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Infineon introduces the OPTIGA Trust M MTR, making it easy to add Matter and security to smart home devices

ELE Times - Thu, 02/22/2024 - 09:03

In a world of increasing connectivity and the growing popularity of the Internet of Things, it is important to simplify interoperability across connected devices and to enhance their security and reliability. The Matter standard was created precisely for this purpose. In order to facilitate integration of the Matter standard and security features into smart home and smart building devices, Infineon Technologies now introduces the OPTIGA Trust M MTR. The Matter-certified Secure Element is the latest configuration of Infineon’s OPTIGA Trust M, combined with a Matter provisioning service.

Matter: smooth interoperability of connected devices

According to ABI Research forecasts, the number of smart home devices will double by 2030, reaching about 1.7 billion worldwide. All these devices have to be able to connect securely and reliably with each other and with different smart home ecosystems. That’s where the Matter standard comes into play, facilitating smooth interoperability across connected devices even from different companies. The Matter protocol defines a set of principles that support uniform security and privacy measures for the smart home, since smart homes rely on smart devices to increase not only comfort but also efficiency and security.

“When we designed the Matter protocol in the Connectivity Standards Alliance, we were committed to building strong security,” said Steve Hanna, Distinguished Engineer at Infineon and leader of the standards teams that defined Matter’s security. “That’s why Matter brings new security features to the smart home, some of which were challenging for IoT product designers. Infineon’s OPTIGA Trust M MTR addresses those challenges head-on so that now it can be even easier to build a Matter product.”

OPTIGA Trust M MTR facilitates Matter and security integration

The tamper-resistant security controller can be easily integrated into a system to perform security-related functions and provide a high level of protection for sensitive data and cryptographic operations. As a discrete Secure Element, OPTIGA Trust M MTR can be integrated into any MCU-based design to enhance security and handle multiple product protocols simultaneously. This gives original equipment manufacturers greater flexibility and allows faster time to market.

According to the Matter protocol, every smart home device must have a Device Attestation Certificate (DAC), containing the Product ID (PID) and the Vendor ID (VID), to verify the authenticity and trustworthiness of each device commissioned in the Matter ecosystem. With OPTIGA Trust M MTR, the PID no longer needs to be defined in advance when the reel is ordered or manufactured. Instead, each device receives a personalized DAC injection at a later point right up until the start of device production. This gives device manufacturers more flexibility in creating multiple product variants of smart home devices.

OPTIGA Trust M MTR Secure Elements are pre-provisioned at a Common Criteria-certified Infineon facility. The batch of Secure Elements on a reel is shipped with an associated barcode. The customer claims ownership of these chips on the IoT portal of Infineon partner Kudelski IoT by scanning the barcode. Kudelski IoT is a trusted and established Product Attestation Authority (PAA) approved by the Connectivity Standards Alliance (CSA). Kudelski IoT will enable the download of production DACs corresponding to the vendor and the product. Finally, the personalized DAC is transferred to the OPTIGA Trust M MTR at the factory level (see graphic).

Please note: An Online Media Briefing will be held on 22 February 2024 (3:00 pm CET / 9:00 am EST), in which Distinguished Engineer Steve Hanna will present additional information about the new OPTIGA Trust M MTR.

About Matter: In order to enhance the security and reliability of smart devices, Infineon and more than 600 companies are collaborating in the Connectivity Standards Alliance (CSA) to simplify and harmonize the Internet of Things using technology standards such as Matter. Matter was created to keep devices and information protected and private, yet easy to use. The Matter standard provides guidance to device manufacturers, enabling them to select the appropriate platform security for their devices and corresponding use cases. Matter embeds privacy principles into all interactions between devices and software agents that handle personal data. Ultimately, it creates the foundation for connected things by supporting simplicity, interoperability, reliability and security.

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Rohde & Schwarz and SmartViser partner to demonstrate test solutions for new EEI regulation

ELE Times - Thu, 02/22/2024 - 08:42

Rohde & Schwarz and SmartViser have partnered to develop a solution for testing compliance with a new regulation that will require Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) labelling for smartphones and tablets sold in the EU. At the core of the solution is the R&S CMX500, a radio communication tester that supports end-to-end testing of all signalling use cases, combined with SmartViser’s viSer test automation application – available for Android and iOS. Both companies will showcase the solution at the Mobile World Congress 2024.

Rohde & Schwarz, a leading provider of test and measurement solutions, has partnered with SmartViser, a provider of active test automation products, to develop a tailored solution for testing compliance with a new EU Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) label for smartphones and tablets.

The DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2023/1669, published in September 2023, mandates EEI labeling for smartphones and tablets sold in the European Union starting from June 20, 2025. Annex II of the regulation specifies the energy efficiency class and EEI requirements, while Annex IV outlines the measurement and calculation methods.

SmartViser has been actively involved in creating solutions to help customers ensure that their products comply with this regulation. The company is currently offering the first pilot application, which features a repeatable and reliable test procedure and can be installed on smartphones and tablets to perform a series of user actions such as calling, browsing and streaming.

To address future test requirements, SmartViser and Rohde & Schwarz have paired up and combined their solutions. The R&S CMX500 wireless communication tester supports the latest wireless technologies, including LTE, 5G NR and WLAN. Its energy efficiency test solution offers seamless power consumption measurements in parallel to RF measurements, protocol tests or application tests.

Alexander Pabst, Vice President of Wireless Communications at Rohde & Schwarz emphasizes the importance of energy-saving initiatives within the wireless communication industry: “We are excited that the R&S CMX500 has been selected to be part of the SmartViser test solution. Energy efficiency is a key issue in wireless communications, and we are confident that this collaborative effort with SmartViser will make it easier for mobile device manufacturers to test their products for compliance with this new regulation.”

Gilles Ricordel, CEO of SmartViser says: “We are excited to announce our collaboration with Rohde & Schwarz. At SmartViser, we believe that strategic collaborations are pivotal to driving technological advancements. By combining our automation experience with industry-leading Rohde & Schwarz technology, we empower our customers to offer market-leading products that ensure the highest standards of energy efficiency.”

Rohde & Schwarz and SmartViser will showcase a live demo of their joint test solution for EEI labeling at the Mobile World Congress 2024 at the Fira Gran Via in Barcelona in hall 5, booth 5A80. SmartViser can be found in hall 5 booth 5B41-4 French Tech Pavilion.

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STMicroelectronics Announces Edge AI Solutions to empower Developers with Robust Tools and Techniques

ELE Times - Thu, 02/22/2024 - 06:46

AI is everywhere, and with the rise of machine learning and the Big Data revolution, it is a transformational field essential for building a smart and connected world.

STMicroelectronics is a prominent player in the semiconductor industry, offering a diverse range of solutions for various applications, including industrial, automotive, consumer and personal electronics. They are highly known for their comprehensive offerings including microcontrollers, sensors, analog chips, and embedded systems, which are integral to the development of AI-enabled devices operating at the edge.

Matteo MARAVITA, Senior Manager, AI Competence Center and Smartphone Competence Center, Asia Pacific Region, STMicroelectronics

Matteo MARAVITA, Senior Manager, AI Competence Center and Smartphone Competence Center, Asia Pacific Region, STMicroelectronics, presented before the media, their latest release – ST Edge AI Suite. The article is an excerpt from the online briefing.

 

 

 

 

In today’s interconnected world, edge AI is becoming increasingly essential for businesses looking to upgrade their products with intelligence and decision-making capabilities. By processing data locally at the edge, companies can reduce latency, improve privacy, and enhance overall efficiency. ST with its extensive portfolio of hardware solutions along with the capabilities of Edge AI Suite, is well positioned to facilitate this transition to a more intelligent edge. Companies can unlock a wide range of possibilities including real-time decision-making, customisable solutions pertaining to industry needs, scalability and future-proofing etc.

ST’s Automotive Edge AI Solutions

ST has partnered with HPE Group to create a virtual sensor that optimizes the operation and maintenance of EV motors. To explain, the AI algorithm works on their latest automotive controller, the Stellar family, which takes external data from sensors and uses it to extrapolate and estimate the internal rotor temp of the motor. On the side, the microcontroller not only runs several AI algorithms (also for predictive maintenance to identify anomalies) but also drives the motor itself.

ST’s Consumer Edge AI Solutions

Using AI algorithms and STM32 microcontroller at the helm of the solution, ST’s innovation has helped businesses experience 15-40% performance improvement for washing machines. To explain, two machine learning algorithms work towards creating a virtual sensor approach and in collecting data from a 6-axis motion sensor to enable drum collision avoidance. Through the algorithm input, the motor is driven using exactly the needed current, and the water and detergent requirement is adjusted, thus saving significant energy and water for a washing cycle. Both algorithms have been developed with NanoEdge AI and run on an STM32G0 MCU together with an ST 6-axis sensor.

ST’s Personal Electronics Edge AI Solutions

The HP engineering team collaborated with ST in developing and training AI models that recognize different user activities based on device and user motion. Different scenarios were addressed, including – the laptop is placed on a table, on the user’s lap, carried inside a bag, and taken out. The team worked on Smart context detection using smart sensor technology to optimize the power monitoring of the laptop by avoiding overheating and battery drain. All solutions for ultra-low power PC activity monitoring are based on ST’s 6-axis IMU MEMS sensors.

Implementation on edge AI- Tackling Software and Hardware Challenges

For developers to create a full-fledged edge AI solution, ST has put in years of R&D efforts to discover and evaluate various bottlenecks on both the hardware and software side of development. This included research on machine learning techniques, development of ML models, and testing the performance, security, and power efficiency of the connected devices with overall integration of the system.

Furthermore, ST Edge AI Suite addresses the needs and requirements of different profiles. It empowers embedded developers, data scientists, and product designers and creators with various aspects of ML model optimization and product redefining.

ST has announced the ST Edge AI Suite, a comprehensive and integrated set of software tools free to use with ST hardware. This offers developers and companies an ecosystem with a broad range of hardware with free software and tools, supported by partnerships with cloud services and AI toolchain providers. The ST Edge AI Suite is set to simplify the development of AI solutions exploiting ST’s range of hardware and related tools for embedded AI optimizations.

The ST Edge AI Suite is compatible with the external ecosystems for AI development, simulation tools like MATLAB, machine learning models trained using deep learning frameworks like TensorFlow Lite, Keras, PyTorch, etc., and a possibility of connection to cloud services like AWS and Azure.

Also, the tool works across multiple ST hardware platforms including STM32 general-purpose MCUs, STM32N6 and STM32 MPUs built for industrial applications, Stellar automotive microcontrollers, etc.

ST’s strategy on AI relies keenly on an innovative, unified optimizer of embedded AI solutions called ST Edge AI Core Technology. Looking at the ST Edge AI Core is a critical component that brings together all the software and tools engineers need at each step of their project. It is the core library with a unified common line interface that the customer could use to evaluate the model and further port it to the specific target device. The software tools can be used with the STM32 microcontroller and the MEMS sensors with the hardware accelerators (MLC or ISPU).

Also, the tools (ST Edge AI & Nano AI Studio) are completely free for unlimited quantities on any STM32.

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LCD Clock / Thermometer

Reddit:Electronics - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 21:43
LCD Clock / Thermometer

Total overkill, but I had a "raw" LCD sitting around in my parts bin and finally got around to learn how to use it, so I thought a clock and thermometer project was in order. When I started this a week ago, I honestly didn't know much about how LCDs worked, and definitely did NOT know that AC was needed to make a proper circuit. After wiring up a couple of test circuits, I jumped full in.

The logic is controlled with the Seeeduino Xios (lower left), and the LCD is driven with the AY0438 driver chip (obviously the big IC you see wired with the ratsnest of yellow wiring. Time/temp is handled by the DS3231 module (next to the Seeeduino, no backup battery yet installed).

The other components to the right of the switches is to control a backlight (represented right now with the yellow LED). Simply a 555 timer in monostable mode. Press the blue button and you get about 8 seconds of light. A proper backlight is on order.

Slide switches from left to right: temp/time selection, 12/24 hour selection, F/C for the temperature.

The momentary switches are to set the time: hold down the white button, and green/red to adjust down/up the time.

I coded the Seeduino using C++ in Platform IO. I'm using 2 external libraries: One to read the real-time clock, and the other to drive the AY0438. The latter (https://github.com/supercrab/arduino-seven-segment) was interesting in that you need to define your "template" for your display. Since LCDs come in different flavors, you have to tell it whether yours has decimal points and/or colon. This one does (although my picture doesn't show either).

The time setting routing was pretty interesting to code: First, if someone held down the red/green button, I wanted the time to change very quickly, but if they only clicked it once, I wanted the time to change by only 1 minute.

The way it worked was to loop through the routine as long as the white button is held down. Then the logic essentially checked if a red or green button was pressed, and if so, was this the 2nd consecutive time through the loop that it was detected. If it was the first time, then only change the time by 1 minute, with a long delay (500ms) after detection, allowing the user time to release the button. If it was not the first time, then the button is determined to be being held down, and there's only a 20ms delay after incrementing/decrementing the time. That way you can quickly change the time when setting.

I used all 10 I/Os on the Seeeduino, so if I add anything else, I'll have to think about next steps (perhaps multi-purpose roles for the push buttons depending on what mode it's in).

Next step will be to draw this up in some Cad and route a board. I usually make the prototypes at home, but with all the pin connections to the LCD, I'm not sure how feasible that will be until I route it.

Also not shown here is the battery supply. Using one 3.7v LIPO with a dedicated charging module (HW-373). Circuit draws ~20ma without the backlight. Probably not the most efficient thing around for what it does, but pretty happy with it.

https://preview.redd.it/7smmgz9lozjc1.png?width=1353&format=png&auto=webp&s=14419e7f2a2e4f072df2d46db68bfd699e0828ec

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Making waves: Engineering a spectrum revolution for 6G

EDN Network - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 16:56

6G is looking to achieve a broad range of goals in turn, requiring an extensive array of technologies. Like 5G, no single technology will define 6G. The groundwork laid out in the previous generation will serve as a starting point for the new one. As a distinct new generation though, 6G will also break free from previous ones, including 5G, by introducing new concepts. Among them, new spectrum technologies will help the industry achieve complete coverage for 6G.

Tapping into new spectrum

Looking back, every generation of cellular technology looks to leverage new spectrum. 6G won’t be an exception, with the emergence of new use cases and more demand for high-speed data. As a result, 6G needs to deliver much higher data throughputs than 5G, making millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands extremely attractive.

New frequency bands under consideration for 6G include 100 and 300 GHz, often called sub-terahertz (sub-THz) bands. There is also interest in the upper mid-band—the spectrum between 7 and 24 GHz—because of lower propagation loss compared to sub-THz bands, particularly between the 7 and 15 GHz frequencies.

This spectrum presents regulatory challenges though and is used by various entities including governments and satellite service providers. However, some bands could work for mobile communications with the implementation of more advanced spectrum sharing techniques. Figure 1 provides an overview of the frequencies allocated for mobile and wireless access in this spectrum.

Figure 1 An overview of frequency allocation for mobile and fixed wireless access in the upper mid-band. Source: Radio Regulations, International Telecommunication Union, 2020

While these frequencies have been used for a variety of applications outside of cellular, channel sounding is needed to characterize the use of this spectrum in 6G to ensure it provides the benefits for the targeted 6G application.

The 7 to 24 GHz spectrum is key area of focus for RAN Working Group 1 (RAN1) within the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for the purpose of Release 19, which will be finalized in late 2025 and facilitate the transition from 5G to 6G.

Scaling with ultra-massive MIMO

Over time, wireless standards have continued to evolve to maximize the bandwidth available in various frequency bands. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and massive MIMO technologies were major enhancements for radio systems with a significant impact for 5G. By combining multiple transmitters and receivers and using constructive and destructive interference to beamform information toward users, MIMO significantly enhanced performance.

6G can improve on this further. MIMO is expected to scale to thousands of antennas to provide greater data rates to users. Data rates are expected to grow from single gigabits per second to hundreds of gigabits per second. Ultra-massive MIMO will also enable hyper-localized coverage in dynamic environments. The target for localization precision in 6G is of 1 centimeter, a significant leap over 5G’s 1 meter.

Interacting with signals for better range and security

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) also represents a significant development for 6G. Currently, this technology is the focus of discussions at the 3GPP and the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI).

Using high-frequency spectrum is essential to achieve greater data throughputs but this spectrum is prone to interference. RIS technology will play a key role in addressing this challenge helping mmWave and sub-THz signals to overcome the high free space path loss and blockage of high-frequency spectrum.

RISs are flat, two-dimensional structures that consist of three or more layers. The top layer comprises multiple passive elements that reflect and refract incoming signals, enabling data packets to go around large physical obstacles like buildings, as illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2 RISs are two-dimensional multi-layer structures where the top layer consists of an array of passive elements that reflect/refract incoming signals, allowing the sub-THz signals used in 6G to successfully go around large objects. These elements can be programmed to control the phase-shift the signal to into a narrow beam directed at a specific location. Source: RIS TECH Alliance, March 2023

Engineers can program the elements in real time to control the phase shift enabling the RIS to reflect signals in a narrow beam to a specific location. With the ability to interact with the source signal, RISs can increase signal strength and reduce interference in dense multi-user environments or multi-cell networks, extending signal range and enhancing security.

Going full duplex

Wireless engineers have tried to enable simultaneous signal transmission and reception for years to drive a step-function increase in capacity for radio channels. Typically, radio systems employ just one antenna to transmit and receive signals, which requires the local transmitter to deactivate during reception or transmit on a different frequency to be able to receive a weak signal from a distant transmitter.

Duplex communication requires either two separate radio channels or splitting up the capacity of a single channel, but this is changing with the advent of in-band full duplex (IBFD) technology, which is currently under investigation in 3GPP Release 18. IBFD uses an array of techniques to avoid self-interference enabling the receiver to maintain a high level of sensitivity while the transmitter operates simultaneously on the same channel.

Introducing AI/ML-driven waveforms

New waveforms are another exciting development for 6G. Despite widespread use in cellular communications, the signal flatness of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) creates challenges with wider bandwidth signals in radio frequency amplifiers. Moreover, the integration of communication and sensing into a single system, known as joint communications and sensing (JCAS), also requires a waveform that can accommodate both types of signals effectively.

Recent developments in AI and machine learning (ML) offer the opportunity to reinvent the physical-layer (PHY) waveform that will be used for 6G. Integrating AI and ML into the physical layer could give rise to adaptive modulation, enhancing the power efficiency of communications systems while increasing security. Figure 3 shows how the physical layer could evolve to include ML for 6G.

Figure 3 The proposed migration to an ML-based physical layer for 6G to enhance both the power efficiency and security of the transmitter and receiver. Source: IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2021.

 Towards complete coverage

6G is poised to reshape the communications landscape pushing cellular technology to make a meaningful societal impact. Today, the 6G standard is in its infancy with the first release expected to be Release 20, but research on various fronts is in full swing. These efforts will drive the standard’s development.

Predicting the demands of future networks and which applications will prevail is a significant challenge, but the key areas the industry needs to focus on for 6G have emerged, new spectrum technologies being one of them. New spectrum bands, ultra-massive MIMO, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, full duplex communication, and AI/ML-driven waveforms will help 6G deliver complete coverage to users.

Jessy Cavazos is part of Keysight’s Industry Solutions Marketing team.

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NEPCON JAPAN 2024: Showcasing new technologies from R&D to manufacturing

ELE Times - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 14:17

The NEPCON JAPAN 2024 Exhibition was successfully held between 24-26 January 2024 at Tokyo Big Sight, Japan. With over 30 glorious years of fostering Japanese & Asian electronics industries, NEPCON JAPAN, consisting of seven shows, specialised in essential areas for electronics manufacturing, R&D, and Packaging Technology and increased its value as an exhibition representing Asia’s leading one-stop venue for all those involved in the electronics industry.

NEPCON JAPAN consists of seven specialised Shows i.e. Internepcon Japan, Electrostate Japan, IC & Packaging Expo, Electronic Components & materials expo, PWB Expo, Fine Process technology Expo, Power Device and Module expo. Other Concurrent Shows organised by RX Japan Ltd during the time are 15thAUTOMOTIVE WORLD, Factory Innovation Week 2023, 2ndSMART LOGISTICS Expo and 9thWEARABLE EXPO.

With over 1688 exhibitors and 77744 visitors, the exhibition was a massive hit that showcased the latest and futuristic technologies in the respective areas.

The expo saw participation from 25 countries, which showcased trends in the domains of IC & Packaging, Electronic Components and materials, Fine Process technology, Power Device and Module Electric Vehicle and Automotive Technologies, Factory Automation, Smart Logistics and Wearables.

Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom and United States participated with large delegations and demonstrated cutting-edge solutions and breakthrough technologies from their respective nations.

The dedicated zones offering insights into how the related industries will adopt technology, sustainability and innovation. These dedicated zones showcased solutions in EV Charging, EV Mobility, IoT based technologies, ADAS, AI Vision, Driver Monitoring System, Super Heat Resistant Glass Ceramic, Design and development of Vehicle, Semiconductor, Sensor, machine Learning, Software defined vehicle, Image recognition System and Testing providing an engaging platform for visitors to experience smart solutions.

The expo has truly been an amazing experience to the visitors. Visitors and exhibitors from overseas returned with a great degree of satisfaction, and the show concluded with a great success. The exhibition was a marvel of state-of-the-art technologies from around the world. Some of the technology display is worth mentioning as below:

EVR Motors, Israel: EVR Motors, developed a unique Trapezoidal Stator topology that disrupts the incremental trajectory of electric motor development. The Trapezoidal Stator: The patented topology allows the company to design radial flux motors that are less than half in size and weight than current advanced RFPM motors – without compromising of power or performance. The air-cooled 17kw Peak Power Motor, which weighs only 9 kg, offers more power per kg and torque per liter than motor performances made public by other manufacturers. EVR offers double the power and torque density.

Responding to the aspiration of many OEMs to reduce or eliminate the reliance on rare earth materials, EVR Motors offers a rare earth-free solution based on ferrite magnets. The solution retains acceptable power and torque density, at a lower cost to manufacturers and the environment.

Contact for more information: Email: noak@evr-motors.com

Foretellix: Foretellix is the leading provider of safety-driven verification and validation solutions for Automated Driving Systems and ADAS.  For Automated Driving Systems and ADAS Foretellix’s hyperscale V&V solutions are trusted worldwide to tame the infinite range of scenarios critical for the development and safe deployment of ADAS and AVs. The Foretify Safety-Driven V&V platform helps Automotive OEMs, Tier-1 suppliers, and AV developers to ensure safety, reduce development costs, and accelerate time-to-market of ADAS and Automated Driving Systems (ADS).

Contact for more information: Email: Nathalie.koskas@foretellix.com

StoreDot: StoreDot is the innovator of proven EV batteries that recharge faster, are safer and more sustainable, running on patented organic nanomaterials fully optimized by AI, and packed into high-energy cells. StoreDot’s current technology supports a charge of 100 miles (or 160 km) per 5 minute of charging, and is working on improved technology that will allow to reduce the charging time for 100 miles, or 160 km, to 3 minutes, within few years. To secure EV battery safety and stability, StoreDot battery architecture features a multi-layered safety-protection structure, it runs on patented bio-inspired nanomaterials designed for longevity, with near-zero carbon.

Optimizing pack-level energy density: Cell-to-pack involves directly connecting individual battery cells to form a larger battery pack; cell-to-chassis involves mounting the cells onto a structural chassis, which also serves as a heat sink dissipating heat generated by the cells during operation, and a support structure for the cells.

The benefit of using these approaches is that they provide the necessary support and protection for the battery cells. In a cell-to-pack system, the cells are tightly packed together and secured within a protective casing, which reduces the risk of damage from vibration, impact, or thermal expansion. StoreDot’s I-BEAM XFC cell-to-pack configuration also simplifies the manufacturing process, minimizes part count and reduces the weight and volume of the battery pack.

D-TEG: D-TEG provides new values for the vehicle CCTV system and cloud-based video telematics.

By applying AI Solution to Edge device, it automatically detects the road surface and surrounding conditions, transmits and analyse the detected data to the service platform, and deliver risk information to customer through the Edge Device.  AI SOLUTION: The company offers development of artificial intelligence solution using image-based object detection AI model.

Creative Synergies Group: The company accelerate electrification through expertise in system integration and controls, power electronics and battery system engineering. It leverage proven track record in NextGen technologies to innovate in autonomous navigation, connectivity and shared mobility. The company empowers very demanding customers to achieve business outcomes through domain expertise from concept to production.

Autocrypt: Secures mobility for the autonomous revolution. AUTOCRYPT is an automotive cybersecurity provider dedicated to the safety of connected, autonomous, and software-defined mobility. AUTOCRYPT secures the rapidly evolving architecture of software-defined vehicles and smart mobility, using custom solutions built for ISO/SAE 21434 and UN R155/156. Backed by decades of industry experience, our solutions can be customized and adapted to any vehicular and infrastructure environment.

Eatron Technologies: Intelligent Software Layer: It Unlocks the full potential of battery with Intelligent Software Layer for Battery Management. Maximum battery performance is achieved with unique algorithms that offer best-in-class accuracy and robustness in battery state estimation and control. It Extends battery lifetime by accurately predicting the remaining useful life of the battery in the real world – right from beginning of its life. It Improves safety and reduces downtime by enabling early detection of cell degradation and safety critical failures.

Auroralabs: Vehicle Software Intelligence: Solving the Challenges of Automotive Software Development with AI. AUTO VALIDATE SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY & SBOM: Validate effects of software updates on interrelated functions, systems and ECUs providing evidence for integration and certification. AUTO DETECT: AI-DRIVEN SW GLITCH CATCHER. Detects faults in software behavior

and predicts downtime events. AUTO UPDATE: ML-DRIVEN OTA UPDATES Over-The-Air Update solution for any and all ECUs using standard protocols without reprogramming, with or without A/B Memory.

Sonatus: SOFTWARE DEFINED COMPONENT SOLUTION delivers vehicles that intelligently adapt. Achieve the full promise of Software-Defined Vehicles with components that can be dynamically tuned for peak performance in any driving condition. Continuously improve performance of vehicle components: Ensure electronically controlled vehicle components are continuously tuned to deliver optimal performance in all driving conditions. Leverage precise real-world data to improve vehicle performance: Collect real-world vehicle and driving data in diverse driving conditions, enabling more efficient and accurate AI/ML analysis in the cloud. Dynamically tune components in real-time Ensure motors, sensors, and actuators operate at peak performance under diverse driving conditions by automatically tuning their Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in real-time.

Software Defined Component: The full promise of Software-Defined Vehicles is realized when all electronic components in vehicles can be continuously updated and improved throughout their lifetimes. The Sonatus Software-Defined Component Solution, consisting of the Sonatus Collector and Automator products, lets OEMs and their suppliers establish a closed-loop process to apply real-world, data-driven analysis and automated updates to tune vehicle ECUs, ensuring maximum component performance under any driving and vehicle conditions.

SRM Tech: Software Integration & Solution Engineering: The company’s Product Engineering Services start from Conceptualization, Development, Prototype, Launch, Manufacture and Distribution. The company has expertise spans product ideation, hardware, firmware and middleware, application development, complemented by testing, validation, verification and product sustenance. Dedicated teams are at work delivering critical solutions for various OEMs & Tier 1 suppliers. Engineers work across a wide range of Software Integration technology segments such as powertrains, body, interiors, infotainment, telematics, electronics, ADAS Systems (Vision-based, RADAR-based & LIDAR-based) and mobility.

Fukuda: Air leak tester for EV: FLZ-0630 series: In EV battery case leak tests, this air leak tester can reduce noise and enable stable measurements for workpieces that are characterized by large volumes and are likely to expand due to pressure. The product features a fitting correction function and a newly developed smoothing function that are used together to reduce both the noise caused by the large size and the noise caused by expansion and deformation. In addition, in order to achieve low pressure control that is difficult to control and increase flow rate for large volumes, a bypass BOX (CBU-600) is included.

Transtouch: The touch panel solution provided on automotive equipment allows users to operate on the CID screen and control various basic functions. It is paired with a high-brightness touch screen that supports multi-touch. Related applications include entertainment systems, satellite positioning systems (GPS), real-time driving prompts, reversing radars, and anti-collision systems, etc., all of which require good functions and user-friendly human-machine interfaces. Touch screens have become a necessary consideration for global car manufacturers to develop new cars.

Magna: Although market trends show a clear shift towards electrified vehicles, the share of conventional powertrain systems will still be globally significant during the next decade. Therefore, Magna continues to work intensively on efficiency improvement of all conventional and mild hybrid drivetrain solutions. Being a long-term premium supplier for the global automotive industry, Magna has broad experience and a unique market position. With this expertise, the innovations contribute to the overall performance of the vehicle with any type of powertrain, always pushing to the next level of CO2 emissions reduction.

With the purpose of tailoring to global market needs, Magna supports this development with innovative, efficient, and cost effective advanced all-wheel drive (AWD) and four-wheel drive systems (4WD), in addition to disconnect systems, manual transmissions (MT), dual-clutch transmissions (DCT), and mild hybrid solutions (HDT 48V).

The field-tested mild hybrid systems provide an answer to multiple existing challenges, like legislation driven CO2 reduction and high-cost pressures. Such systems support high-volume applications of electrified drivelines as well as fleet average targets at reasonable costs. Mild hybrid systems also achieve improved driving dynamics through electric torque vectoring and traction support. These systems even enable functions like autonomous electric parking.

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Microchip’s Low-Cost PolarFire SoC Discovery Kit Makes RISC-V and FPGA Design More Accessible for a Wider Range of Embedded Engineers

ELE Times - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 14:08

Cost-sensitive development platform helps student, beginner and seasoned designers work with emerging technologies

The embedded industry is seeing an increased demand for open-source RISC-V-based processor architectures, but there are still limited options when it comes to commercially available silicon or hardware. To fill this gap and help empower innovation, Microchip Technology has launched the PolarFire SoC Discovery Kit. By offering a user-friendly, feature-rich development kit for embedded processing and compute acceleration, Microchip is making emerging technology more accessible to engineers at all levels. The open-source development kit features a quad-core, RISC-V application-class processor that supports Linux and real-time applications, a rich set of peripherals and 95K of low-power, high-performance FPGA logic elements. This full-featured, yet low-cost kit allows rapid testing of application concepts, developing firmware applications, programming, and debugging user code.

“We are dedicated to helping support the growth of embedded systems that require low-power, high-performance FPGA fabrics. The PolarFire SoC Discovery Kit is a pivotal step in our journey towards creating more accessible, smart, secure and high-performing computing solutions for a wide range of applications,” said Shakeel Peera, vice president of marketing for Microchip’s FPGA business unit. “With the new Discovery Kit, experienced and new design engineers, as well as university students, will have access to a low-cost RISC-V and FPGA development platform for learning and rapid innovation.”

In addition to traditional sales channels, PolarFire SoC Discovery Kits are being made available through a pilot project as part of the Microchip Academic Program in the second half of 2024. By offering the Discovery Kit at a reduced price to universities, Microchip is ensuring that the future generation of engineers have direct access to state-of-the-art technology. This approach not only enhances the practical learning experience for students but also aligns academic studies with the latest industry trends. Microchip’s academic program offers resources for educators, researchers, and students worldwide and helps universities incorporate advanced technology into their curriculum.

“Preparing students for the work world, a capstone project is a unique opportunity for students to develop practical applications. Several ASU students are using the PolarFire SoC Discovery Kit in their projects this year and it’s been an invaluable experience for them to have access not only to development boards but also the amazing mentorship provided through Microchip’s academic program,” said Steven Osburn, professor at the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University. “The students are getting hands-on experience working with new technology to complete real-world engineering projects, finding innovative solutions to real-world problems.”

The Discovery Kit is built around the PolarFire MPFS095T SoC FPGA that features an embedded microprocessor subsystem consisting of a quad-core, 64-bit CPU cluster based on the RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). A large L2 memory subsystem can be configured for performance or deterministic operation and supports an asymmetric multi-processing (AMP) mode. The board includes support for Microchip’s Mi-V ecosystem, a MikroBUS expansion header for Click Boards and a 40-pin Raspberry Pi connector, as well as a MIPI video connector. The expansion boards can be controlled using protocols like I2C and SPI. An embedded FP5 programmer is included for FPGA fabric programming and debugging, and firmware applications development.

The post Microchip’s Low-Cost PolarFire SoC Discovery Kit Makes RISC-V and FPGA Design More Accessible for a Wider Range of Embedded Engineers appeared first on ELE Times.

Rohde & Schwarz first to test 5G eCall interoperability of Quectel’s 5G module with its wideband radio communication tester

ELE Times - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 13:39

Quectel Wireless Solutions, a global IoT solutions provider, and Rohde & Schwarz have successfully validated Quectel’s innovative 5G eCall module, part of the AG56xN series of automotive modules. For the test, the R&S CMX500 wideband radio communication tester has been used. The test setup will be shown at the Mobile World Congress 2024.

eCall, the automatic emergency call system for vehicles sold within the European Union, was introduced in 2015 and has been a mandatory requirement for all new cars in the EU since 2018. eCall systems currently make use of 2G/3G circuit-switched cellular networks. As these networks will be phased out in just a few years, emergency call systems (in-vehicle systems and infrastructure) will be adapted to the newest 4G/5G packet-switched cellular networks.

The European Commission’s initiative to update the eCall standards and legislation to transition eCall to 4G and 5G networks is ongoing. The automotive industry will need NGeCall test solutions to deliver eCall modules that include the new NGeCall functions. In future years it is expected that an upcoming Chinese eCall standard will also require 4G/5G packet-switched cellular networks.

The AG56xN series represents a cutting-edge line of 5G NR modules, leveraging the MediaTek MT2735 chipset to provide exceptional connectivity solutions. These modules support 5G Rel-15, delivering impressive data rates up to 4.0 Gbps downlink and 480 Mbps uplink within a 200 MHz bandwidth, showcasing a significant leap in wireless communication speeds. They are equipped with a comprehensive array of interfaces, including cellular (4 × 4 MIMO) and GNSS antenna interfaces, USB 3.0, PCIe (Gen3), RGMII, SGMII, multiple UARTs, SPI, I2C, I2S (PCM), SDIO, ADCs, and GPIOs, ensuring versatile connectivity options for various applications.

“We are very pleased to have Rohde and Schwarz validate the AG56xN series of automotive modules with the next generation of eCall features,” commented Norbert Muhrer, President and CSO, Quectel Wireless Solutions. “This sets a new benchmark for the future of intelligent transportation.”

With computing capabilities up to 15K DMIPS and SGMII/RGMII throughput reaching 2.5 Gbps, these modules are designed to meet high-performance requirements. Additionally, they have achieved eCall/NG eCall certifications, underscoring their reliability and safety for automotive applications. The AG56xN series modules are also compatible with automotive-grade Wi-Fi and Bluetooth modules, offering a proven combination that enhances connectivity solutions for the automotive industry and beyond.

The test setup for testing the 5G/LTE automotive module from Quectel included the R&S CMX500 communication tester along with the R&S CMX-KA098 5G eCall test option simulating a NG eCall Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) and a R&S SMBV100B vector signal generator for GNSS simulation. The test confirmed the successful establishment of a 5G emergency call between the Quectel module and the PSAP. The transmission of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) was successfully achieved without any data loss and the simulated GNSS position was accurately transmitted. Additionally, voice communication was established with clear audio quality.

As a highly versatile tool, the R&S CMX500 with the R&S CMX-KA098 software option can be effectively used for NGeCall testing under reliable and configurable 5G network conditions. To accelerate the deployment of this technology, cooperation between companies within the industry becomes increasingly important. The Rohde & Schwarz and Quectel cooperation helps to mutually validate their solutions, reducing effort and accelerating time to market for our mutual customers.

Juergen Meyer, Vice President of Market Segment Automotive at Rohde & Schwarz says: “This is an important milestone in the rollout of the next generation eCall system, which will have a significant impact on road safety. With our test equipment and Quectel’s 5G eCall module, we successfully established an entire eCall process and verified this new key feature. We are very grateful to Quectel for this excellent collaboration which provides an important checkpoint from which the automotive industry can proceed with greater speed and confidence.”

The test setup will be shown at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, from February 26 to 29, 2024, at the Fira Gran Via, in hall 5, booth 5A80.

The post Rohde & Schwarz first to test 5G eCall interoperability of Quectel’s 5G module with its wideband radio communication tester appeared first on ELE Times.

The chiplet universe is coming: What’s in it for you?

EDN Network - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 12:53

There’s a lot of talk and excitement about chiplets these days, but there’s also a lot of confusion. What is available today? What should I expect in terms of interoperability? Is the promise of an emerging ecosystem real? More fundamentally, developers of high-end systems-on-chip (SoCs) need to consider a central question: “What’s in it for me?” The answer, unsurprisingly, varies depending on the type of application and the target market for these devices.

For the last few years, I have been closely monitoring the multi-die market, and I’ve been talking to a wide variety of players ranging from chip designers to chip manufacturers to end users of our system IP product offering. Although commentators and stakeholders accurately describe key benefits of chiplet technology, I’ve observed that these descriptions are rarely comprehensive and often lack structure.

Here is an outline of chiplet driving factors and size of opportunity per vertical Source: Arteris

As a result, I felt the need to identify common themes, reflect on their importance for future deployment and map them on the key industry verticals. This blog aims to summarize these insights in a diagram (see figure above), with the hope that it is useful to you.

  1. Scalability: The key to meeting diverse computing demands

Scalability stands at the forefront of the chiplet revolution. Traditional monolithic chip designs face physical and economic limits as they approach the boundaries of Moore’s Law. Chiplets, however, offer a modular approach. By combining smaller, discrete components or “chiplets,” manufacturers can create larger, more powerful processors.

This modular design allows for the easy scaling of performance and functionality to meet the specific needs of various applications. This is what drove the early adoption of the technology by pioneering companies in the enterprise compute vertical. Today, it also attracts players in the communications and automotive industries, which also crave higher computing power, particularly for AI applications.

  1. Cost efficiency: Lowering expenses and increasing competitiveness

Cost efficiency is another critical factor driving the adoption of chiplets. Traditional chip fabrication, especially at the cutting edge, is exceedingly expensive, with costs escalating as transistors shrink. The chiplet approach mitigates these costs in several ways.

First, it allows for the use of older, more cost-effective manufacturing processes for certain components. Second, by constructing a processor from multiple smaller chiplets, manufacturers can significantly reduce the yield loss associated with defects in large monolithic chips.

If part of a chiplet is defective, it doesn’t render the entire chip unusable, as would be the case with a traditional design. This translates directly into cost savings, making high-performance computing more accessible. This aspect is especially critical for cost-sensitive sectors such as wireless communications, consumer electronics, and industrial applications.

  1. Ecosystem development: Fostering collaboration and innovation

The shift to chiplets also encourages the development of a more collaborative and innovative ecosystem in the semiconductor industry. With chiplets, different companies can specialize in various types of computing hosts and accelerators, contributing their expertise to a larger whole.

This openness can lead to a more vibrant ecosystem, as smaller players can innovate in specific areas without the overhead of designing entire chips. Such collaboration could accelerate technological advancements, benefiting newcomers in the automotive and consumer electronics vertical, for instance, and leading to more rapid iterations and improvements in technology.

  1. Portfolio management: A strategic approach to product development

Finally, the transition to chiplets allows companies to manage their product portfolios more effectively. With the ability to mix and match different chiplets, a company can more quickly and efficiently adapt its product offerings to meet market demands. This flexibility enables faster response times to the emerging trends and customer needs, providing a competitive edge.

Additionally, the ability to reuse chiplets across multiple products can streamline research and development, reducing time-to-market and R&D expenses. The flexibility to mix and match chiplets for different configurations makes it easier to tailor chips to specific market segments and is particularly suited to the needs of the consumer and automotive markets.

Overall, the chiplet architecture is poised to revolutionize the semiconductor industry, with each sector finding unique value in its capabilities. This tailored approach ensures that chiplets will play a critical role in driving forward the technological advancements of each industry vertical.

Guillaume Boillet, senior director of product management and strategic marketing at Arteris, drives the product lifecycle of the interconnect IP and SoC integration automation portfolios.

 

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Aspiring & Promising Career Opportunities in the ESDM industry 2024

ELE Times - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 08:29

Author: Dr Abhilasha Gaur, Chief Operating Officer, Electronics Sector Skills Council of India (ESSCI)

Dr Abhilasha Gaur, Chief Operating Officer,
Electronics Sector Skills Council of India (ESSCI)

A circuitous future awaits in India’s electronics sector! This vibrant industry is at the cusp of a major growth phase – poised to rise like voltage through a resistor. Demand for electronics products is surging as rapidly as current through a superconductor. Smartphones, laptops, tablets, and gadgets are energizing the Global and Indian market. At the same time, the push for Make in India and Digital India is catalysing growth – like doping silicon with atoms.

From appliances to automation, electronics have become ingrained into every facet of our lives. The PCBs, chips and sensors form the nervous system that powers our gadgets, devices and machines. The electronics industry is currently in the midst of a significant growth spurt, with rising revenues, innovations, and opportunities creating a high demand for qualified workers. Electrifying opportunities lie ahead for skilled professionals. So, charge your enthusiasm, expand your knowledge, and get set to launch into an electronics career that will shine like a supernova. The only thing stopping the brightest paths from being discovered are your creative ideas. The outlook for 2024 is sparky and bright. Are you ready to switch careers and become part of India’s electronics growth story? Here are 5 career roles that are expected to be in high demand in 2024:

Embedded Systems Engineer

With electronics and internet-connected devices becoming more compact yet sophisticated, there has been a rising demand for qualified embedded systems engineers who can design and program the complex integrated circuits and small microprocessors that go into smart devices. From home appliances and wearable gadgets to automotive systems and industrial equipment, embedded technology runs the show behind the scenes. They are the backbone of modern electronics found in consumer devices, automobiles, industrial equipment, and more.

The complexity and demand for embedded devices have surged with rising automation, IoT and focus on localization of electronics manufacturing in India. This has created increased demand for skilled embedded systems engineers who can design, develop and maintain embedded firmware, hardware and software. As per a LinkedIn Emerging Jobs report, embedded software development is one of the top emerging jobs.

Key skills required are expertise in languages like RTOS, working with various SoC architectures, interface protocols like UART, SPI, I2C, CAN etc. and tools such as Visual Studio, Eclipse IDE. Electronics engineers with relevant embedded training and certification have a strong advantage. Testing, debugging and analysing the software are an integral part of the role.

According to NASSCOM, India’s embedded engineer workforce will need to grow 6X from 180,000 in 2018 to 1.2 million by 2025 to meet domestic demand. The average salary of embedded engineers in India ranges from ₹5 lakhs to ₹12 lakhs per annum for freshers, going up to ₹25 lakhs for mid to senior roles.

Mechatronics Engineer

Modern automobiles employ a wide array of electronics to enhance performance, safety, comfort, and passenger experience. Foundational electrical systems have now advanced into much more complex domains like smart infotainment, driver assistance technologies, electric powertrain systems and autonomous driving capabilities. This evolution within automotive electronics is creating promising avenues for qualified engineering professionals. In manufacturing, you could design automated systems and robots using PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers), sensors, actuators, and drives. You may also work on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems to remotely monitor equipment and processes through HMIs (Human Machine Interfaces).

As per McKinsey & Co estimates, electronics systems already account for 40% of automotive costs and their share is expected to grow over 50% by 2030. Disruptive trends like vehicle electrification, connected mobility and self-driving will further accelerate electronics innovation in the automotive sector.

Automotive electronics engineers require specialised knowledge spanning computer engineering, electrical/electronic circuits, software programming as well as vehicle design and mechanics. Key focus areas include designing ECUs (engine control unit), ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems), infotainment systems, telematics, lighting systems etc. Automotive communications protocols like CAN bus and FlexRay are also covered. Engineers in this field must stay updated with the latest breakthroughs in AI, sensors, battery technology to excel.

The automotive sector in India has witnessed steady growth with domestic sales projected to reach $300 billion and exports to $80 billion by 2026. Automotive electronics engineers earn attractive pay packages ranging from ₹5 lakhs per annum for freshers to over ₹18 lakhs for engineers with over 6 years of experience.

VLSI Design Engineer

VLSI refers to the integration of millions of transistors onto a single silicon chip to build complex integrated circuits and microprocessors. VLSI design engineers are responsible for designing, testing and developing VLSI chips and electronic components. Increased focus on electronics manufacturing and applications across automotive, consumer electronics, telecom, and other sectors has amplified the demand for skilled VLSI design engineers in India.

Engineers proficient in tools like Cadence, Mentor Graphics, programming languages such as Verilog, VHDL and key concepts of digital logic design and semiconductor fabrication are highly valued. Hands-on experience with FPGA prototyping is an added advantage.

Aspiring VLSI engineers must gain expertise in areas like VLSI circuits, semiconductor physics, design verification, signal processing, chip design and layout. Knowledge of hardware description languages like Verilog and VHDL along with simulation tools is imperative. VLSI engineers collaborate closely with design teams to deliver optimized chip architectures. With scaling of device geometries, design complexities are increasing. Adaptability to evolving standards and tools will be key. VLSI is one of the highest-paying engineering specializations in India, with average salaries ranging from ₹7 lakhs per annum for freshers going up to ₹25 lakhs for experienced roles.

PCB Design and Manufacturing

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design and manufacturing is a key field in electronics engineering dealing with the design, testing and fabrication of PCBs that provide the foundation for almost all electronic devices and systems. As a PCB design engineer, you would use CAD software tools like Altium, OrCAD, Eagle etc to design the layout of a PCB including the components, connections, layers, footprints as per the circuit schematics and requirements. You need strong skills in schematic capture, component library management, routing, signal integrity, electromagnetic compatibility and PCB fabrication processes. You would work closely with circuit designers and electronics engineers to create the gerber files needed for PCB production.

In PCB manufacturing, you would work in positions like process engineering, equipment engineering, quality control etc. This involves knowledge of PCB fabrication techniques like photolithography, etching, drilling, plating, solder masking, automated optical and x-ray inspection. You would monitor the PCB production process flow and maintain, optimize, and troubleshoot the equipment. You would also be responsible for testing the fabricated PCBs against specifications and ensuring quality standards.

With the growth in consumer electronics, IoT, defence systems and industrial automation, there is increasing demand for more compact, efficient and reliable PCBs. As a PCB design and manufacturing engineer, you get to work on cutting-edge electronics products in fields like automotive, aerospace, consumer appliances, medical devices etc. It provides opportunities to travel and work in fabrication facilities worldwide. With your expertise in both design and manufacturing, you can build a rewarding career in the electronics industry.

The Indian PCB design and manufacturing market is growing rapidly. According to a report by IMARC Group, the Indian PCB market is expected to reach US$ 11.8 billion by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 16.6% during 2023-2028. Several factors are fuelling the expansion of the Indian PCB market, including the burgeoning Indian electronics sector, heightened consumer demand for electronics products, and the widespread adoption of cutting-edge technologies such as 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT). If you are interested in becoming a PCB designer, there are several steps you can take to get started. First, you should consider pursuing a degree in electronics engineering or a related field. You can also gain experience by working as an intern or apprentice in a PCB design and manufacturing company.

Drone Specialist

The drone ecosystem in India is poised for massive growth, with the sector projected to grow at 30% CAGR through 2025. Liberalized drone policies and increased adoption of drone technology across agriculture, mining, defence, logistics, entertainment and other sectors has opened up numerous opportunities for drone specialists.

Drone specialists are essentially electronics engineers who conceptualize, design, develop, assemble, program and maintain unmanned aerial vehicles. They need strong expertise in embedded systems to build flight controllers, expertise in electronics hardware design to create reliable power systems, motors and batteries, knowledge of sensors, wireless communication systems, materials science and autonomous flight control algorithms using robotics and computer vision.

Drone specialists find roles in UAV/drone technology startups that are mushrooming in India, service providers that operate drone fleets, drone consultancies that advise enterprises on drone adoption as well as companies from end-user sectors like mining, agriculture, surveillance, mapping etc that leverage drones extensively. The average salary for drone specialists in India ranges from ₹4-7 lakhs per annum for freshers and can go up to ₹15-18 lakhs per annum for engineers with more than 5 years of experience. With strong growth anticipated in the Indian drone landscape, there are rich opportunities for electronics engineers who specialized in this futuristic domain.

Conclusion:

The electronics sector is experiencing significant growth, with the government’s commitment to the sector and the increasing demand for electronic products driving the growth. The sector offers a wide range of career opportunities, from electronic and electrical engineers to product safety engineers and semiconductor engineers. As new technologies continue to emerge, the demand for skilled electronics professionals will grow, and the industry will need innovative thinkers and problem-solvers to drive its forward. By exploring these career opportunities and the various industries they serve, individuals can make informed decisions about their educational and career paths in the electronics sector.

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rate my first “device”

Reddit:Electronics - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 05:56
rate my first “device”

my first custom contraption that is powered by a Lithium ion battery from a broken solar powered power bank, a board from a simple fan in a toy gas mask, and a led/ resistor indicator. I learned everything i know so far from electroboom. other than that Im new to all of this (ignore the soulder points they’re temporary) any feedback or suggestions appreciated

submitted by /u/Professional_Lie_512
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Generative AI for Fraud Detection: Strengthening Security in Financial Transactions

Electronic lovers - Wed, 02/21/2024 - 03:09

The struggle against financial fraud is an ongoing battle, with significant repercussions for both the economy and individuals. As scammers grow more clever, using complex strategies, the old ways of spotting these deceptions are no longer enough. Enter generative AI, an innovative force ready to transform how we protect against financial deceit.

The need for generative AI in finance is clear, given that US fintech firms lose $51 million annually to fraud, which is a significant slice of their earnings. This stark fact highlights the urgent demand for more effective fraud-fighting strategies, with generative AI stepping up as a key contender. Its ability to spot and predict elaborate fraud plans before they happen strengthens the defenses of financial bodies significantly.

This overview explores the critical role generative AI plays in identifying fraud, showcasing its benefits, challenges, and the potential it holds for a more secure financial future. Through generative AI, we’re not just enhancing transaction security; we’re ushering in a new age of financial trustworthiness. Let’s dive into the specifics of generative AI in fraud prevention and the bright future it promises in keeping our financial dealings secure from increasingly sophisticated fraud schemes.

Getting to Know Generative AI

Generative AI falls under the umbrella of artificial intelligence technologies capable of creating new data that mimics but isn’t exactly like its training data. Unlike conventional AI, which sorts or categorizes data, generative AI has the unique ability to generate, lending itself to innovative and adaptable solutions. This is especially valuable in creating scenarios like fake transactions to refine fraud detection tactics.

Generative AI’s Impact on Fraud Detection

Leading the charge in improving fraud detection within finance, generative AI offers a dynamic, forward-thinking approach for institutions aiming to bolster their security. It can accurately mimic fraudulent behavior, allowing financial entities to anticipate and counter new fraud methods early on. As it continues to evolve, generative AI not only helps spot emerging fraud strategies but also supports the development of timely, effective counteractions.

Banks and financial institutions leveraging generative AI have observed a significant decrease in the volume of unidentified fraud cases, underscoring the technology’s capability to foresee and neutralize risks proactively. This success is largely attributed to the technology’s ability to learn from vast datasets, improving its predictive accuracy over time.

The application of generative AI for financial services goes beyond mere detection; it embodies a comprehensive approach to understanding and combating fraud by generating complex simulations of fraudulent activities. These simulations allow institutions to test and refine their detection systems in a controlled environment, ensuring they are well-prepared for actual threats.

Additionally, generative AI is revolutionizing financial services by enhancing detection methods and strengthening the overall security against intricate and evolving threats. By simulating sophisticated fraud scenarios with unmatched precision, generative AI arms financial institutions with the tools to proactively spot and counteract potential dangers, thereby protecting consumer transactions and deepening trust within the financial landscape.

Advantages and Evolution in Financial Security

Incorporating generative AI into the tools used to spot fraud brings a new level of early intervention capabilities and accuracy to financial organizations, offering insight and detection that were once beyond the grasp of older methods.

This leap in technology paves the way for uncovering nuanced patterns and irregularities that might elude traditional analysis, effectively minimizing the chance of complex fraud schemes going unnoticed. Additionally, the adaptable nature of generative AI ensures it keeps pace with expanding data and shifting fraud strategies, enabling these systems to refine and enhance their detection capabilities continually.

Through its advanced learning and simulation prowess, generative AI equips financial bodies with the tools for an anticipatory approach to fraud, markedly reducing the frequency of successful fraudulent activities. This proactive protection not only defends the financial assets of these institutions but also builds a stronger bond of trust and reliability with their clientele, who feel increasingly protected during their financial engagements.

Navigating Challenges and Future Directions

However, the application of generative AI in fraud detection faces hurdles, including data privacy concerns and the dependency on high-quality, abundant training data. Overcoming these challenges is vital for its ethical and successful deployment in fraud prevention.

The outlook for generative AI in fraud detection is optimistic, with ongoing advancements poised to amplify its capabilities further. Emerging technologies like blockchain and quantum computing may enhance generative AI’s effectiveness, leading to more predictive and preventive fraud detection approaches and a significant reduction in financial fraud occurrences.

Conclusion

Generative AI marks a pivotal advancement in combating financial fraud, providing innovative, effective solutions to a complex problem. Its capacity for adaptation, learning, and data generation positions it as a key asset in securing financial transactions. Despite existing challenges, the promise of generative AI in boosting financial security is undeniable. As we continue to develop and refine these technologies, the prospects for fraud detection in financial transactions grow increasingly robust.

Moving deeper into this era of tech innovation, it’s evident that generative AI is transforming into a vital tool for ensuring the safety of financial ecosystems against fraud. Looking ahead, we can anticipate conducting financial transactions with greater assurance and security, all thanks to the pioneering spirit of generative AI.

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Power Tips #126: Hot plugging DC/DC converters safely

EDN Network - Tue, 02/20/2024 - 18:44

In power converters, the input capacitors are fed through inductive cabling to the power source. Parasitic inductance will cause ringing of the input voltage to almost twice its DC value when first plugged into the system, also called hot plugging. An insufficiently damped power converter input and a lack of inrush control can damage the converter.

Using input bulk electrolytic capacitors to dampen the input voltage of the off-battery converters can prevent excessive voltage ringing when first applying battery power, while also preventing resonances that can destabilize the converter. With the move to 24 VIN and 48 VIN systems from the traditional 12 V automotive battery, the need to properly dampen the input becomes even more important. 12V battery systems typically use components rated for 40 V or higher to survive short-duration voltage spikes under load-dump conditions. The maximum DC voltage for these 12 V systems can reach 18 VDC. Hot plugging can cause input ringing with the voltage nearing twice the input, such as 36 V. This is well below 40 V or higher rated components. However, in a 48 V system where steady-state input voltages can reach 54 V, ringing on the input can potentially exceed 100 V, damaging components rated for 80 V.

With traditional 12 V systems, one often assumes the damping capacitors have enough effective series resistance (ESR) to tame the resonance. But, with low-cost aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the actual effective ESR is generally much lower than the published maximum, resulting in much less damping and much more ringing when applying battery power. With 12 V systems, the reduced damping may still be enough to prevent destabilization of the downstream DC/DC, and the ringing will not cause damage. However, in 48 V systems that are more vulnerable to ringing, you can add discrete resistors in series with the input damping capacitors. Based on steady-state ripple currents, a size 0603 (1608 metric) should suffice.

In Figure 1, L1 and C1 values from an existing DC/DC converter’s input filter create a resonance that is expressed by Equation 1:

We chose the target damping capacitor (Cd) and damping resistance (Rd), based on the TI E2E™ design support forums technical article, “Damping input bead resonance to prevent oscillations”. Cd should be ideally at least three times C1. We chose a 150 µF standard value for Cd.

Equation 2 expresses the target damping resistance:

For damping resistor (Rd), add two paralleled 1 Ω resistors in series with Cd.

Figure 1 A simplified input filter with damping to prevent excessive voltage ringing when first applying battery power, while also preventing resonances that can destabilize the converter.

Figure 2 shows the simulated hot-plug response both without and with the added 0.5Ω damping resistor in series with Cd.

Figure 2 Simulation of hot plugging without and with damping 0.5Ω damping resistor in series with Cd.

We achieved damping of the input filter by using the correct damping resistor and capacitor combination. There is one aspect, however, that is easy to overlook. In the lab, we experienced the destruction of the damping resistor (Rd) when hot plugging to the supply. What we realized is that the damping resistor has a peak power expressed by Equation 3:

For our 1 Ω resistors across 54 V, that would be about 2,900 W peak in each resistor. Furthermore, the resistor dissipates nearly the same energy as that stored in the damping capacitor (Cd) in a very short period of time. This energy stored in the damping capacitor is expressed by Equation 4:

In our case, that energy is shared equally between the two 1 Ω resistors. A capacitance of 150 µF at 54 VIN is approximately 220 mJ total, or 110 mJ in each 1 Ω resistor. This is a slightly stringent assumption, as the internal ESR of Cd reduces the actual peak voltage across these resistors by about 4%.

Mapping the actual inrush surge to the curve in the surge rating graphs is not straightforward. The actual surge profile will be roughly a decaying exponential waveform, while the resistor ratings assume a fixed-duration constant power, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Example of surge-rated resistor ratings showing a roughly decaying exponential waveform.

A conservative approach would be to divide the total energy dissipated in the resistor by the peak power. You can then check this resulting pulse duration against the surge rating graph of the resistor. The calculated pulse will be more severe than the actual pulse, which is the same heating energy spread out over a greater time frame. For our case, in each resistor, 110 mJ divided by 2,900 W is 38 µs. A surge-rated resistor size of 2512 SG733A/W3A can handle 4.5 kW for approximately 40 µs, which means that this package resistor is suitable for this application. General-purpose resistors in the same 2512 package have power ratings more than an order of magnitude lower than surge-rated resistors.

This calculation does ignore the series inductance effect. An inductor will slow the rise of current into the resistor and reduce maximum power, but will also add total losses from overshoot, as shown in Figure 2. The simulation results including the 10 µH inductor show peak power in the resistor dropping by 30% from the 2.9 kW calculated power, but the total energy in the resistor is 17% higher than the 110 mJ calculated earlier. The rating curves show that the allowed energy follows the peak power ratio to the negative two-thirds power. Thus, a 30% reduction in peak power enables 27% more losses, and our calculations remain conservative for both without and with series input inductance.

Avoiding failures from hot plugging

While the best automotive installation and maintenance practices will avoid hot plugging, there is a realization that errors will occur. Following procedures stated in this article will avoid costly damage to the system. As your partner in power management, TI is in constant pursuit of pushing the limits of power.

Hrag Kasparian, who joined Texas Instruments over 10 years ago, currently serves as a power applications engineer, designing custom DC-DC switch-mode power supplies. Previously, he worked on the development of battery packs, chargers, and electric vehicle (EV) battery management systems at a startup company in Silicon Valley. Hrag graduated from San Jose State University with a Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering.

Josh Mandelcorn has been at Texas Instrument’s Power Design Services team for almost two decades. He has designed high-current multiphase converters to power core and memory rails of processors handling large rapid load changes with stringent voltage under/overshoot requirements. He is listed as either an author or co-author on 17 US patents related to power conversion. He received a BSEE degree from Carnegie-Mellon University.

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Littelfuse Launches SM10 Series Varistor: A Breakthrough in Automotive and Electronics Surge Protection

ELE Times - Tue, 02/20/2024 - 12:49

AEC-Q200 compliant, compact, vertical surface-mount design, ideal for harsh environment applications

Littelfuse, Inc., an industrial technology manufacturing company empowering a sustainable, connected, and safer world, announced the SM10 Varistor Series, a revolutionary Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) designed to provide superior transient surge protection in automotive electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), and various other applications. This latest addition stands out as the first surface-mounted MOV device compliant with the AEC-Q200 automotive standard, capable of withstanding high operating temperatures and offering ultra-high surge current handling in a compact package.

The SM10 Series Varistor is a game-changer in the industry, offering:

  • High Operating Temperature: Able to withstand temperatures up to 125 degrees Celsius, ensures reliability in harsh conditions.
  • AEC-Q200 Compliance: Meets rigorous automotive electronics standards, suitable for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and charging stations.
  • Ultra-High Surge Capability: Excellent repetitive surge capability handles up to 40 pulses of 6 KV / 3 KA surges, significantly extending product reliability and lifespan.
  • Compact Design: With dimensions of 15.7 mm x 8.5 mm x 14 mm, it saves valuable PCB surface space and is ideal for automated SMT PCB assembly processes.
  • Wide Voltage Rating: Ranging from 130 Vac to 625 Vac, accommodating a broad spectrum of electronic applications.

“The SM10 Series Varistors effectively protect electronic circuits against multiple transient voltage surges with ultra-high surge handling capability,” states Johnny Chang, director of product management at Littelfuse. “They are AEC-Q200 compliant, enabling end-products to work in harsh ambient environments for longer lifetimes.”

Amy Chu, global product manager at Littelfuse, adds, “The vertical surface-mounted SM10 Series Varistors enable electronics designers to realize a ‘SMT components only policy’ for primary side circuit surge protection. Their compact size and ability to replace through-hole devices allow for fully automated and SMT PCB assembly processes.”

The SM10 is ideal for a variety of demanding applications, including:

  • Automotive electronics
  • Electric vehicles and charging stations
  • Building automation
  • Appliances
  • Consumer electronics
  • Power storage systems
  • High-end power supplies

Compared to existing solutions, the SM10 Series offers unparalleled performance with its high operating temperature, excellent repetitive surge capability, and compact size. This combination makes it an attractive option for automotive, appliance, and building automation industries requiring reliable high-surge varistors.

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eDSim, a simulator 50x faster than PSpice with an unlimited license to the ST community

ELE Times - Tue, 02/20/2024 - 11:53

Author: STMicroelectronics

eDSim is our latest simulation tool for switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) and other power analog circuits. The tool runs on the SIMPLIS/SIMetrix engine, is available to download for free on our website, and is governed by a free-to-use commercial license. In a nutshell, our eDSim models are exempt from node limit count, thus enabling engineers to utilize them without restrictions on the number of nodes or circuit size. We even worked on a workflow that allows users to export a design out of eDesignSuite and into eDSim to help them run more detailed simulations faster. ST is also working on an online version of eDSim to optimize further the experience of designing and simulating a circuit.

Why did we decide to work on this? The challenges behind designing power circuits

Power circuits are notoriously difficult to design because of their inherent complexity. Engineers must account for a specific load and how the overall circuit responds when there are sudden shifts in the line voltage or the load current due to spikes or low loads. In the case of an SMPS, teams must ensure that cycles are consistent, meaning that no significant fluctuations disrupt voltage regulations. It’s also critical to examine how the circuit performs under regular operations to determine the overall quality of the design. Is the ramp-up, when the input voltage is first applied, smooth, or is there a massive under- or over-shoot, among other issues?

The necessity of running simulations A simulation in eDSimA simulation in eDSim

Until simulations came along, the only way for engineers to test their power circuit was to design a PCB layout, manufacture it, and then physically try it in their lab. The obvious problem is that the process is slow and extremely expensive. Furthermore, because power calculations are often based on differential equations, complex models, and matrix computations1, teams may spot a problem but may not have an obvious solution to it, requiring even costlier trial-and-error operations. Hence, simulators are an essential tool when designing a power circuit. Unfortunately, licenses can be expensive, and knowing what software to use isn’t always obvious. Consequently, we tackled this problem so our partners wouldn’t have to.

Why did we invest so much time and money into eDSim? 10x to 50x faster

In essence, eDSim takes the SIMPLIS/SIMetrix engine and runs it on ST components and models. Why choose this engine? According to our benchmarks, simulating a synchronous step-down converter based on our L6983 would take between 10 minutes and 50 minutes on OrCAD PSpice, but only one minute or less on eDSim, thanks to its SIMPLIS/SIMetrix implementation. OrCAD PSpice takes a general-purpose approach to circuit simulation, which explains why it is very popular in many other instances. On the other hand, SIMPLIS/SIMetrix specializes in the types of calculations that are essential when simulating a power stage, which is why it can be 10 to 50 times faster at modeling a switching circuit.

A useful license for the ST community

ST worked with SIMPLIS Technologies to ensure we could provide professional engineers with one of the most flexible licenses. For instance, working with one of our models doesn’t contribute to the eDSim node count or circuit size limit, regardless of its complexity. A brief overview eDSim will reveal that we have tens of models for SMPS and analog ICs. We are also in the process of extending the coverage with power discrete and other smart power devices in future releases.

How to get started?

eDSim is a testament to our desire to create more accessible solutions and bridge digital divides. By working with SIMPLIS Technologies to offer our utility for free, any engineer can build a power circuit and learn from one of the most powerful simulators in the industry. All it takes is to download eDSim from ST.com. Additionally, to increase accessibility even further, we are happy to announce that we are working on an online version of eDSim and will update this blog post when it becomes available. In the meantime, we published the videos below to show how to get started, and we are also offering an example application built on the L6983.

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Delta Honored with Double A-List Ratings by CDP for the Third Time for its Substantial Contribution to Climate Change and Water Security

ELE Times - Tue, 02/20/2024 - 08:32

Delta Electronics, Inc., a global provider of IoT-based Smart Green Solutions, announced it has achieved double “A” scores in the 2023 Climate Change and Water Security reports of CDP for the third time. This year’s double “A” score was granted to only 61 companies out of over 21,000 worldwide based on their superior contribution to climate change and water security challenges. Delta’s recent key climate change and water security endeavours include the implementation of an internal carbon pricing (ICP) mechanism since 2021 to accelerate carbon reduction initiatives, the successful 13.5% YoY reduction in its Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the increase in the proportion of renewable electricity used in its global operations to 63%, and the reduction in its water withdrawal and water discharge by over 4% YoY.

Jesse Chou, Delta’s Chief Sustainability Officer, said, “CDP honoring Delta’s climate change and water security endeavors with top scores for the third time is a major milestone for us. In 2023, Delta became a member of The Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures (TNFD) Forum and completed the first biodiversity risk assessment of Delta’s sites. In January of this year, Delta also became an early TNFD adopter. Externally, we have incorporated our climate transition plan into our Annual Shareholders’ Meeting and quarterly investor conferences agendas. Internally, we have completed a GHG inventory for 15 categories under Scope 3 to identify key areas for future emissions reduction. Hence, we look forward to collaborating closely with our value chain partners to achieve our ultimate Net-zero SBT goal by 2050.”

Delta has been actively implementing climate change governance. Since 2021, Delta has included the achievement of its percentage of renewable electricity in its senior executive performance indicators. Delta estimates it surpassed its 2023 renewable electricity usage target, reaching over 70% in its global operations comes from renewable sources, with the respective figure exceeding 80% in its Taiwan operations. In 2021, Delta also implemented an ICP scheme of US$300 per metric ton of CO2 emissions, which is invested in energy-saving and carbon reduction projects, as well as in the development of carbon-negative technologies and low-carbon innovation, contributing to the company’s progress toward RE100 and Net-zero SBT.

In terms of biodiversity, Delta has collaborated with the National Museum of Marine Science & Technology to establish the Asia’s first zero-carbon coral conservation center. Through the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) framework, Delta assesses climate change risks and opportunities, translating them into operational strategies and actively exploring green opportunities such as electric vehicles, energy storage, and hydrogen energy.

Benjamin Lin, President, Delta Electronics India “This recognition reaffirms our unwavering dedication to sustainability. We are continuously pushing boundaries, implementing innovative solutions like internal carbon pricing and exploring green opportunities like EVs and hydrogen energy. We are confident in achieving our Net-Zero SBT goal by 2050 through collaboration with our stakeholders.”

Regarding water security management, although Delta is not a heavy water user, the Company has established strategic goals and methodologies, implementing them in daily operations. In 2022, Delta conducted a water risk assessment for its global sites and formulated a water resource policy across the entire organization. The Company also assessed its tier-1 suppliers engaged in ongoing business transactions and incorporated the assessment results into decision-making. In 2022, Delta achieved a 12.8% YoY reduction in its global water productivity intensity, with its total water withdrawal and water discharge decreasing 4% YoY despite the higher revenue delivered.

CDP’s annual assessment and scoring process is recognized as an important standard for environmental transparency. In 2023, more than 740 investors with over 136 trillion in assets and over 300 major procurement organizations with a combined spending of 6.8 trillion requested companies to disclose information about their environmental impacts, risks, and opportunities through the CDP platform. In this latest CDP reports, more than 21,000 companies to participated the assessment, the highest number ever recorded. Delta has been included in the CDP A List for Water Security Management for four consecutive years and has received leadership scores in the Climate Change category for seven years.

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The PowerStation PSX3: A portable multifunction vehicular powerhouse with a beefy battery

EDN Network - Mon, 02/19/2024 - 17:38

As regular readers may already recollect, I’ve got two vehicles in outdoor storage, which (at minimum) I start once a year to reorder them and drive the one now in front to a nearby emissions testing center.

Stored-vehicle batteries inevitably drain, and their tires slowly-but-surely also deflate. Which is why the PowerStation PSX3 has long had a rarely-but-repeatedly used prized place in my gadget stable. I’ll start with some stock shots of the product:

As you can tell, it’s (among other things) a portable recharger and jump-starter of vehicles’ cells. It’s also a portable tire inflater. And it’s an emergency light and USB power source, too:

all of which makes it handy to have with me at all times in my Eurovan Camper, for example:

Here’s my unit in all its dusty, dirty glory:

Cables, etc. inside the “door”:

along with closeups on those stickers you saw in the overview shots:

Here’s the thing, though. If you visit the product page, you’ll find that the PowerStation PSX3 is no longer being sold. And after many years of occasional use, in combination with deep discharge cycles between uses, the embedded sealed lead-acid battery in mine had become effectively unusable; it’d take forever to charge, if I could get it to fully charge at all, and its ability to inflate tires and jumpstart vehicles was a shadow of its former self.

My first “bright idea” was to pick up one of those newfangled chargers you may have noticed often on sale at Amazon and elsewhere, which I’m assuming are all Li-ion battery-based (since NiMH cells wouldn’t deliver the necessary “punch”). For tire inflation purposes, I alternatively had a nifty adapter in the garage that leveraged my stock of Black+Decker 20 V MAX multi-purpose batteries:

It wasn’t as powerful as the PowerStation PSX3 had been in its prime, but I had a bunch of batteries and they’re easy to transport, so I figured a jumpstart-only device would suffice as a PowerStation PSX3 successor.

I tried three of these widgets, one claiming to deliver 1200 A of “peak” cranking juice:

Another spec’ing 1500 A:

And a third that promised to deliver 2000 A:

They all promptly went back to Amazon as full-refund returns. Now granted, if someone had left their interior dome light on too long and the battery was drained too low to successfully turn over the engine but still had some “life” one of these might suffice, which is why this combo jump-starter/tire inflater/USB charger/light still resides in the back of my wife’s SUV:

And I’ll grant them one other thing: they’re certainly small and light. But 2000 A of cranking current? Or even 1500 A? Mebbe for a fraction of a second, the time necessary to drain an intermediary capacitor, but not long enough to resurrect a significantly drained battery. Therefore, the quotes I put around the word “peak” earlier. Such products exemplify the well-worn saying, “mileage may vary”. Give me an old-school lead acid battery instead, any day!

At that point, I had another idea, which ended up being brighter. As I wrote about last summer, uninterruptable power supplies (UPSs) often have replaceable embedded batteries (unless the manufacturer has intentionally designed them otherwise, of course). Could the PowerStation PSX3, with user-accessible screws on its backside, be similar?

Yes, hope-inducing YouTube videos like this one reassured me, it could!

(I too hate throwing things out if it wasn’t already intuitively obvious)

At this point, I had maybe my brightest idea of all, if I do say so myself. In that earlier UPS writeup, I’d mentioned that I’d bought six replacement batteries for $49.99 total on sale (they’re now $119.99 for six as I write these words). They were purchased through Amazon but were shipped directly from the manufacturer, Mighty Max. The thing is, though, the first shipment delivered to me was not six smaller batteries but one much larger one.

The Mighty Max rep promptly apologized, sent me the correct ones, and told me to hold onto the first one in case I ever found a use for it. Hmmm…Where in the garage did I put that box?

And hey, it’s not only got the correct dimensions, but the terminals’ polarities match!

Additional included hardware, which I didn’t end up needing to use:

Cool, let’s remove those screws and crack this device open!

At this point, I need to beg for forgiveness from you, dear readers. Were this a proper full teardown, I wouldn’t stop at this point. But the objective here was not to fully dissect the product. It was instead to resurrect it to full health. So, squelching my own curiosity, not to mention all of yours’ in the process, I stopped here. That said, for example, you can clearly see the massive-percentage-of-total-volume motor that implements the air compressor function:

And here’s our patient on the other side:

The negative battery terminal was corroded, so I cleaned everything up in the process of disconnecting it:

The positive terminal was more pristine:

At this point, however, after wrestling the old battery out of its captivity:

I realized I had a problem. Here’s the final shot of the old cell:

And here’s another perspective on the new one:

See what’s different? The two batteries are the same size. And the terminals’ polarities do match. But the terminals’ exact locations are not the same. Force-fitting the negative terminal re-connection was fairly straightforward, since I just had to stretch a few wires already with sufficient slack. The positive terminal reconnection, on the other hand, was admittedly more of a MacGyver move (and I admittedly almost skipped on sharing this image with you, out of embarrassment and fear of your mockery…but hey, at least no duct tape was involved!):

But at the end of the day, I ended up with a good-as-new PowerStation PSX3. Huzzah!

Comments are as-always welcomed…just please be gentle about my MacGyver move…

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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Foundry PDK aims to train engineers on 2-nm process node

EDN Network - Mon, 02/19/2024 - 16:27

A new process design kit (PDK) from imec aims to provide broad access to a 2-nm gate-all-around (GAA) process node and associated backside connectivity for design pathfinding, system research, and training. This foundry PDK features the necessary infrastructure for digital design based on a set of digital standard cell libraries and SRAM IP macros.

The design PDK—enabling virtual digital designs in imec’s N2 chip manufacturing process technology—comes embedded with EDA tool suites from Cadence Design Systems and Synopsys. And it aims to train the semiconductor experts of tomorrow and enable the industry to transition to next-generation process technologies through meaningful design pathfinding.

Source: imec

Foundry PDKs—which provide chip designers access to a library of tested and proven components—are usually available once process technology reaches a critical level of manufacturability. And here comes the catch: there is restricted access and the need for non-disclosure agreements (NDAs). That, in turn, creates a high threshold for academia and industry to access advanced technology nodes like 2-nm during their development.

What imec’s N2 PDK is trying to do is provide young semiconductor engineers in academia and industry with early access to the infrastructure needed to develop design skills on advanced technology nodes such as 2 nm. “The design pathfinding PDK will help companies to transition their designs to future technology nodes and pre-empt scaling bottlenecks for their products,” said Julien Ryckaert, VP of Logic Technologies.

Next, the accompanying training courses will acquaint engineers with the most recent technology disruptions such as nanosheet devices and wafer backside technology. The training program, starting in the second quarter of 2014, will teach subscribers the specificities of the N2 technology node while offering hands-on training on digital design platforms using the Cadence and Synopsys EDA software.

Yoon Kim, VP of Cadence Academic Network, acknowledged that imec’s design pathfinding PDK represents a major milestone for training the next generation of silicon designers. “Imec used Cadence’s AI-driven digital and custom/analog full flows to create and validate the design pathfinding PDK.”

Likewise, Brandon Wang, VP of technical strategy & strategic partnerships at Synopsys, quoted pathfinding PDK as an example of how industry partnerships can broaden access to advanced process technology for the current and next generation of designers. “Our collaboration with imec to deliver a certified, AI-driven EDA digital design flow for its N2 PDK enables design teams to prototype and accelerate the transition to next-generation technologies using a virtual PDK-based design environment.”

According to imec, the design pathfinding PDK platform will extend to more advanced nodes like 1.4 nm.

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Infineon introduces lower cost Bluetooth long-range module, CYW20822-P4TAI040, for low power applications

ELE Times - Mon, 02/19/2024 - 14:24

Infineon Technologies has announced the CYW20822-P4TAI040, its latest Bluetooth module that pushes the low-power and range boundaries for wireless connectivity in IoT and consumer electronics. This module is the most cost-effective in its class, offers seamless integration, enhanced performance with Bluetooth low-energy long-range (LE-LR) support, and exceptional reliability for a wide range of applications. With the right combination of low power and high performance, Infineon’s CYW20822-P4TAI040 is designed to support the entire spectrum of Bluetooth LE-LR use cases including industrial IoT applications, smart homes, asset tracking, beacons and sensors, and medical devices.

According to a recent report by ABI Research 1, future use cases will demand additional
improvements across almost all metrics. These include industrial IoT applications such as
sensing, robotics, beacons, smart home, and asset tracking. In response, Infineon’s
CYW20822-P4TAI040 Bluetooth module delivers unparalleled connectivity and
performance, enabling customers to create innovative products in the IoT and consumer
electronics space.

With extensive experience in delivering certified Bluetooth and Bluetooth LE modules,
Infineon’s regulatory testing (FCC, ISED, MIC, CE) and certification process with the
Bluetooth SIG is precise and rigorous. Its pre-certified modules are optimized for cost, size,
power, and range.

“Infineon is thrilled to expand its Bluetooth portfolio with the introduction of the CYW20822-P4TAI040 Bluetooth module to help designers get to market faster,” said Anurag Chauhan, Director of Marketing for the Bluetooth product line at Infineon Technologies. “As a leader in the IoT area in delivering innovative new Bluetooth LE solutions, this new module is a testament to our customer commitment. This new module delivers low power, long range, and excellent RF performance to meet our customers evolving needs.”

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Vishay Intertechnology 30 V N-Channel MOSFET With Source Flip Technology Delivers Best in Class RDS(ON) Down to 0.71 mΩ in PowerPAK 1212-F

ELE Times - Mon, 02/19/2024 - 14:04

Device Offers High Power Density and Improved Thermal Performance in 3.3 mm x 3.3 mm PowerPAK 1212 F Package With Center Gate Design

Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. has introduced a versatile new 30 V n-channel TrenchFET Gen V power MOSFET that delivers increased power density and enhanced thermal performance for industrial, computer, consumer, and telecom applications. Featuring source flip technology in the 3.3 mm by 3.3 mm PowerPAK 1212-F package, the Vishay Siliconix SiSD5300DN provides best-in-class on-resistance of 0.71 mΩ at 10 V and on-resistance times gate charge — a critical figure of merit (FOM) for MOSFETs used in switching applications — of 42 mΩ*nC.

Occupying the same footprint as the PowerPAK 1212-8S, the device released today offers 18 % lower on-resistance to increase power density, while its source flip technology reduces thermal resistance by 63°C/W to 56 °C/W. In addition, the SiSD5300DN’s FOM represents a 35 % improvement over previous-generation devices, which translates into reduced conduction and switching losses to save energy in power conversion applications.

PowerPAK 1212-F source flip technology reverses the usual proportions of the ground and source pads, extending the area of the ground pad to provide a more efficient thermal dissipation path and thus promoting cooler operation. At the same time, the PowerPAK 1212-F minimizes the extent of the switching area, which helps to reduce the impact of trace noise. In the PowerPAK 1212-F package specifically, the source pad dimension increases by a factor of 10, from 0.36 mm² to 4.13 mm², enabling a commensurate improvement in thermal performance. The PowerPAK 1212-F’s center gate design also simplifies the parallelization of multiple devices on a single-layer PCB.

The source flip PowerPAK 1212-F package of the SiSD5300DN is especially suitable for applications such as secondary rectification, active clamp battery management systems (BMS), buck and BLDC converters, OR-ing FETs, motor drives, and load switches. Typical end products include welding equipment and power tools; servers, edge devices, supercomputers, and tablets; lawnmowers and cleaning robots; and radio base stations.

The device is 100 % RG- and UIS-tested, RoHS-compliant, and halogen-free.

Key Specification Table:

PowerPAK 1212-F

PowerPAK 1212-8S

Package size: 3.3 mm x 3.3 mm

Package size: 3.3 mm x 3.3 mm

Source pad dimension: 4.13 mm²

Source pad dimension: 0.36 mm²

Thermal resistance: 56 °C/W

Thermal resistance: 63 °C/W

Lowest available on-resistance in Gen V technology:
SiSD5300DN: 0.87 mΩ (maximum)

Lowest available on-resistance in Gen V technology:
SiSS54DN: 1.06 mΩ (maximum)

 

The post Vishay Intertechnology 30 V N-Channel MOSFET With Source Flip Technology Delivers Best in Class RDS(ON) Down to 0.71 mΩ in PowerPAK 1212-F appeared first on ELE Times.

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