Збирач потоків

Моделюють ризики, вивчають наслідки, прогнозують майбутнє

Новини - Чтв, 12/05/2024 - 13:11
Моделюють ризики, вивчають наслідки, прогнозують майбутнє
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Інформація КП чт, 12/05/2024 - 13:11
Текст

Науковий простір Київської політехніки розширює свої горизонти: магістрантка кафедри математичного моделювання та аналізу даних НН ФТІ Софія Дрозд, що працює під науковим керівництвом завідувачки кафедри професора Наталії Куссуль, успішно презентувала Київську політехніку на Африканському контине

КПІ відстежує аграрну ситуацію з космосу

Новини - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 20:45
КПІ відстежує аграрну ситуацію з космосу
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medialab пн, 05/27/2024 - 20:45
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Київська політехніка провела зустріч з Київським аграрним університетом.

Планується спільне застосування біотехнології для розв'язання нагальних проблем: розмінування територій, боротьби із забрудненням ґрунтів і води, підвищення родючості земель.

Broadcom Claims First 5 nm Ethernet Adapter for AI Networking

AAC - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 20:00
To handle modern data loads, Broadcom has leveraged the 5-nm process node in its new Ethernet NIC to improve efficiency without sacrificing performance.

Resurrecting a diminutive, elementary Arm-based PC

EDN Network - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 18:43

I’ll admit upfront that there’s more than a bit of irony in the topic I’m about to cover today. As I write these words on Saturday, April 20, Qualcomm is rumored to next week be giving the next public update on the Snapdragon X family, the latest generation of its series of SoCs for computing applications, and following up on last October’s initial unveil.

In-between then and now, the company has collaborated with media partners on a series of performance “sneak peeks”, including more recent ones that, per the applications showcased, are of particular personal interest. And it’s a poorly kept secret at this point that Microsoft plans to roll out its next-generation Qualcomm- and Arm-based mobile computers exactly one month from now, again as I write these words (stay tuned for timely coverage to come on this topic).

My personal experience with Windows-on-Arm is longstanding and extensive, beginning with Microsoft’s Surface RT more than a decade back, which was Arm-based but wasn’t Qualcomm-based (it instead ran on a NVIDIA Tegra 3 SoC) and that I tore down after it eventually died. And in my current computing stable are two “Windows 11 on Arm64 (i.e., AArch64)” systems based on the current-generation Qualcomm Snapdragon architecture, a Microsoft Surface Pro X tablet/laptop hybrid running the SQ1 SoC (a clock-boosted Snapdragon 8cx SC8180X):

and a Windows Dev Kit 2023 (aka “Project Volterra”) desktop based on the SQ3 (Snapdragon 8cx Gen3) SoC, for which I provided a visual “sneak peek” a month back (as I’m writing this):

But what I’m covering today is Microsoft and Qualcomm’s first developer-tailored stab at Windows-on-Arm, the ECS LIVA Mini Box QC710 Desktop, based on a prior-generation Snapdragon 7c SC7180 SoC:

I went into this particular acquisition and hands-on evaluation with eyes wide open. I was already aware, for example, of the sloth-like performance of which other reviewers had already complained. To wit, note that Microsoft’s documentation refers to the QC710 as the “perfect testbed for Windows on Snapdragon (ARM) application developers” (italicized emphasis mine) vs an actual code development platform. Considering the QC710’s testing-focused aspirations, its anemic specs both in an absolute sense and versus the Project Volterra successor such as:

  • Only 4 GBytes of RAM, and
  • A 64 GByte eMMC SSD

neither user-upgradeable, to boot (bad pun intended), make at least a bit more sense than they would otherwise…if your code runs smoothly on this, it’ll run on anything, I guess?

So, why’d I take the purchase plunge anyway? For one thing, I’ve always been intrigued by the platform’s diminutive (119 x 116.6 x 35 mm/1.38” x 4.69” x 4.59”, and 230g/0.5 lb.) hockey puck-like form factor:

For another, it comes bundled with a 30W USB-C power supply. Right now, in fact, I’m reliably running mine off the 27W PSU (at top in the following photos) that normally recharges my 11” iPad Pro, believe it or not:

In fact, I recently (and accidentally) learned, when I plugged the wrong end of the USB-C cable into the QC710, that I could even boot it off the iPad Pro’s built-in battery, although the boot process understandably didn’t get very far (the QC710 got confused when it tried to access the iPad Pro’s unknown-format storage).

Price was another notable factor. The QC710 originally cost $219. When I got mine, it was down to $59.27 in open-box condition. And, speaking of “open box”, once I stumbled across initial evidence of the issues, I’ll cover in this writeup, Woot! offered me $30 in compensation to keep it in lieu of sending it back (where it’d likely have just ended up in a landfill).

I figured it’d make an interesting single-function PC acting as a Roon server and tethered to external storage over USB 3.2 Gen1 Type-A, 10/100 RJ45 and/or Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac 2×2 MIMO, to be precise), for example (although scant system memory, not to mention limited CPU horsepower, might prove problematic). If nothing else, it’d be a decent entry-level donation to someone else. And yes, fundamental engineering curiosity was also an acquisition factor.

Here are some pics of my particular device, as usual starting with box shots:

and now of the QC710 itself, as usual accompanied by a 0.75″ (19.1 mm) diameter U.S. penny for size comparison purposes:

and its accompanying power supply:

So, what was that “initial evidence of issues” that I previously mentioned? In the spirit of “a picture paints a thousand words”, here’s what greeted me the first time I booted the QC710:

The QC710 originally shipped with Windows 10 Home, which doesn’t support BitLocker mass storage encryption. Apparently, though, the previous owner upgraded it to the Pro variant of either Windows 10 or Windows 11, and then either attempted to factory-reset the partition before returning it or Woot! did it prior to resale. Regardless, without the BitLocker key I wasn’t going to be able to get to the existing O/S build. And, by the way, about that “Press the Windows key” statement at the bottom of the screenshot? No go; neither the keyboard nor mouse I had plugged into the system’s two USB-A ports worked. The root issue wasn’t hardware; I stumbled onto the fact that if I hit “ESC” as soon as I saw the initial firmware boot screen:

I’d instead end up in Qualcomm’s BDS (Boot Device Selection) menu, from which the keyboard worked fine until Windows attempted to launch. BDS isn’t a cursor-amenable GUI, you can see, but the mouse was lit up underneath and was presumably also functional outside of Windows.

Alas, I had no BSD documentation, therefore no idea what to do next. Hold that thought.

“No problem,” I figured, “I’ll just reinstall a fresh copy of Windows for Arm” (at additional license key expense, but I digress). Problem, actually: There are currently only two ways to get an ISO of Windows for Arm to put on a USB flash drive. One, which I didn’t try, at least directly (again, hold that thought) involves enrolling as a Windows Insider. The other leverages an unsanctioned-by-Microsoft but slick site called UUP Dump, which I did try. And before any of you ask “what about Microsoft’s Media Creation Tool?”…I tried that too, from both of my Arm-based Windows 11 systems. Both times I ended up with Windows…for x86 CPUs.

So, I went the UUP Dump route instead, trying both Windows 10 and 11, both of which conceptually worked great. In combination with Rufus, I ended up with bootable installer USB flash drives which the QC710 recognized fine. And although I was left with only one free USB-A port, a USB hub attached to it enabled me to connect both my keyboard and mouse. But in both installation-attempt cases I ended up at the initial setup screen:

I couldn’t get any further because the keyboard and mouse again weren’t functional. And yes, I even tried separately powering the USB hub versus relying on system power supplied over USB-A. I realized at that point (and my colleague later confirmed) that, for reasons that remain baffling to me, the complete Qualcomm hardware driver stack isn’t natively bundled within the O/S installer. Obviously, USB mass storage support was enabled (therefore the boot-from-flash stick success) and baseline (at minimum) graphics were also functional, enabling me to see the setup screen. But no keyboard or mouse support? Really?

About “my colleague”…the only thing left of that I could think to do was to “throw a Hail Mary pass”…which thankfully ended up getting caught and turned into a touchdown (complete with a spike in the end zone). As I was doing initial research on the QC710 with the thought of perhaps doing a teardown on it (an aspiration with I may yet realize, especially if I can convince myself that it’d be nondestructive and cosmetically preserving) I searched the Internet to see if anyone else had already done one. I didn’t find much on the QC710 at all, and most of the little that I did uncover ended up being underwhelming-results reviews. But I struck gold when I stumbled across a detailed product page (even more detailed now, subsequent to our interaction) from a seasoned and very knowledgeable engineer named Rafael Rivera. The tagline on his LinkedIn profile, “Forward engineer by day, reverse engineer by night”, pretty much sums it up. 😀

I “out of the blue” emailed Rafael a quick summary of who I was and my situation with the  QC710, and he rapidly and enthusiastically responded with willingness to help after pulling his system out of storage and refreshing his memory on its details and quirks (his initial writeup was published in mid-November 2021). His suggested first step was a set of instructions (all now documented on his web page) that would:

  1. Use the Qualcomm BSD utility to put the QC710 in UEFI Shell mode, then and mount the QC710 SSD’s main partition as an external USB-cabled drive from another Windows machine (I used my Surface Pro 7+)
  2. Remotely reformat that partition, and then
  3. Remotely use Microsoft’s DISM utility to first put a fresh Windows “build” on that partition and then augment the “build” with the Qualcomm driver suite he’d also published to his web page.

Problem 1: I was able to remote-mount the QC710 partition from my Surface Pro 7+, but when I tried to reformat the new drive letter from within Windows Explorer, it disappeared from view never to return…although something had changed as the QC710 boot screen was now different:

At Rafael’s suggestion, I tried Windows’ Disk Management utility instead, which did the trick (it turned out that my earlier attempt had wiped the partition’s existing contents but the QC710 SSD then unmounted itself prior to reformat completion).

Problem 2: But when I then tried to run DISM using the instructions he sent me, I kept getting the following:

Error: 87
The parameter is incorrect.

In comparing notes afterwards, Rafael and I realized that since I was running a “stock” Windows 11 build on the Surface Pro 7+ versus his newer Developer build, my version of DISM was older (and apparently buggier) than his. But at this point, the only thing to do was to pack up the QC710 and ship it to him in for onsite diagnosis. He got it on a Friday afternoon and that same night initially reported back that DISM ran fine for him, and he was able to get the main partition rebuilt problem-free.

Shortly thereafter, however, he sent me another reply, noting that the system still wasn’t booting. He ended up spending a good chunk of his weekend working on the QC710, in the process discovering that two other SSD partitions, the EFI System Partition (ESP) and the Boot Configuration Data (BCD), also required re-creation. The following commentary from him will likely be helpful to anyone else striving to following in his footsteps:

We needed to also rebuild/repair the EFI system boot partition and recovery partition using standard tools, like diskpart and bcdboot. (To mount all partitions on the storage medium, as opposed to just the Windows basic data partitions, I used UsbfnMsdApp.efi -m “eMMC User”.)

When the system was back in my hands a couple of days later, it had an un-activated Insider Dev channel build of Windows 11 on it and was in default Out of Box Experience (OOBE) mode:

And yes, the keyboard was recognized this time (and the mouse, too) 😀

After going through the usual setup steps, I had a fully functional Windows 11 system:

which to date has received a handful of big-and-small updates:

Abundant thanks to Rafael, such a trooper that he even said “thanks for the challenge” after!

As for Microsoft and Qualcomm (and other Arm licensees) …I completely understand the underlying motivation for you to be investing so long and significantly on the Windows-on-Arm effort as an end user alternative to x86 hegenomy. It’s at the root of why I’ve been following the project for as long and in-depth as I have. But I was again reminded of its relative immaturity a couple of days ago when, striving to cut myself free from my kludgy wired keyboard and mouse-plus-USB hub setup for the QC710, I picked up an on-sale Microsoft All-in-One Media Keyboard:

but then had to search for, download and install the Microsoft Mouse and Keyboard Center app in order to get the trackpad to act as anything other than a rudimentary mouse (but hey, at least an ARM64 version of the app was available!).

I’ve had the occasional peripheral not work out of box (OOB) when I did an x86-based PC build in the past, but it was usually something relatively “obscure” like an optimized graphics driver set or a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth driver stack. That said, using the standard initial Windows build I was still able to passably drive the display and otherwise get Windows to a functional initial state where I could then connect to the Internet to download and install the additional software I’d need (over wired Ethernet, for example). And for goodness’ sake, the keyboard and mouse always worked OOB, at least to an elementary degree!

Even though Windows on Arm has far fewer hardware building blocks (and combinations of them) that it currently needs to support versus the legacy x86 alternative, it still seemingly undershoots even a modest modicum of functionality. And that it’s apparently so easy to corrupt a mass storage device’s partition contents to such a degree that the system containing it is rendered braindead in the absence of expert heavy lifting is equally troubling. Try, try again!

Sound off with your thoughts in the comments, please, readers. And thanks again for everything, Rafael!

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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The post Resurrecting a diminutive, elementary Arm-based PC appeared first on EDN.

Увага! Фейк у мережі

Новини - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 18:11
Увага! Фейк у мережі
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medialab пн, 05/27/2024 - 18:11
Текст

У деяких телеграм-каналах поширюється недостовірна інформація про начебто можливі порушення проректора з адміністративної роботи університету Кондратюка В. А. під час закупівлі спеціалізованого вантажного автомобіля (сміттєвоза).

Rohde & Schwarz presents its solutions for next generation wide bandgap device test and debug at PCIM Europe

ELE Times - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 13:06

Rohde & Schwarz will showcase its latest solutions for power electronics testing at PCIM Europe in Nuremberg from June 11 to 13. This year, the spotlight will be on solutions that address the challenges of testing and debugging the next generation of wide bandgap semiconductors in power electronic converters. The company’s experts will share their first-hand knowledge of applications such as inverter drive design, double pulse testing and EMI debugging, utilizing cutting-edge test instruments from Rohde & Schwarz.

At the Rohde & Schwarz booth 619 in hall 7 of PCIM Europe in Nuremberg, Germany, visitors will experience cutting-edge test solutions for power electronics under the motto “Moving to next-generation wide bandgap device testing & debugging.”

Among these are the next generation MXO 5 and MXO 5C series oscilloscopes. The first eight-channel oscilloscopes from Rohde & Schwarz are based on the company’s own powerful MXO-EP processing ASIC technology, a technological breakthrough that makes it possible to achieve the world’s first real time acquisition rate of 4.5 million waveforms per second, as seen in the MXO 4 series. The MXO 5C is the compact version of the MXO 5, but without an integrated display, making it ideal for rack-mount applications. Both support simultaneous real-time acquisition on four channels, processing a total of 18 million waveforms per second. The instruments’ pristine front-end performance and digital trigger approach leverage the 18-bit HD architecture derived from the 12-bit ADC, providing outstanding precision in all measurements. At PCIM Europe, visitors can learn how these next generation instruments can help solve complex design challenges. And they can even get a first glimpse on a ground breaking solution for measuring with high common mode voltages at high frequencies.

Power conversion

When optimizing drivetrain and inverter performance, characterizing the gate driver signals, especially in multiphase, can be very challenging. Visitors will be able to see how the MXO 5 oscilloscope can help users make accurate measurements for inverter design. With up to eight channels, the instrument provides a direct view of all relevant signal details. Thanks to SmartGrid, users can easily configure the intuitive display to show all the needed waveforms. In addition, built-in track functions help visualize pulse width modulation (PWM) with varying duty cycle and width, allowing users to accurately analyze cycle-to-cycle behaviour. In combination with advanced high voltage differential probes from Rohde & Schwarz, users can also analyze the high- and low-side gate.

Double pulse testing

JEDEC has defined the necessary parameters for dynamic and static characterization of wide bandgap components, but performing accurate and reliable measurements can be challenging due to setup variables. Slight deviations in the test setup and fixtures can introduce parasitic inductances that ultimately lead to errors. Rohde & Schwarz is collaborating with industry experts at PE-Systems GmbH to implement a stable and accurate approach to double pulse testing using high-quality power supplies and next generation oscilloscopes from Rohde & Schwarz. At PCIM Europe, visitors can experience first-hand how precision instrumentation and careful methodology work in synergy to set up accurate, reliable and fast double pulse testing.

EMI debugging

When designing filter circuits for power converters, it is possible to determine the exact noise in the system with a suitable oscilloscope instead of experimenting with different filter components by trial and error. The R&S RTO6 is equipped with advanced FFT functions that allow users to separate common-mode and differential-mode noise so that the right filter can be implemented to clean up the system noise. Rohde & Schwarz will demonstrate the analysis of conducted emissions from a 48 V to 12 V DC-DC converter for automotive applications to show how to gain insight into filter design issues.

Visitors can find Rohde & Schwarz in hall 7, booth 619, at the PCIM Europe International Exhibition and Conference from June 11 to 13, 2024, in Nuremberg, Germany. For more information about T&M solutions for power electronics from Rohde & Schwarz, go to: https://www.rohde-schwarz.com/_230538.html

The post Rohde & Schwarz presents its solutions for next generation wide bandgap device test and debug at PCIM Europe appeared first on ELE Times.

Київська політехніка розширює межі співпраці з Японією у напрямі гуманітарного розмінування

Новини - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 12:48
Київська політехніка розширює межі співпраці з Японією у напрямі гуманітарного розмінування
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medialab пн, 05/27/2024 - 12:48
Текст

До КПІ з візитом завітав професор Масаюкі Сато з японського Університету Тохоку, щоб запропонувати альтернативу малодієвим пристроям для розмінування — власний портативний двосенсорний прилад ALIS.

my first ever pcb (its for a headphone amplifier)

Reddit:Electronics - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 10:35
my first ever pcb (its for a headphone amplifier)

im waiting for it to arrive and i want to know how bad it is for the first time, its electrically correct but it looks kinda bad with the overlapping text and some other things.

the pcb is double sided and i dont have a photo of the other side.

submitted by /u/a_certain_someon
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Infineon presents roadmap for state-of-the-art and energy-efficient power supply units in AI data centers

ELE Times - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 10:04
  • Artificial intelligence leads to increasing energy demand of data centers worldwide
  • New Power Supply Units (PSU) strengthen Infineon’s leading position in AI power supply based on Si, SiC and GaN
  • Operators of AI data centers benefit from the world’s first 12 kW power supply unit thanks to higher energy efficiency, power density and reliability

The influence of artificial intelligence (AI) is driving up the energy demand of data centres across the globe. This growing demand underscores the need for efficient and reliable energy supply for servers. Infineon Technologies AG is now opening a new chapter in the domain of energy supply for AI systems and unveiling a roadmap for power supply units (PSU) specifically designed to address the current and future energy needs of AI data centres while prioritizing energy efficiency.

By introducing unprecedented PSU performance classes, Infineon enables cloud data centre and AI server operators to reduce their energy consumption for system cooling. The innovative PSUs reduce power consumption and CO₂ emissions, resulting in lower lifetime operating costs. The powerful PSUs are not only used in the data centres of the future but can also replace existing power supply units in servers and increase efficiency.

In addition to the PSUs with an output of 3 kW and 3.3 kW already available, new 8 kW and 12 kW PSUs will contribute to further increasing energy efficiency in AI data centres in the near future. With the 12kW reference board, Infineon will soon offer the world’s first power supply unit that achieves this level of performance and supplies the data centres of the future with power.

“At Infineon, we power AI. We are addressing a critical question of our era – how to efficiently meet the escalating energy demands of data centres,” says Adam White, Division President Power & Sensor Systems at Infineon. “It’s a development that was only possible by Infineon’s expertise in integrating the three semiconductor materials silicon (Si), silicon carbide (SiC), and gallium nitride (GaN) into a single module. Our PSU portfolio is therefore not only an example of Infineon’s innovative strength, which leads to first-class results in terms of performance, efficiency and reliability for data centres and the AI ecosystem. It also reinforces Infineon’s market leadership in power semiconductors.”

Infineon is responding to the requirements of data centre operators for higher system efficiency and lower downtimes. The growth of server and data centre applications has already led to an increase in power requirements, necessitating the development of power supplies with ever higher power ratings from 800 W up to 5.5 kW and beyond. This increase is driven by the increasing power requirements of Graphic Process Units (GPU) on which AI applications are computed.

High-level GPUs now require up to 1 kW per chip reaching 2 kW and more by the end of the decade. This will lead to higher overall energy demand for data centres. Depending on the scenario, the International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that data centres will account for up to seven per cent of global electricity consumption by 2030; this is an order of magnitude comparable to India’s current electricity consumption.

The new PSUs from Infineon thus contribute to the efforts to limit the CO₂ footprint of AI data centres despite the rapidly growing energy requirements. This is made possible by a particularly high level of efficiency that minimizes power losses. Infineon’s new generation PSUs achieve an efficiency of 97.5 per cent and meet the strictest performance requirements. The new 8 kW PSU is capable of supporting AI racks with an output of up to 300 kW and more. Efficiency and power density are increased to 100 watts per in³ compared to 32 W/in³ in the already available 3 kW PSU, providing further benefits for the system size and cost savings for operators.

From a technical perspective, this is made possible by the unique combination of the three semiconductor materials Si, SiC and GaN. These technologies contribute to the sustainability and reliability of AI servers and data centre systems. Innovative semiconductors based on wide-bandgap materials such as SiC and GaN are the key to a conscious and efficient use of energy to drive decarbonization.

The 8 kW Power Supply Unit will be available in Q1 2025. For more information about the PSU roadmap, please visit www.infineon.com/AI-PSU

The post Infineon presents roadmap for state-of-the-art and energy-efficient power supply units in AI data centers appeared first on ELE Times.

Vertiv Launches New AI Hub, Featuring Industry’s First AI Reference Design Portfolio for Critical Digital Infrastructure

ELE Times - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 09:32

The new hub is a guide to deployment and infrastructure strategy for AI clusters and complete infrastructure reference designs for major GPU chipsets

While artificial intelligence (AI) use cases are growing at an unprecedented rate, expert information is scarce for pioneering data centres. Vertiv, a global provider of critical digital infrastructure and continuity solutions, recognizes this knowledge gap and the urgency of accessing this information, leading to the launch of their AI Hub. Partners, customers, and other website visitors will have access to expert information, reference designs and resources to successfully plan their AI-ready infrastructure.

The Vertiv AI Hub features white papers, industry research, tools, and power and cooling portfolios for retrofit and greenfield applications. The new reference design library demonstrates scalable liquid cooling and power infrastructure to support current and future chip sets from 10-140kW per rack.

Reflecting the rapid and continuous changes in the AI tech stack and the supporting infrastructure, the Vertiv AI Hub is a dynamic site that will be frequently updated with new content, including an AI Infrastructure certification program for Vertiv partners.

“Vertiv has a history of sharing new-to-world technology and insights for the data centre industry,” said Vertiv CEO Giordano (Gio) Albertazzi. “We are committed to providing deep knowledge, the broadest portfolio, and expert guidance to enable our customers to be among the first to deploy energy-efficient AI power and cooling infrastructure for current and future deployments. Our close partnerships with leading chipmakers and innovative data centre operators make us uniquely qualified to help our customers and partners on their AI journey.”

Sean Graham, research director, data centres at IDC, noted, “Virtually every industry is exploring opportunities to drive business value through AI, but there are more questions than answers around how to deploy the infrastructure. A recognized infrastructure provider like Vertiv is valuable to businesses building an AI strategy and looking for a single source for information.”

The post Vertiv Launches New AI Hub, Featuring Industry’s First AI Reference Design Portfolio for Critical Digital Infrastructure appeared first on ELE Times.

Samsung’s memory chip business: Trouble in paradise?

EDN Network - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 04:00

The week of 20 May 2024 has been quite eventful for Samsung’s semiconductor unit, the world’s largest producer of memory chips like DRAMs, SRAMs, NAND flash, and NOR flash. Early this week, an unexpected change of guard at Samsung’s semiconductor business rocked the industry.

When Samsung abruptly replaced its semiconductor business chief Kyung Kye-hyun with DRAM and flash memory veteran Jun Young-hyun, the transition was mostly credited to the “chip crisis” associated with Samsung being a laggard in high bandwidth memory (HBM) business, where SK hynix has become a market leader.

Figure 1 Jun Young-hyun led Samsung’s memory chip business from 2014 to 2017 after working on the development of DRAM and flash memory chips. Source: The Chosun Daily

It’s worth noting that management reshuffles at Samsung are usually announced at the start of the year. However, being seen as a laggard in HBM technology has pushed the memory kingpin into a desperate position, and the appointment of a new chip unit head mostly reflects that sense of crisis at the world’s largest memory chip supplier.

HBM, a customized memory product, has enjoyed explosive growth in artificial intelligence (AI) applications due to its suitability for training AI models like ChatGPT. HBM, where DRAM chips are vertically stacked to save space and reduce power consumption, helps process massive amounts of data produced by complex AI applications.

SK hynix, Samsung’s Korean memory chip rival, produced its first HBM chip in 2013. Since then, it has continuously invested in developing this memory technology while bolstering manufacturing yield. According to media reports, SK hynix’s HBM production capacity is fully booked through 2025.

SK hynix is also the main supplier of HBM chips to Nvidia, which commands nearly 80% of the GPU market for AI applications, a premise where HBM memory chips are strategically paired with AI processors like GPUs to overcome data overheads. On the other hand, Samsung, currently catching up on HBM technology, is known to be in the process of qualifying its HBM memory chips for Nvidia AI processors.

During Nvidia’s annual event, GPU Technology Conference (GTC), held in March 2024 in San Jose, California, the company’s co-founder and CEO Jensen Huang endorsed Samsung’s HBM3e chips, then going through a verification process at Nvidia, with a note “Jensen Approved” next to Samsung’s 12-layer HBM3e device on display at GTS 2024 floor.

HBM test at Nvidia

While the start of the week stunned the industry with an unusual reshuffle at the top, the end of the week came with a bigger surprise. According to a report published in Reuters on Friday, 24th May, Samsung’s HBM chips failed to pass Nvidia’s test for pairing with its GPUs due to heat and power consumption issues.

In another report published in The Chosun Daily that day, Professor Kwon Seok-joon of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Sungkyunkwan University said that Samsung has not been able to fully manage quality control of through-silicon vias (TSVs) for packaging HBM memory chips. In other words, high yield in packaging multiple DRAM layers has been challenging. Another insider pointed to reports that the power consumption of Samsung’s HBM3E samples is more than double that of SK hynix.

Figure 2 According to the article published in Reuters, a test for Samsung’s 8-layer and 12-layer HBM3e memory chips failed in April 2024. Source: Samsung Electronics

While Nvidia declined to comment on this story, Samsung was quick to state that the situation has not been concluded, and that testing is still ongoing. The South Korean memory chipmaker added that HBM, a specialized memory product, requires optimization through close collaboration with customers. Jeff Kim, head of research at KB Securities, quoted in the Reuters story, acknowledged that while Samsung anticipated to quickly pass Nvidia’s tests, a specialized product like HBM could take some time to go through customers’ performance evaluations.

Still, it’s a setback for Samsung that could go to advantage of SK hynix and Micron, the remaining players in the high-stake HBM game. Micron, which claims that its HBM3e consumes 30% less power than its competitors, has announced that its 24-GB, 8-layer HBM3e memory chips will be part of Nvidia’s H200 Tensor Core GPUs, breaking the previous exclusivity of SK hynix as the sole HBM supplier for Nvidia’s AI processors.

A rude awakening?

Samsung, being a laggard in HBM, won’t be the only worry for the upcoming chief Jun. Despite the recovery in memory prices, Samsung’s semiconductor business is lagging in competitiveness on various fronts. According to another Reuters report, Samsung’s high-density DRAMs and NAND flash products are no longer ahead of the competition.

Next, the Korean tech heavyweight’s foundry operation is struggling to catch up with market leader TSMC. Samsung’s chip contract-manufacturing business has struggled to win big customers, while TSMC is still far ahead in terms of overall market share. Then there is the global AI wave in which Samsung is currently struggling to find its place besides its HBM woes.

Samsung is known for its fierce competitive skills, and the appointment of the new chief of its semiconductor unit signals that it means business. The Korean tech giant is facing an uphill battle in catching up in HBM memory technology, but one thing is for sure: Samsung is no stranger to charting hot waters.

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Pool light wiring

Reddit:Electronics - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 01:54
Pool light wiring

Someone please help. With switch off I have 120v on the black wire at the 6 0’clock position. With switch on there is still 120v at the black but no power anywhere else. I have already checked the switch and it is good, what am I missing?

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Перспективи телекомунікацій 2024: напрями роботи і новітні розробки

Новини - Пн, 05/27/2024 - 01:52
Перспективи телекомунікацій 2024: напрями роботи і новітні розробки
Image
Інформація КП пн, 05/27/2024 - 01:52
Текст

Наприкінці квітня на базі Навчально-наукового Інституту телекомунікаційних систем та НДІ телекомунікацій КПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорського відбулася ХVІІІ Міжнародна науково-технічна конференція "Перспективи телекомунікацій 2024" та ХVІ Міжнародна науково-технічна конференція студентів та аспірантів "Перспективи розвитку інформаційно-телекомунікаційних технологій та систем-2024".

Simulating the Short-Circuit Power Dissipation of a CMOS Inverter

AAC - Ндл, 05/26/2024 - 20:00
Current briefly flows through both transistors during logic-level transitions. This article explores the resulting power dissipation and provides some helpful LTspice tips for measuring current and power.

Sunday afternoon build: SMD jig.

Reddit:Electronics - Ндл, 05/26/2024 - 19:59
 SMD jig.

Rainy Sunday. So I decided to build a test jig for SMD parts. That's a 0402 resistor in the image.

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Випускник КПІ та стартап-школи Sikorsky Challenge Іван Селезньов - у списку Forbes Asia 30 до 30!

Новини - Ндл, 05/26/2024 - 15:54
Випускник КПІ та стартап-школи Sikorsky Challenge Іван Селезньов - у списку Forbes Asia 30 до 30!
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kpi нд, 05/26/2024 - 15:54
Текст

Вперше в історії рейтингу Forbes Asia 30 до 30 до нього увійшли українці – Анна Крещенко та Іван Селезньов, співзасновники проєкту Flora.

Зеленський відзначив розробки КПІшників

Новини - Сбт, 05/25/2024 - 19:13
Зеленський відзначив розробки КПІшників
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Інформація КП сб, 05/25/2024 - 19:13
Текст

21 травня Президент України Володимир Зеленський відвідав Національний технічний університет України "Київський політехнічний інститут ім. Ігоря Сікорського" і зустрівся з молодими вченими та представниками Малої академії наук України.

Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Сбт, 05/25/2024 - 18:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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