroy 

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To spark or not to spark

EDN Network - Thu, 09/07/2023 - 17:02

Anybody who has ever watched a thunderstorm knows what sparks can do under the right circumstances, the same goes for anyone who has ever watched the Boris Karloff movie, “Frankenstein”. However, improperly extrapolating those observations to the lab bench is not a good idea.

I’m going to vent a little bit here so get ready.

There was this microwave power meter which was having operational failures that had been wrongly blamed on damages to its power sensing thermistors. That was not actually the case. The thermistors themselves were not being harmed by anything.

Eventually I made circuit design revisions which solved the operating problem at hand. But until that was done, fictitious suppositions were being improperly bandied about the company and, to use a common vernacular, “They had legs.”

A falsehood can go around the globe ten times while the truth is still trying to leave the parking lot.

Thermistor power was actually quite low with DC bias currents down in the milliamp range. Unfortunately, an ill-informed colleague spread a story to inept company management saying that when energized, the thermistor assemblies were being disconnected by unplugging them from their cable connectors, sparks were occurring at the parting connector pins and that those sparks were delivering damaging energy to the thermistors (Figure 1).

Figure 1 The incorrect thesis on why the microwave power meter was having operational failures. Source: John Dunn

If there had been any sparking going on as in Figure 1, the impedance(s) of those sparks would have arisen in series with the impedances of the thermistor, the resistances of the wires, the source impedance of the driving amplifier and the input impedance of the monitoring circuitry.

Such hypothetical sparks would not suddenly be dumping some stored reserve of energy. Whatever current might have been flowing just before connector pin separation could only go downward, not upward. Thus, the thermistors were quite safe from that alleged source of harm.

Even so, the company’s technologically inept management (I could have used more accurately descriptive though less polite terminology) was led to believe that there must somehow have been some kind of destructive energy discharge events going on like the ½LI² of an automobile ignition coil getting suddenly open circuited or the ½CV² of a charged capacitor getting suddenly short circuited. Management became utterly and wrongly convinced that I just wasn’t looking at the issue properly.

Actually, the thermistor monitoring circuits were themselves at fault which was the problem I fixed while ignoring my colleague and while ignoring management. I made several design revisions which corrected several operational problems.

The outcome was a success! Everything worked okay from then on.

“Truth always prevails in the end.” -Lord Acton, English Thinker, Editor and Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University, 1834-1902.

Of course, when the truth does not prevail…

John Dunn is an electronics consultant, and a graduate of The Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (BSEE) and of New York University (MSEE).

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Auto EV India, an automotive path to future

ELE Times - Thu, 09/07/2023 - 15:48

The dynamic upsurge in the automotive sector is increasing and confronts companies with new challenges. The demand for electric cars is on the rise. Auto EV India, one of the largest exhibitions on EV and Automotive technologies facilitates the platform for technology companies to get together. The exhibition is slated to open from 2-4 Nov, 2023 at KTPO, Bangalore.

It presents the entire ecosystem of the Electric Vehicle and Automotive Technology industry. It comprises R&D, design, components, parts and material, battery and charges, testing, telematics and more. Shailesh Shukla, Director, NDPM Group, Organizer of Auto EV India 2023 spoke to Himanshu Vaibhav, Technology Journalist, discusses on various dimensions on Auto EV India 2023. Excerpts.

Himanshu Vaibhav: What is the theme of Auto EV India 2023.

Shailesh Shukla: Auto EV India 2023 is a focused international exhibition on Advanced Automotive and Electric Vehicle Technologies. Exhibitors from Nine countries will be showcasing their State-of-the-Art technologies, solutions and products for the Automotive Manufacturers (Automakers), Automotive OEMs and Tier 1 & Tier 2 Suppliers.

Auto EV India 2023 is going to be a comprehensive exhibition where one can find entire ecosystem and complete value chain of Automotive Industry under the one roof.



Himanshu Vaibhav: What are the highlights of this year’s accompanying program?

Shailesh Shukla: We have expended the show horizontally this time. We are addressing various technologies into Automotive & EV space separately. These technologies are:

  • Electronics, Electrical & IT
  • Auto components, Auto Parts & Materials
  • Battery & Charging Technologies
  • Telematic & Connected Technologies
  • Mechanical & Lightweight Technologies
  • Testing and Simulation

If India has to take the lead in Automotive & E Vehicle Manufacturing in the South Asian regions, advanced technologies have to be available to the Automakers and OEMs for their future Automotive and Electric Vehicles.

Our effort is to make sure the widest range of advanced technologies available to the Automakers and OEMs so that Indian Electric Vehicles can compete in the global Automotive market.

Himanshu Vaibhav: We have seen so many exhibitions on EVs last year and this year as well. How is Auto EV India different with others?

Shailesh Shukla: Auto EV India is an exhibition on technologies on EV and IC engine vehicle. It is not an Electric Vehicles exhibition. We have also included Hybrid Vehicles (HV) Technologies and Fuel Charged Vehicle (FCV) Technologies in the show as the companies which have technologies and solutions for the EVs can also provide the same to the other types of the vehicles as well.

So, it’s not a Motor Show, it’s a Show on Technologies, Solutions, Components, Parts & Materials which goes inside Electric and IC engine vehicles.

Automotive manufacturers (Automakers), Automotive OEMs and Tier-1 & Tier-2 Suppliers are the visitors and not the exhibitors of the exhibition.



Himanshu Vaibhav: Is there also any conference along with exhibition? What is the theme?

Shailesh Shukla: The Auto EV TECH-VISION Summit 2023 under the aegis of Auto EV India will take place on November 2 to 3, 2023. 25 presentations along with Five group discussions are to be conducted in two days at the summit. It is likely to be a Five hours session each day. Visionaries from the govt and the industry will set the tone on how the industry would be like in future. Presentations on the newest technologies may prove to be the eye opener to the product engineers in automotive sector. The keynotes at the beginning and the final discussion are the highlights of the conferences.

Himanshu Vaibhav: What are the Key Discussion Points of the Auto EV TECH-VISION Conference?

Shailesh Shukla: We have tried to cover all the major and relevant technology topics in the second edition of the conference. Below are the Key discussion points of the conference:

  • Deploying telematics and connected solutions in EVs.
  • How to Deal with Ever-increasingly Complex Software.
  • Vehicle-Cloud Collaborative Security Monitoring Solutions.
  • The Potential of Solid-state Batteries in Electric Mobility.
  • Future Drive Systems / Motor Technologies.
  • Measurement & Simulation Technologies in EV Design.
  • Disruptive tech trends transforming the pathway of the EV industry.
  • Lightweight Technologies for Electric Vehicles.
  • Latest Power Electronics Technology for electric mobility.
  • Thermal Management – Enabling the Success of E-mobility.
  • Advanced Technology of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries.
  • Silicon Carbide Technology –The Right Answer to Growing Vehicle Electrification Demands.
  • Sustainable Technologies.
  • Advanced Driver Assistance System Technologies.
  • Challenges for Miniaturization Based on Material Technologies.
  • EV Testing Technologies: What’s New & What’s Needed?
Himanshu Vaibhav: What are the ways to encourage participation and integration of innovative start-ups into the Electric Vehicle ecosystem?

Shailesh Shukla:  We emphasise to have the entire value chain, right from R&D to manufacturing, to develop in India to feed the automotive market in India and the world. Automotive R&D and start-up companies have discounted price structure for their participation at Auto EV India. For buyer-seller discussions we have plans to provide them the meeting rooms, where these companies can book private meeting rooms at no extra cost.

We have plans to disseminate and publish their latest researches and findings on www.timesev.com in the form of technology articles, blogs, press releases, white papers, webinar promotion, and interviews. The combine reach of our online media along with www.eletimes.com is millions of professionals across the world.



Himanshu Vaibhav: What business opportunities are available for domestic and global companies at Auto EV India 2023?

Shailesh Shukla: To an estimate, the market size for auto components in the country and the world accounted for approximately $56.5 billion and USD 660.24 billion respectively. It is likely to cross the one trillion marks by 2028. As you are aware India is the third largest automotive market in the world. Apart from the Indian multinational auto makers, a number of Global Automakers and OEMs are present and manufacturing in India. They are not only catering to its large domestic market but has the potential to feed global market. The sourcing is on the increase year on year. It is a big opportunity for domestic and global companies at Auto EV India 2023?

Himanshu Vaibhav: What about an ‘insider tip’ for our readers at Auto EV India 2023?

Shailesh Shukla:  Since it is an Automotive Technology exhibition – the largest of technology solution provider companies are exhibiting at the expo. You are sure to get a broad global automotive market perspective in the show. So, at auto EV India, see for yourself the latest technology available in the world market.

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Tiny PCIe 4.0 SSD fits in-vehicle systems

EDN Network - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 17:32

The nanoSSD 4TE3 from Innodisk is a PCIe 4.0 x4 BGA SSD that aims to satisfy the demand for both edge AI miniaturization and high-speed processing. Useful for 5G, automotive, and aerospace designs, the device offers a transmission speed of up to 3.6 Gbytes/s and a bandwidth of up to 8 Gbytes/s.

Housed in an M.2 type 1620 BGA package that is just 1.65 mm high, the nanoSSD 4TE3 packs a 12-nm controller and up to 1 Tbyte of 112-layer 3D TLC NAND flash storage. In-house design offers customized solutions for flexibility. For example, security features, such as AES 256, TCG Opal Security Subsystem Class (SSC), quick erase, and write protection, can be added for mission-critical applications where security is critical.

Unlike conventional plugged-in SSDs, the nanoSSD is soldered down and integrated onto the device motherboard to protect against instabilities in outdoor environments. The drive withstands shock and vibration to ensure uninterrupted signal operation and boasts an MTBF of greater than 3 million hours.

The circuit design of the nanoSSD PCIe 4TE3 is supported by pre-sales service, including a design kit before integration.

nanoSSD PCIe 4TE3 product page


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GaGe expands PCIe digitizer portfolio

EDN Network - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 17:32

GaGe by Vitrek has added 14-bit and 16-bit resolution options to its Razor series of high-speed, dual-channel PCIe digitizers. These instruments offer an effective number of bits (ENOB) of ~11+ typical and a PCIe Gen 3 x8 interface.

RazorEdge Express models with 14-bit or 16-bit resolution provide A/D sampling rates of up to 250 Msamples/ and an analog input bandwidth of 125 MHz. For higher sampling rates, RazorPlus Express models with 14-bit or 16-bit resolution achieve sampling rates of up to 500 Msamples/s and have an analog input bandwidth of 250 MHz.

Features common to both RazorEdge Express and RazorPlus Express digitizers include 8 Gbytes of onboard memory, a set of 50-Ω and 1-MΩ input channel pairs, and programming-free operation with GaGeScope PC oscilloscope software for Windows. With optional eXpert PCIe data streaming FPGA firmware, the digitizers can stream acquired data to host PC memory via the PCIe interface at sustained rates of up to 1 Gbyte/s for real-time continuous signal processing or signal recording operations.

Prices for the RazorEdge Express 14-bit and RazorEdge Express 16-bit digitizers start at $6750 and $7425, respectively. Prices for the higher-speed RazorPlus Express 14-bit and RazorPlus Express 16-bit digitizers start at $8175 and $8850, respectively.


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4-pin SiC MOSFETs reduce switching loss

EDN Network - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 17:32

The first entries in Toshiba’s lineup of SiC MOSFETs that use a 4-pin TO-247-4L(X) package consist of 10 devices, 5 rated at 650 V and 5 rated at 1200 V. To minimize switching loss, their 4-pin TO-247-4L(X) package allows Kelvin connection of the signal source terminal for the gate drive.

The 4-pin package reduces the effect of source wire inductance inside the package, improving high-speed switching performance. For the new TW045Z120C, turn-on loss is approximately 40% lower and turn-off loss is reduced by approximately 34%, compared to Toshiba’s current TW045N120C MOSFET in a 3-pin TO-247 package.

Third-generation MOSFETs in the TWxxxZxxxC series are intended for industrial applications, such as EV charging stations, photovoltaic inverters, uninterruptible power supplies, and switching power supplies. Key specifications include:

Shipping now in volume quantities, the 4-pin SiC MOSFETs include the TW015Z120C, TW030Z120C, TW045Z120C, TW060Z120C, TW140Z120C, TW015Z65C, TW027Z65C, TW048Z65C, TW083Z65C, and TW107Z65C. To learn more about the benefits of the 4-pin TO-247-4L(X) package, click here.

Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage

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Taillight design that nearly halves system cost

EDN Network - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 17:25

Lately, nearly all automotive lighting features have been developed using LEDs, offering increased brightness while consuming less power. LEDs offer numerous benefits compared to conventional fluorescent bulbs. For the automotive taillight, all vehicles must have the following light functions:

  • TURN (RED or Yellow)
  • BACKUP (white)

Wow the engineering world with your unique design: Design Ideas Submission Guide

Without compromising on the regulatory requirements of the taillight in some applications, we can combine one or more of these functions together in order to reduce the overall system cost.

For example, the TAIL light can be combined with the STOP light provided that the brightness difference between these two functions are evident whenever activated such that:

  • When the TAIL function is activated, the LEDs shall be driven with a lower brightness.
  • When the STOP function is activated, the LEDs shall be of higher brightness to differentiate the TAIL function.
  • When both functions are activated, STOP will have priority over TAIL.

The limitations for combining both the TAIL and STOP LED functions are as follows:

  • Each function requires a different brightness.
  • There is no communication bus from the BCM to the rear light module to convey function information.

We can overcome the limitations above using a simple sense circuit that enables using single group of LEDs for both the TAIL and STOP function as well as a single LED driver with variable LED current for adjusting the brightness as shown in Figure 1. This will reduce the system cost by almost 50%.

Figure 1 A simple sense circuit and an LED driver to control only a single group of LEDs for both the TAIL and STOP functions of a standard automotive taillight.

In this sample application circuit:

  • VBAT min: 9 V
  • VBAT max: 1 6V

The LEDs used are the OSRAM KR DMLN31.23 Red LEDs. A total of 10 LEDs are used in a single string where:

  • Total VF min: 2.0*10 = 20 V
  • Total VF max: 2.6*10 = 26 V

The LED driver employed is the MAX20090ATP used as a Boost controller for driving the LEDs where:

  • LED TAIL function current: 100 mA
  • LED STOP function current: 200 mA

Note both TAIL and STOP will be driven by the BCM/E-Fuse module from vehicle. Figure 2 is an image of the prototype driving and LED board with voltage probes measuring TAIL PWR, STOP PWR, and LED PWR. 

Figure 2 Test circuit driving and LED board with probes measuring TAIL PWR, STOP PWR, and LED CURRENT. 

In the circuit both TAIL PWR and STOP PWR are combined using reverse protection diodes. By default, when TAIL PWR alone is applied, the LED driver will be configured to drive 100mA of string current. When STOP PWR is being applied, transistor Q2 will be activated and Q1 will be disabled, this will change the voltage on the ICTRL pin of MAX20090 which in turn, changes the LED string current to 180mA (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Voltage and current graph where the LED functions (TAIL or STOP) automatically change the LED string current using FETs Q1 and Q2. This in turn enables the feature of using a single LED driver for both the TAIL and STOP functions instead of individual drivers, saving ~50% design cost.

The above circuit proves that, by using the MAX20090 along with transistor switching circuits (Q1, Q2, R9, and R10) we can use a single LED driver for driving both TAIL and STOP functions.

Rajesh Subramanyam (Senior Member, IEEE) received his bachelor’s degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Anna University, Chennai, India. He currently works as a senior hardware design engineer at an EV company in California, USA with a core expertise in automotive infotainment controller hardware design. Rajesh is also a member of the editorial review board for the SAE international journal.


Selvakumar Sonai (Senior Member, IEEE) received his master’s degree in microelectronics from BITS Pilani, India. He currently works as a senior hardware design engineer at an EV company in California, USA with a core expertise in automotive infotainment controller hardware design. Sonai is a member of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems as well as the editorial review board for the SAE internal journal.


Logesh Sekar (Senior Member, IEEE) received his bachelor’s degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Anna University, Chennai, India He currently works as a senior hardware design engineer at an EV company in California, USA with a core expertise in automotive infotainment controller hardware design. Sekar is also a member of the editorial review board for the SAE international journal.


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Top 10 Electric Bicycle Companies in USA

ELE Times - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 14:54

In recent years, electric bicycles, or e-bikes, have become increasingly popular in the United States. These innovative two-wheelers offer a green, efficient, and fun mode of transportation for daily commutes, recreational rides, and even off-road adventures. With the growing demand for e-bikes, several companies in the USA have risen to prominence, each offering unique features and designs. In this blog, we’ll explore the top 10 electric bicycle companies in the USA, shedding light on what makes them stand out in this thriving industry.

Auto EV India

1. Rad Power Bikes

Rad Power Bikes has made a significant impact on the e-bike market with its versatile and affordable electric bicycles. Their models are known for their sturdy construction and impressive battery life. Rad Power Bikes offers a range of options, for urban commuters to off-road adventurers.

2. Specialized Turbo

Specialized Turbo is a brand synonymous with high-quality cycling, and their electric bikes are no exception. These e-bikes seamlessly blend cutting-edge technology with sleek designs. Riding a Specialized Turbo e-bike is a smooth and exhilarating experience.

3. Trek Bicycles

Trek Bicycles, a giant in the cycling industry, has extended its reputation to e-bikes. Trek’s electric bicycles are celebrated for their durability and adaptability, catering to a wide range of riders, including city commuters and mountain biking enthusiasts.

4. Giant Bicycles

Giant Bicycles is known for producing reliable and high-performing electric bikes. Their models are loved by riders for their quality and efficiency, making them an excellent choice for various riding styles and preferences.

5. Juiced Bikes

Juiced Bikes specializes in powerful electric bicycles suitable for urban commuting and off-road adventures. These e-bikes feature robust motors and long-lasting batteries, ensuring an exhilarating and efficient ride.

6. Blix Electric Bikes

Blix Electric Bikes takes pride in creating stylish and practical electric bicycles perfect for everyday use. Commuters particularly appreciate their integrated lights and cargo racks, which enhance functionality and convenience.

7. Aventon Bikes

Aventon Bikes is known for its minimalist and elegant e-bike designs. These electric bicycles offer a harmonious blend of aesthetics, performance, and reliability, making them a favourite among discerning riders.

8. Cannondale

Cannondale, a long-established name in the cycling world, has ventured into the e-bike market with great success. Their electric bikes feature top-tier components and engineering, delivering an exceptional riding experience.

9. Raleigh Electric

Raleigh Electric combines decades of bicycle manufacturing expertise with modern electric technology. Their e-bikes boast a fusion of classic styling and contemporary functionality, appealing to a wide range of riders.

10. Yuba Bicycles

Yuba Bicycles focuses on electric cargo bikes designed to handle heavy loads with ease. These e-bikes are ideal for families, small business owners, and anyone seeking a practical and eco-friendly transportation solution.

The e-bike revolution in the USA has paved the way for these top 10 companies to shine. While each company offers unique features and designs, they all share a common commitment to sustainability, innovation, and providing riders with a fantastic experience. As the popularity of e-bikes continues to surge, it’s clear that these companies are at the forefront of the industry, pushing the boundaries of what electric bicycles can offer. Whether you’re a daily commuter, a weekend explorer, or someone looking to reduce their carbon footprint, there’s an electric bike from one of these top 10 companies that’s sure to meet your needs. The future of transportation is electric, and these companies are leading the way with their impressive e-bike offerings.

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Vertiv Launches Active Harmonic Filters to Improve Power Quality in Industrial Applications in India

ELE Times - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 12:00

Vertiv (NYSE: VRT), a global provider of critical digital infrastructure and continuity solutions, today announced the launch of the Vertiv™ Liebert® AF4, a set of active harmonic filters powered by artificial neural network (ANN) technology, designed to address the increasing importance of power quality in the facility electrical distribution system in India.

An increasing number of electronic components have been deployed across manufacturing processes, and many of the electronic components can distort the current from the source. This can affect the quality of the source voltage waveform, impairing the operation or leading to the failure of the components. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to improve the power quality in the distribution system to achieve continuity of the production process and reduce equipment maintenance cost and downtime of the production equipment. The Liebert® AF4 is designed to efficiently address these waveform distortions.

The Liebert AF4 leverages high-speed Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) technology, connected in parallel with the load, and improves power quality management in manufacturing/data center facility environments, irrespective of the loading condition. Capabilities include:

  • Mitigates harmonic currents
  • Improves power factor
  • Balances three-phase source currents
  • Compensates neutral harmonic currents

The Liebert AF4’s HMI 7-inch capacitive touchscreen display is embedded with an adaptive artificial neural networks control algorithm that enables the best-in class dynamic response time of 100 microseconds. Operating on an intelligent ANN-based control technique, the Liebert AF4 accurately identifies the composition of downstream load currents, including active, reactive, harmonics, and unbalanced components. Through precise control of IGBTs, the Vertiv™ Liebert® AF4 effectively eliminates unwanted Harmonic components at the load end.

“Electrical distribution power quality becomes even more crucial with today’s industry4.0 technology-driven facilities, to ensure seamless and uninterrupted operations. At Vertiv, we understand the evolving needs of our customers and remain committed to supporting them with innovative and reliable solutions”, said Vikas Srivastava – director medium/large AC power offering (India),Vertiv. “The Liebert AF4 is a testament to our dedication to empowering industrial environments with advanced power solutions. We will continue to innovate our offerings to the ever-evolving business landscape and support our customers as they navigate power-related challenges”.

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Gen3 to Showcase Cutting-Edge Test Solutions at Productronica India 2023

ELE Times - Wed, 09/06/2023 - 08:36

Farnborough, Hampshire, UK – Gen3, Global leader in SIR, CAF, Solderability, Ionic Contamination & process optimisation equipment, announced its participation at productronica India, the International Trade Fair for Electronics Development and Production, taking place from Sept. 13-15, 2023, at the Bangalore International Exhibition Centre (BIEC) in Bengaluru, India on booth number PE 51 in Hall 4.

At the event, Gen3 will showcase its groundbreaking CM+ Series, representing the latest advancements in the testing and inspection industry.

Visitors can experience the 6 Sigma verified CM+ Series, the world’s first combined ROSE (Resistivity of Solvent Extract) and Process Ionic Contamination Tester (PICT). A recipient of global awards, this industry-leading system measures ionic contamination in accordance with all existing test methods, including ROSE and PICT. Available in five different models and tank sizes, the CM+ Series offers versatility for various circuit assembly testing needs. Gen3 will be providing an inside tutorial on ionic contamination, offering attendees a unique opportunity to understand the CM+ Series’ capabilities. They will be able to see Gen3’s CM+ Series in action, showcasing how the system can operate for you and PCB boards.

Auto EV India

Andrew Naisbitt, CEO of Gen3 who will attend the upcoming show, commented, “Productronica India 2023 is shaping up to be an exciting and pivotal event that holds the potential to reshape electronics manufacturing in India.  There is an extensive lineup of seminars, workshops, and keynote speeches. I, for one, am looking forward to meeting Prime PCI’s customers, our Distributor for the Indian market, and catching up with fellow colleagues in the industry.”

Gen3’s commitment to providing comprehensive testing solutions is evident through its newly launched Objective Evidence website. This platform details the requirements from the latest J STD 001 Rev H, which can be efficiently met through the combination of AutoSIR and PICT testing. The AutoSIR performs the initial qualification, while the PICT test demonstrates ongoing conformity to the primary setup using the SIR technique.

Visitors are encouraged to visit Gen3’s stand to explore the AutoSIR2+™ and CM+ Series demonstrations and gain insights into the revolutionary testing technologies.

The post Gen3 to Showcase Cutting-Edge Test Solutions at Productronica India 2023 appeared first on ELE Times.


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