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What led to merger talks between Kioxia and Western Digital

EDN Network - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 19:41

Japan’s Kioxia and Western Digital of the United States, both hit hard by memory chips’ oversupply and plunging market demand, are back on the negotiated table for a merger agreement by as early as August, according to news reports published in Bloomberg, Japan Times, and Reuters. Their combined NAND flash memory businesses could bring the merged operation to par with Samsung, currently the top supplier of flash memory devices.

It’s worth mentioning that Kioxia and Western Digital began merger talks in 2021, but negotiations stalled due to a series of issues, including valuation discrepancies. The current turmoil in the memory market makes it hard for the two companies to agree on the valuations of their respective flash memory assets.

Figure 1 The combined Kioxia and Western Digital operations will likely capture nearly one-third of the global NAND flash market.

At the same time, however, the current memory market slump forced both companies to renew merger talks in January this year. Both Kioxia and Western Digital need a lifeline in the highly competitive NAND flash market. According to news reports, Kioxia will own 43% of the merged entity, while Western Digital will have a 37% stake. The rest of the ownership will go to the existing shareholders of the two companies.

The news reports also suggest that Kioxia will run the merged operations on a day-to-day basis, while Western Digital managers will also be actively involved in running the new company. Moreover, while the new company will be based in Japan, it will initially trade at Nasdaq, and later list in Tokyo.

A tale of disruption

The story of this potential merger has written disruption all over it. First, take Western Digital, which is currently using Kioxia’s fabs to manufacture its NAND flash devices. The San Jose, California-based firm is also at crossroads amid the potential split of its flash memory and hard drive businesses. If the activist investor Elliott Management succeeds in its bid to split Western Digital into two companies, Western Digital’s hard drive business will operate independently of the merged company.

Figure 2 Kioxia and Western Digital executives are seen at the opening of Fab7, which produces 162-layer flash memory devices at the Yokkaichi Plant in Japan.

The story is even more intriguing on the Kioxia side. Spun off as Toshiba’s memory business in 2018, it was sold for $18 billion to a consortium led by Bain Capital. However, Toshiba still holds a 40.6% share of Kioxia, and that’s a driving force in the renewed merger talks. Why? Toshiba, itself going through a massive overhaul, is currently under pressure due to Kioxia’s deteriorating flash memory business valuations.

There is a $15 billion buyout offer for Toshiba from Japan Industrial Partners (JIP), and executives at Toshiba think it’s too low, mainly because of Kioxia and its highly competitive flash memory business. So, the potential merger between Kioxia and Western Digital has a significant impact on Toshiba’s future as well.

Another important factor in this corporate labyrinth is the making of the largest flash memory company ahead of the current market leader Samsung. According to TrendForce, the combined entity comprising flash operations of Kioxia and Western Digital will amount to 34% of the NAND flash market. That will bring Samsung to number two, SK hynix with its Solidigm subsidiary to number three, and Micron to number four, respectively.

Cyclical flash market

The memory chip industry is known for its cyclical nature, and the news about merger talks between Kioxia and Western Digital brings no surprise. We’ll know in a few weeks how this liaison ends, but it certainly seems an outcome of the over-supplied and capital-intensive nature of the NAND flash business.

Especially, when NAND flash chips are relentlessly moving toward higher layer count, it’s imperative that memory chip supplier has sufficient capital cushion against market volatility. What goes in the favor of this potential merger is that unlike its three major competitors—Samsung, SK hynix, and Micron—it’s not in the DRAM memory business.

Still, while economic realities have brought the two companies back to negotiating table, it’s far from over. Besides the tricky challenge of valuation discrepancies, the merger will likely face anti-trust scrutiny.

Both companies have declined to comment on the merger talks.

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Transtector Announces New Line of TC-ER-Rated Tray Cable

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 15:30

Power Cable Is in Bulk Rolls to Enable Custom Lengths to Be Cut on Job Sites

Transtector, an Infinite Electronics brand and a leading provider of end-to-end power and signal integrity solutions, has released a new line of exposed-run, TC-ER-rated tray cable. It was designed to hold up under extreme heat and moisture and comes in bulk reels so installers can determine length requirements in the field.

The outdoor-capable power cable is offered in shielded and unshielded versions. The shielded power cord bulk cable has conductive material to protect signals from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). This includes potential disruption from nearby power lines, motors, electronic devices, and wireless signals, as well as cross-talk from nearby cables. It is also grounded to provide a path for induced currents to flow away harmlessly without affecting the internal signals.

Both versions of the new power cable satisfy multiple UL ratings and a VW-1 burn rating, have a wide temperature range, and are available in multiple wire gauges and conductor counts. They are designed for use with antenna and tower runs with high-power APs, telecom, factory automation, crypto rigs, field repair and DC Defender products. They can be used for DC power, building wiring, anything industrial with terminal-block power, and more.

For versatility, the new 600-volt tray cable is available in multiple combinations of gauges and conductor counts. They come in 10 AWG, 12 AWG and 14 AWG, and each gauge is offered with a choice between two conductors or three conductors.

The exposed-run tray cable meets three key Underwriters Laboratories specifications. UL 83 is a safety standard for thermoplastic-insulated wires. UL 1277 covers electrical power and control cables with two or more current-carrying conductors. UL 1581 is a reference standard for cable performance under high temperatures.

This new 600-volt power cable protects signals from water, UV rays and high heat. The cable’s thermoplastic heat and water-resistant nylon-coated (THWN) and thermoplastic high-heat-resistant (THHN) jacket is suitable for both wet and dry locations. The PVC-clad cable has also passed a VW-1 flame test and carries a “fire-resistant” designation. It holds up under operating temperatures of -40° F to +190° F (-40° C to +90° C).

“We offer our new exposed-run tray cable in bulk reels to allow installers to determine custom length requirements on the job site,” said Product Line Manager Dan Rebeck. “And with Transtector you can buy it from the vendor you are already getting your cable assemblies, surge protectors and power cords from.”

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Microchip Introduces Its First Automotive-Qualified 10BASE-T1S Ethernet Devices

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 15:27

The LAN8670/1/2 family of Ethernet PHYs simplifies architecture to connect low-speed devices into a standard Ethernet network

Automotive designers are looking to replace legacy gateway subsystems with technology that can migrate applications to an Ethernet network to easily access information from the edge to the cloud. To provide OEMs with automotive-qualified Ethernet solutions, Microchip Technology Incorporated announces its first automotive-qualified Ethernet PHYs. This family of 10BASE-T1S devices with AEC-Q100 Grade 1 qualification includes the LAN8670, LAN8671 and LAN8672.

The LAN8670/1/2 10BASE-T1S Ethernet PHYs are functional safety ready and designed for use in ISO 26262 applications. These devices now make it possible to connect low-speed devices that previously required their own communication systems into a standard Ethernet system in automotive applications.

“Microchip continues to prioritize connectivity solutions for the automotive industry with the expansion of its line of 10BASE-T1S products,” said Matthias Kaestner, vice president of Microchip’s automotive products business unit. “This new technology will connect the sensors and actuators used in the physical world all the way to the cloud, and it will enable a seamless Ethernet architecture everywhere.”

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The ability to connect multiple Ethernet PHYs to a common bus line makes it simpler to implement automotive applications on a single, well-known architecture and saves implementation costs by reducing cabling and switch ports. The LAN8670/1/2 enables the network edges to use Ethernet and Internet Protocol (IP) to easily communicate with the rest of the network infrastructure. These devices include advanced PHY diagnostics to provide the user with troubleshooting capabilities. In addition, sleep/wake functionality allows for low-power modes.

The 10BASE-T1S device specifications include 10 Mbps, half-duplex mode, flexible topology with multidrop bus line and point-to-point and use a single balanced pair of conductors. These devices also feature enhanced electromagnetic compatibility/electromagnetic interference (EMC/EMI) performance. Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) support allows for synchronized timing across far-reaching Ethernet networks. Time synchronization is critical for many applications throughout automotive zonal architectures.

Microchip was a key contributor in the development of the standards with IEEE for the automotive-qualified 10BASE-T1S technology. This technology simplifies system design by expanding the reach of Ethernet to the devices that are typically at the very edge of the network.

Development Tools

The LAN8670/1/2 10BASE-T1S Ethernet PHYs are supported with the EVB-LAN8670-RMII, EVB-LAN8670-USB and MPLAB Harmony v3.

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Smart power switch family Power PROFET™ + 12V enables modern power distribution architectures with lowest ohmic switches for automotive applications

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 15:22

Since relays and fuses cannot meet the requirements of modern E/E vehicle architectures, partial or complete electrification of the primary and secondary power distribution must be taken into account. To address this issue, Infineon Technologies AG has launched a new generation of ultra-low ohmic high-side switches in a TO-leadless package, the Power PROFET + 12V switch family.

The Power PROFET + 12V allows for new mounting locations and new enclosure options, enabling the next generation of decentralized power architectures with high efficiency. Two variants are available: the BTS50005-1LUA with an on-resistance (RDS(ON)) of 0.6 mΩ and the BTS50010-1LUA with an RDS(ON) of 1.0 mΩ for lowest power losses. They are designed to control high-current applications, especially in hot cabin and engine compartment environments for demanding high inrush currents, such as in heaters, pumps and fans. They provide more than 1,000,000 switching cycles compared to, for example, in average 200,000 switching cycles of a relay.

The switches can replace electromechanical relays, fuses and discrete circuits in power distribution boxes and other applications up to 65 A in a 12 V electrical system. Furthermore, the switches offer built-in protection and diagnostic functions, such as short-circuit, over-current and over-temperature protection. As a result, the devices are fully protected and provide a fault signal via the diagnosis enable pin to a connected microcontroller for advanced diagnosis in power distribution modules. With their robustness, protection and diagnosis features the switches improve the reliability of the entire vehicle by preventing failure modes in the power board net.

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The smart power switches are housed in an 8-pin TO leadless package, reducing the footprint by 23 percent compared to D2PAK while providing similar thermal performance. The accuracy of the load current sense has been improved down to five percent and can be evaluated by reading an analog voltage on the IS pin. In addition, the switch family is PRO-SIL™ ISO 26262-ready and comes with a safety application note supporting the evaluation of hardware elements according to ISO 26262.

To enable easy design-in process of Power PROFET™ +12V devices, the family is integrated into the Infineon Smart Power Switches Intrinsic Fuse Tool and the Infineon Smart Power Switches kILIS Tool, both available in the Infineon Developer Center. The Smart Power Switches Intrinsic Fuse tool allows to calculate the intrinsic fusing characteristic based on the embedded overtemperature protection of the respective selected product under certain boundary conditions. The kILIS tool is used for calculating and visualizing the range of the sense current for specific load currents on the respective selected product, taking the kILIS rate, sense resistor and ADC tolerances into account.


The Power PROFET + 12V switches BTS50005-1LUA and BTS50010-1LUA are in production. An Arduino Shield (BOARD BTS50005-1LUA) is available for easy design-in and evaluation. This family will be soon expanded with devices for 24 V and 48 V power net, samples are available on request.

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Fairview Microwave Releases New Line of AC-Powered Low-Noise Amplifiers

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 15:04

Rugged New AC-Powered Low-Noise Amplifiers Provide Superior Broadband Performance

Fairview Microwave, an Infinite Electronics brand and a leading provider of on-demand RF, microwave and millimeter-wave components, has launched a new series of AC-powered low-noise amplifiers designed for enhanced broadband performance.

Fairview’s new line of AC-powered low-noise amplifiers features state-of-the-art GaAs semiconductor technology, enabling the amplifiers to achieve unparalleled low-noise performance and high efficiency that improve signal-to-noise ratios and allow for the detection of weak signals.

With octave bandwidths ranging from 10 MHz up to 50 GHz, a 3 dB typical noise figure, and gain levels ranging from 25 to 60 dB, these amplifiers offer exceptional performance and versatility that makes them ideal for use in a wide range of applications. They cover popular market bands, including UHF, VHF, L, C, S, X, Ku, Ka, and up to V band, to cutting-edge technologies such as 5G, satellite communication and space systems.

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These AC-powered low-noise amplifiers are built to withstand harsh environmental conditions, with their rugged MIL-grade coaxial packages with integrated heatsinks, enabling reliable operation even in extreme temperatures ranging from  -40° F to +185° F (-40°C to +85°C).

Additionally, these amplifiers are designed with customer convenience in mind, featuring support for SMA, 2.92 mm, or 2.4 mm RF connectors. This allows for easy integration and compatibility with a wide range of RF components and systems.

“Our new amplifiers’ superior performance and reliability are sure to meet your RF and microwave component needs,” said Product Line Manager Tim Galla. “The rugged MIL-grade coaxial package designs, integrated heatsinks and support for multiple RF connectors make these amplifiers perfect for use in many applications, from laboratory settings to the most challenging environmental conditions.”

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Best Electric Bikes in USA

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 15:04

As the world embraces sustainable transportation options, electric bikes have gained immense popularity. These environmentally friendly vehicles combine the joy of cycling with the convenience of electric power, offering an exciting and efficient way to experience outdoor adventures. Opting for the top electric bikes is a wise decision if you seek an affordable, user-friendly, and eco-conscious mode of transportation. Commonly known as e-bikes, the best models on the market today come in a variety of styles and sizes, making it challenging to find the perfect fit for your requirements. This blog post delves into exploring electric bikes and highlights some of the finest options available in the USA.

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1. Ribble Hybrid AL e

The Ribble Hybrid AL e emerges as an exceptional electric bike, standing as the ultimate hybrid option within its range. Whether you’re in search of a convenient commuting option or a bike for leisurely weekend rides, this electric hybrid possesses all the desirable qualities. Its charging time is remarkably quick, requiring only 3.5 hours to fully charge from empty, and it enables riders to enjoy up to 60 miles of power-assisted cycling across various terrains. With three levels of assistance to choose from (although we found the highest level to be the most enjoyable), riders have the freedom to personalize their riding experience. Furthermore, the Ebikemotion companion app offers turn-by-turn navigation and real-time ride statistics, enhancing the overall biking experience.

2. Rad Power Bikes

With its wide selection of top-notch and budget-friendly models, Rad Power Bikes has transformed the electric bike market. Whether you’re a city dweller looking for a convenient commuting option or an adventurous trail enthusiast seeking thrilling rides, Rad Power Bikes has something to offer for everyone. From their flagship RadRover electric fat bike to the stylish RadCity commuter bike, their lineup encompasses diverse options that cater to a range of needs and preferences.

3. Ride1Up Prodigy XR

Offering exceptional value for its price, the Ride1Up Prodigy is an e-bike equipped with a mid-drive system that amplifies the power generated through pedalling. Unlike bikes with throttles, this model prioritizes enhancing your efforts and delivering a comfortable riding experience while still relying on your input. The aim is to maximize your pedalling efficiency and enable you to cover greater distances. During testing, it showcased a respectable range of 26 miles on a single charge, especially in its ‘turbo’ mode for more demanding usage. While there may be higher-end bikes available, they often come with significantly higher price tags within the mid-drive e-bike category. Weighing in at 25kg, the Ride1Up Prodigy may be relatively heavier, but it surpasses expectations in terms of value for money, offering exceptional performance within its weight class.

4. Specialized Turbo Levo

Juiced Bikes focuses on delivering high-performance electric bikes designed for speed enthusiasts. Their range of models, including the Scorpion and HyperScorpion, showcases remarkable top speeds and formidable motors. Juiced Bikes also offer long-range options for those seeking extended adventures without compromising on performance.

5. Yamaha Power Assist Bicycles

Drawing upon their renowned expertise in motorized vehicles, Yamaha applies their engineering prowess to the realm of electric bikes. Yamaha Power Assist Bicycles flawlessly integrate electric power, sleek design, and exceptional performance. With a range of models tailored for commuting, off-roading, or leisurely rides, Yamaha’s electric bikes cater to diverse types of riders.

6. Trek Electric Bikes

Trek, a well-known name in the bicycle manufacturing industry, has seamlessly entered the electric bike market. Leveraging their expertise in advanced technology and meticulous craftsmanship, Trek Electric Bikes provide riders with an exceptional and enhanced riding experience. Their lineup includes a versatile hybrid electric bike called Dual Sport+ and the impressive and stylish Super Commuter+, combining performance, durability, and appealing aesthetics.

7. Juiced Bikes 

Juiced Bikes specializes in providing high-performance electric bikes specifically designed for speed enthusiasts. Their models, including the Scorpion and HyperScorpion, offer impressive top speeds and robust motors. Additionally, Juiced Bikes caters to individuals seeking long-range options, providing the ability to embark on extended adventures without compromising on performance.

8. Specialized Turbo Vado 4.0

In 2022, the Specialized Turbo Vado 4.0 underwent a redesign, establishing itself as the premier option for a versatile electric bike in the market. Enhanced with an upgraded battery capacity, it provides ample power and an impressive range of up to 90 miles when utilizing pedal assistance.

9. Gocycle G4 

The Gocycle G4 is an outstanding choice for discerning commuters in search of a high-end electric bike, especially those who prioritize folding capabilities. This e-bike surpasses its predecessors with its remarkably smooth power assistance, owing to its latest and most advanced motor. Furthermore, it offers an impressive range of up to 40 miles on a rapid charge. Gocycle further enhances the bike’s performance in terms of power assistance and range by providing a thoughtfully designed smartphone app for customization. If budget is not a constraint, the Gocycle G4 unquestionably stands as the pinnacle of folding e-bikes currently available.

10. Specialized Turbo Creo SL Expert

Boasting sleek road aesthetics and equipped with a robust 240W motor for dynamic power assistance, the Specialized Turbo Creo SL Expert distinguishes itself as one of the most fashionable electric bikes on the market. The bike showcases exceptional craftsmanship through its high-quality components, ensuring a premium riding experience. 


In Conclusion

The world of cycling has experienced a remarkable revolution thanks to the advent of electric bikes, offering a sustainable and enjoyable mode of transportation. Selecting the best electric bike in the USA requires careful consideration of personal preferences and specific needs, given the wide range of brands and models available. Within this blog post, you will find a selection of notable electric bike options that serve as an excellent starting point for exploration. These options include renowned brands such as Rad Power Bikes, Trek Electric Bikes, Specialized Turbo Levo, Yamaha Power Assist Bicycles, and Juiced Bikes. These recommendations aim to provide an overview of the diverse array of electric bikes on offer, assisting readers in their exploration of this exciting market.

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DigiKey Adds 175,000+ New SKUs Year-to-Date in 2023

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 14:56

DigiKey, a leading global commerce distributor offering the largest selection of technical components and automation products in stock for immediate shipment, announced that it has significantly expanded its portfolio in 2023 by adding over 175,000 new stocking parts year-to-date including nearly 40,000 newly introduced product SKUs across its core business.

DigiKey has introduced more than 175,000 new SKUs year-to-date in 2023, including Renesas Electronics’ RZ/T2L Arm® Cortex®-R52 MPU, a high-performance MPU designed for real-time control with EtherCAT.

“As the industry makes adjustments after three years of a roller coaster ride, DigiKey continues its steadfast commitment to be the industry’s distributor with the largest supplier portfolio and widest product offering,” said Mike Slater, vice president, global business development for DigiKey. “DigiKey continues to add products and the newest technologies in key verticals including automation, power, wireless and automotive in order to maintain our industry leading breadth of product offering. We are delivering the newest and most comprehensive selection of technologies to our customers – engineers, designers and builders – always striving to move their ideas forward.”

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Some of the key NPIs now available through DigiKey include:
  • ROHM: The GNP1070TC-Z and GNP1150TCA-Z deliver industry-leading performance in terms of RDS(ON) × Ciss/RDS(ON) × Coss, a figure of merit for GaN HEMTs, translating to higher efficiency in power supply systems. At the same time, a built-in ESD protection element improves electrostatic breakdown resistance up to 3.5kV, leading to higher application reliability. GaN HEMTs’ high-speed switching characteristics also contribute to greater miniaturization of peripheral components.
  • Knowles: The Knowles V2S200D is designed to selectively pick up the speaker’s voice while suppressing all the other sounds – allowing for a comfortable and frustration-free voice call experience. Its small size, high signal-to-noise ratio and low power offer an ideal solution to customers looking to enhance the user experience of their products.
  • Renesas Electronics: The RZ/T2L ARM Cortex-R52 Microprocessor IC achieves high-speed processing with real-time, high-precision control with EtherCAT to support a multitude of industrial system applications; all while simplifying implementation.
  • EAO: The EAO Series 09 Universal Switch is ideally suited for use in vehicle interiors. Combining different switches enables a wide range of applications and layouts to be implemented. This design is ideal for safety-relevant applications with a wide range of designs and application-specific configuration options.
  • Molex: The Molex PowerWize Blind-Mate Interface (BMI) interconnects enable trouble-free mating in drawer-style applications where the connectors are obscured. It is ideal for Telecommunications/Networking, Data Centers and Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Stations.

DigiKey is an authorized distributor of electronic components for more than 2,400 industry-leading suppliers, ensuring engineers, designers, procurement professionals and builders that the products they order are authentic and come to DigiKey directly from the manufacturer.

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Button Board releases the tiniest yet powerful AI enabled development board

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 14:45

ButtonBoard is an innovative circuit board designed by ButtonBoard LLC. to transform digital interactions and connectivity for individuals and businesses through a wide range of capable projects. With cutting-edge technology like OTA and wireless connectivity at its core, ButtonBoard revolutionizes efficiency and simplifies IOT communication and Wearable design in a remarkably compact yet powerful package with many inbuilt sensors in size of just 3 cm. It is a circuit board that is almost the size of a quarter but surpasses other boards in the same segment in terms of capabilities, despite its compact size.

“At ButtonBoard LLC, we believe in simplifying technology to enhance our lives. With the launch of ButtonBoard, we are excited to offer a solution for creators that seamlessly connects people using IOT and wearable electronics with systems, empowering individuals and businesses to achieve greater efficiency and productivity,” said Mr. Ashwini Kumar, CTO at ButtonBoard LLC.


The board enables GPT interfaces through APIs and includes tinyml, tensorflow lite and similar software interfaces that allows developers and creators to begin with AI projects. Additionally, Chat GPT assistance is available on the platform’s website to help authors finish their ideas. It gives engineers a disruptive tool that may help with creating code, recommending circuits, and resolving design issues.

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“With ButtonBoard’s AI-powered capabilities, the future is at your fingertips. Unleash the potential of artificial intelligence in a compact circuit board.” Mr. Alan Jacob, Co-founder at ButtonBoard LLC added.

Unlike other boards and kits, ButtonBoard has built-in sensors and a power voltage regulator for effective power management, which other boards and kits are unable to provide for wearable electronics design engineers. It is perfect for designing wearable electronics and miniaturizing electrical circuits since it contains a variety of sensors in the small package that is just 3 cm in diameter.

ButtonBoard serves as a highly capable and portable circuit board that can be used in countless environments, thanks to its built-in temperature, humidity, air pressure, and motion sensors. Its small size opens the doors for creators to design motion tracking, air gesture recognition, and global positioning with the help of GPS. The altitude sensor further enhances the possibilities for tracking. Additionally, ButtonBoard is capable of WiFi mesh, which boosts the design and engineering of new products and projects.

Key Features of ButtonBoard:

  • Complete IoT system in a coin-shaped form factor, measuring 3cm in diameter, saves you space constraints in wearable electronics design and project prototyping.
  • OTA firmware upgrades/uploads support helps in updating and upgrading the deployment without any hassle, speeding up prototyping and design.
  • Support for CHAT GPT on board, plus GPT helpdesk on the ButtonBoard Web platform, opens the doors for learners and/or design engineers.
  • With its own power management system and various sensors, it provides a perfect IoT and wearable electronic design.

The DIY electronics company plans to use its fundraising page and main website for sales, membership, and kits, empowering them to provide the best glimpse of the future to young circuitry innovators in the USA, India, South Africa, and many other countries around the globe.

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Optical Spectrum Analyzers Market Demand to Bolster with the Increasing Demand for High-speed Data Transfer Rates and the Adoption of 5G Technology, FMI Report

ELE Times - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 14:31

The global optical spectrum analyzer market is anticipated to be worth US$ 361.8 million in 2023. By 2033, the market is estimated to increase at a 5.7% CAGR to reach US$ 631.8 million.

The increasing demand for high-speed networks is one of the primary growth drivers in the optical spectrum analyzer market. With the increasing use of cloud-based services, big data analytics, and the Internet of Things (IoT), there is an increased demand for high-speed data transmission and low latency. Optical spectrum analyzers are becoming more popular in the telecom and data communication industries because they play an important role in guaranteeing the quality and reliability of optical communication networks.

The advent of new applications, such as optical sensing and testing, is another driver fueling the expansion of the optical spectrum analyzer market. A growing number of businesses are using optical spectrum analyzers for testing and measuring purposes, including the characterization of optical components, laser diodes, and optical sensors. The popularity of optical spectrum analyzers is also being fueled by the expanding need for sophisticated analysis tools in R&D operations.

One of the major trends in the optical spectrum analyzer market is the incorporation of cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in optical spectrum analyzer systems. The demand for more precise and trustworthy data analysis as well as the growing complexity of optical communication networks are the driving forces behind this movement.

The combination of optical spectrum analyzer systems with other testing and measuring tools, such as optical time-domain reflectometers (OTDRs) and optical power meters, is another development in the market for optical spectrum analyzers. With this integration, optical networks will be more thoroughly analyzed while testing and measurement tasks will take less time and money.

“The growing demand in the IT and telecommunications industries has a significant positive impact on the optical spectrum analyzer market. Portable optical spectrum analyzers are becoming more popular across a range of industries” States a Future Market Insights Analyst

Restraints and Opportunities for Manufacturers in the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Industry

The high cost of these systems is one of the major barriers to the optical spectrum analyzer market. When compared to other testing and measurement tools, optical spectrum analyzers are relatively expensive, which may prevent some businesses from adopting them.

Despite these obstacles, the optical spectrum analyzer market offers several expansion prospects. The growing need for advanced analysis tools across a variety of sectors, including aerospace and defense, automotive, and healthcare, represents significant potential. These industries are anticipated to adopt optical spectrum analyzers as a result of this demand, opening up new potential prospects for market participants.

Key Takeaways from the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Market:
  • The optical spectrum analyzer industry in the United States is estimated to account for 20.2% of the global market in 2023.
  • Throughout the forecast period, Germany’s optical spectrum analyzer industry is expected to retain a 2.3% market share.
  • China is expected to develop at a 7.0% CAGR from 2023 to 2033.
  • Throughout the forecast period, the optical spectrum analyzer industry in India is expected to rise at an 8.6% CAGR.
  • Throughout the projected period, the optical spectrum analyzer market in the United Kingdom is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.9%.
  • In 2023, the benchtop segment is expected to account for 70.0% of the optical spectrum analyzer industry.

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Innovate or Fall Behind: Growth Strategies for Key Players in the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Industry

Product Innovation: Key players invest heavily in research and development to introduce new and advanced optical spectrum analyzers to the market. They continuously improve the performance, speed, and accuracy of their optical spectrum analyzers to meet the changing needs of customers.

Strategic Partnerships: The industry’s leading players collaborate with other companies to expand their product portfolios and enhance their distribution networks. Partnerships enable key players to reach new markets and customers, as well as reduce manufacturing costs.

Expansion into Emerging Markets: Key players are expanding their operations into emerging markets, such as Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, to capitalize on the increasing demand for fiber optic technology in these regions.

Mergers and Acquisitions: Key players often acquire smaller companies to expand their product lines, gain access to new technologies, and consolidate their market position.

Focus on Customer Service: Key players provide excellent customer service by offering technical support, training programs, and consulting services to their customers.

Carving a Niche in the Spectrum: Thriving Strategies for New Entrants in the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Market

Focus on Niche Markets: New entrants should focus on niche markets to differentiate themselves from key players. They can offer specialized optical spectrum analyzers for specific applications or industries, such as healthcare or aerospace.

Leverage Emerging Technologies: New entrants can leverage emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, to develop more advanced optical spectrum analyzers with higher accuracy and speed.

Develop Partnerships: New entrants can develop partnerships with other companies to expand their product portfolios and reach new markets.

Invest in Research and Development: New entrants should invest in research and development to introduce new and innovative optical spectrum analyzers to the market.

Provide Excellent Customer Service: New entrants should focus on providing excellent customer service by offering technical support, training programs, and consulting services to their customers.

An In-Depth Look at the Fierce Competition in the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Industry

The optical spectrum analyzer market is fiercely competitive and changing quickly. The need for more precise and accurate measurements in the telecommunications, healthcare, and research sectors, as well as the rising need for high-speed data transmission, are the main drivers of the business.

The industry is distinguished by quick technological development and innovation, with participants consistently aiming to enhance the functionality, dependability, and user-friendliness of their products. To produce newer, more sophisticated technologies, there is a strong emphasis on research and development, which leads to regular product launches and upgrades. For participants in the industry, the advent of new technologies like silicon photonics is anticipated to open up further potential opportunities.

Key Players in the Optical Spectrum Analyzer Industry:

The key players in the industry are Agilent Technologies, Anritsu Corporation, Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Keysight Technologies, Advantest Corporation, Thorlabs, EXFO, Viavi Solutions, and others. These companies compete on various parameters such as product features, pricing, customer service, and brand reputation.

Recent Developments in the Market,
  • In 2021, Yokogawa Test & Measurement releases the AQ6380 Optical Spectrum Analyzer Industry-leading performance in dispersive spectroscopy achieves a 5 pm wavelength resolution which is designed for researchers and developers who undertake optical spectrum measurements with high wavelength resolution and a wide dynamic range in optical communication wavelength bands.

In 2021, Viavi Solutions collaborated with Capgemini Engineering in Portugal to deliver an industry-leading 5G and O-RAN lab test capability, powered by VIAVI’s O-RAN Lab as a Service (LaaS).

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SD card speeds: question your assumptions

EDN Network - Wed, 07/19/2023 - 04:47

As I dive further down the rabbit hole of ultra-high-res videography, I’m realizing not only how much more expensive the gear itself is but also the notable incremental cost of its associated storage media. Take SD cards, for example. Perusing B&H Photo Video’s website as a case study example, I see (as I write this in mid-June) the following listed prices for 128 GByte SDXC cards:

Comparative bill of materials costs, along with both supply and demand, are all factors in these notable discrepancies. In fairness, for example, faster cards are likely based on faster flash memories, specifically (as I’ve written before) those that don’t strive to squeeze as many bits into each storage transistor (i.e., for those familiar with the lingo, single- or multi-level cell, versus triple- or quad-level cell). Such memory variants have inherently higher read and write performance due to decreased decode and encode latency, among other factors, and they also tend to deliver inherently higher data reliability at the tradeoff of inherently higher cost per bit.

Further complicating the equation is the fact that flash memory suppliers sometimes combine triple- or quad-level and single- or dual-level memory “flavors” on one sliver of die, with the latter acting as a higher-speed buffer for small-sized data and file transfers (albeit not being particularly effective, for example, with long video recording sessions). And at the card level, the flash memories are sometimes further supplemented by even higher performance albeit fundamentally volatile DRAM buffers. The memory card controller not only has to juggle these various memory types, it also often accesses multiple memory die (and sub-arrays within each die) in parallel to further boost effective throughput. And on the system side, controller cost and complexity are further magnified by the need to implement the advanced UHS-II interface.

The previous two paragraphs have focused primarily on the “comparative bill of materials costs” aspect of my premise. What about the supply-and-demand angle that I also mentioned earlier? Putting aside the intrinsic “does it function or not” yield aspect, keep in mind that just as with microprocessors, memories also need to meet a set of precise timing specifications to be sold at a particular speed bin rating. The more stringent the timings, the lower the yield percentage to higher performance speed bins: specific to this discussion, the supply of v90-capable flash memories is presumably lower than that of v60 and (especially) v30-and-slower siblings. And from the demand side, higher-performance memory cards are predominantly used by deep-pocketed enthusiasts and (especially) professionals, who are willing to pay extra for high-speed capability and long-term functional dependability.

This perhaps long-winded academic primer sets the stage for today’s real-life recounting. Regular readers may recall that back in March, I used my early 2015 13” Retina MacBook Pro’s SD card slot (along with, eventually, my eyes) to figure out that a PNY 128 GByte SDXD card labeled as a v60 UHS-II model was actually a slower UHS-I device. Those four PNY cards plus four Sony-branded ones I also bought at around that same time were intended for my two Micro Four Thirds cameras, a Panasonic GH5 and GH5S, each integrating dual SD card slots.

What I’ve subsequently also added to the photography and videography stable…sigh…are two gently used Blackmagic Pocket Cinema 6Ks; an original and the newer, larger, more capable G2:

Both cameras also have dual memory card slots, albeit divergent from the Panasonics when it comes to card type and speed specifics. There’s only one SDCX slot per camera this time, and befitting the 6K-peak video capture resolutions, it needs to be v90 in write speed. The other slot takes a CFast card, which essentially is a SATA interface SSD in a smaller form factor (quick aside: the CFexpress card successor to CFast is, perhaps unsurprisingly, a NVMe interface SSD in a smaller form factor). The 256 GByte Lexar CFast 2.0 cards, for example, are currently selling brand new for $299.99 at B&H Photo Video:

The “brand new” qualifier in the previous paragraph is key. To lessen the fiscal damage of my latest tech addiction, I’ve broken a longstanding brand-new-only rule, instead acquiring used storage devices. Specifically, I’ve sourced a bunch of both SDXC and CFast 2.0 memory cards from Lensrentals.com, a leading supplier of rental and used-for-purchase “glass” and other gear for photography and videography professionals. Why? Check out the price comps:

The benefits of going used are obvious, at least from a pricing standpoint. But what about the performance; do already-used cards still deliver spec speeds? The two used Lexar CFast 2.0 cards I bought sure did; here’s how they delivered versus a brand new 1 TByte KingSpec card under Blackmagic’s Disk Speed Test (as-always set to its largest 5 GB payload “stress” option) when using a Lexar Workflow CR2 card reader tethered to the laptop’s Thunderbolt 2 port:

But what about the SD cards? At first, I inserted them directly into the laptop’s card reader slot, which from prior experience I knew could speed-differentiate between UHS-I and UHS-II cards:

That’s not good. V90 cards are supposed to at minimum sustain 90 MB/sec read and write transfer rates. None of the three did that, although they came close. I almost returned them for a refund, but I first decided to do more experimentation. My CFast 2.0 cards performed well over Thunderbolt 2 (TB2); how would my SD cards do? As far as I know, nobody makes (or has ever made) a dedicated TB2-based SD card reader, and my CalDigit TB2 dock doesn’t include a SD card slot, but I jerry-rigged the next best thing: my CalDigit Thunderbolt 3 (TB3) dock:

in combination with a TB2 cable and an Apple TB3-to-TB2 adapter:

That’s more like it, at least for two of the three cards. One of the Angelbirds was still underperforming. On a hunch, since the card had been previously used (how much I didn’t know) and I suspected its linked-list-based file system might be rife with performance-sapping obsolete-file cruft, I did a full (versus “quick”) reformat in Windows and tried again. Still not up to par with the others, at least from a write speed standpoint, but much better than before:

At this point, I started getting more curious, particularly because I was looking for something more portable and otherwise convenient for speedy SD card access purposes. In the regularly updated “Fastest SD Card Speed Tests” study, the author uses a ProGrade Digital card reader, which “gives me the most reliable and consistent results, especially with the newer, faster cards.” I picked up one of the company’s CFast and SD UHS-II dual-slot memory card readers, since I was using both card types, and retested the SD cards with the ProGrade reader tethered to the laptop via a USB-C to USB-A 3.0 adapter cable:

And how would my CFast 2.0 cards perform using the same reader and system interface? Only one way to find out…

I’ll pause at this point with a question: why does the MacBook Pro’s built-in SD card reader so significantly underperform an external reader mated to the computer via either USB-A 3.0 or (especially) Thunderbolt 2? It isn’t because the built-in reader is connected internally to the system over 480 Mbps (max) USB 2.0, I can say with certainty: I simulated just such a scenario by connecting the ProGrade reader to the laptop via a USB-C to USB 2.0 adapter:

The MacBook Pro’s integrated reader isn’t that bad! So, what else could the root cause be? I also had on hand a Unitek USB 3.0 reader, which user comments claim performs at only USB 2.0 speeds in spite of its USB 3.0-suggestive connector. Mine ran faster than that, though; perhaps I ended up with a v2 fixed unit:

Interestingly, these results are reminiscent of those I’d seen with the MacBook Pro’s integrated reader. Keep in mind that the Unitek reader currently sells for less than $20 (brand new, at least; mine was a sub-$10 Amazon Warehouse purchase), while ProGrade readers are around $80 (brand new; mine was an open-box unit at a notable discount to MSRP). Perhaps Unitek and Apple just both went with inexpensive, lower-performance SD-to-USB 3.0 chipsets, the former targeting a price-sensitive standalone reader and the latter in aspiration of a reduced system BOM cost. Conversely, ironically, I also tested Apple’s standalone USB-C SD card reader mated with a generic USB 3.0 adapter; the combo performed stunningly well:

In closing, what can I conclude? This situation, and the resulting experimentation, reminded me of something I’ve periodically encountered since my high school science and (especially) college engineering classes, as well as in my professional career since then: question your assumptions. Not ad infinitum, mind you; at some point you need to move forward with the development of your project, for better or worse. But on the other hand, you don’t want to grasp at an answer that’s easy, and/or speedy, and/or allow yourself to point the blame finger elsewhere. Do that and you may end up with the blame finger pointed back at you, for wasting more time and money in the long term than if you’d just pondered a bit more in the short term. That’s always the tricky balancing act, isn’t it…not too little, not too much? If you’ve had a similar situation in the past, your fellow readers and I would appreciate hearing about it in the comments.

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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Overengineered much?

Reddit:Electronics - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 23:01
Overengineered much?

So my better half bought an unworking snoo baby bassinet; it's a crib that has an oscillating base to rock the baby back and forth. Anywhoo, I'm dismantling it to replace the motor bearings and repair the snipped wires from the previous owner. I think he cut wires rather than disconnecting them off the main board because he didn't have the tools to get as far as the board. Its got WiFi of course, so I was expecting an ESP or some such MCU and a motor driver, but the main board is pictured below. Can't believe how complicated it is to achieve this functionality.

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Power Tips #118: How to characterize a power transformer for EMI performance

EDN Network - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 16:43

Power transformers are often the main source of common-mode noise in isolated switching power converters. Why? Because inside the transformer, the windings on the primary and secondary sides of the isolation barrier are in close proximity—usually separated by less than 1 mm—resulting in significant parasitic capacitance between the adjacent windings.

The voltages that appear on these windings typically have large AC content. For example, in the flyback converter shown in Figure 1, the primary winding connects to the drain of the primary switch, which has a voltage waveform with large AC content across many frequencies. This AC voltage injects common-mode currents from primary to secondary through the parasitic capacitance, which is often the source of many electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

Figure 1 Common mode noise created by a flyback power transformer. Source: Texas Instruments

Thankfully, transformer design techniques such as shielding and common-mode balancing can minimize the transformer impact on EMI, as discussed in the Texas Instruments Power Supply Design Seminar paper, “Flyback Transformer Design Considerations for Efficiency and EMI”. It can be quite difficult and time consuming, however, to check how much your transformer contributes to EMI and how to optimize the transformer construction. For each transformer design that you want to test, you need to solder the transformer into the PCB, take your power converter to an EMI test fixture, and run the scans. If the EMI performance of your transformer is not acceptable, you need to unsolder it from your PCB and try again.

In this Power Tip, I will show you a very easy way to check the EMI performance of your transformer before ever soldering it into your board.

Using only a function generator and an oscilloscope, you can mimic the conditions seen by the transformer in the circuit and measure the transformer’s common-mode EMI signature. The diagram in Figure 2 shows how to configure this measurement for the transformer used in Figure 1. Notice that this transformer has two windings on the primary (WP and WAUX) and one winding on the secondary (WS).

First, use a short piece of wire to tie the AC quiet nodes together on the primary. An AC quiet node is any pin on the transformer that ties to primary ground in the circuit, either directly to or through a capacitor. In this example, both Pin 2 and Pin 3 are AC quiet nodes on the primary side of the isolation barrier. If you have a transformer with multiple windings on the secondary, you will also need to tie all of the secondary quiet nodes together, but do not connect them to the primary quiet node.

Figure 2 Transformer CMRR test setup that uses a short piece of wire to tie the AC quiet nodes together on the primary and secondary, and applies a small sinewave across the primary winding to measure the ratio between the voltage induced between the primary and secondary AC quiet nodes and the voltage injected by the function generator, or CMRR. Source: Texas Instruments

Next, use the function generator to apply a small sinewave across the primary winding of the transformer. This mimics the primary winding voltage, but now you are testing at a single frequency with a safe and low voltage. The amplitude of the signal is not significant, as the parasitic capacitances of the transformer are largely independent of the voltage amplitude.

Finally, using one channel of the scope, measure the voltage injected by the function generator. With another channel, measure the voltage induced between the primary and secondary AC quiet nodes. The ratio of these two signals is essentially the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and is an indication of how much your power transformer will contribute to common-mode noise at that frequency.

Figure 3 shows the results of this test at 100 kHz for two different transformers. The construction used for transformer #1 results in a CMRR of –39.6 dB, while the CMRR for transformer #2 is higher, measuring –31.4 dB. This indicates that transformer #1 will produce less common-mode noise than transformer #2. With the function generator, you can investigate the transformers’ characteristics at different frequencies. 

Figure 3 The time domain transformer CMRR test results that indicates that transformer #1 produces less common-mode noise than transformer #2 at the test frequency of 100 kHz. Source: Texas Instruments

Alternatively, you can perform this same test using a frequency response analyzer (FRA) to sweep the frequency of the injected signal across the entire frequency range of interest. Figure 4 shows the FRA measurements of the same two transformers across a wide frequency range of 100 kHz to 30 MHz. Notice that the gain is very flat over a wide range from 100 kHz to around 4 MHz. The gain at 100 kHz correlates very well with the function generator test, indicating that the function generator test at 100 kHz is sufficient to characterize these transformers across this band of frequencies. At frequencies above a few megahertz, you should measure the CMRR of these transformers at the frequency of interest.

Figure 4 Frequency domain transformer CMRR test results for transformer #1 and #2 across a wide frequency range of 100 kHz to 4 MHz using an FRA. Source: Texas Instruments

Figure 5 shows the results of soldering both of these transformers into the PCB of a switching power converter measuring the conducted EMI against Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques (CISPR) 32 Class B limits. The top limit line corresponds to the quasi-peak measurement, and the lower limit line corresponds to the average measurement. As expected, the EMI results for transformer #2 are worse than transformer #1. In fact, transformer #1 passes with decent margin, whereas transformer #2 barely fails.

Figure 5 Conducted EMI test results for transformers where transformer #1 passes with margin and transformer #2 barely fails. Source: Texas Instruments

Interestingly, both transformers in this example have the same winding structure and construction. The differences in CMRR are completely attributable to variations in the manufacturing process, demonstrating how sensitive EMI can be to transformer construction. Small variations such as the exact placement of individual strands of wire within the transformer or the thickness of insulating layers can have profound effects.

For the example in transformer construction, it’s clear that you can’t be confident that all units in production will pass CISPR 32 conducted EMI limits. One solution is to increase the EMI filtering in the circuit to provide more margin. Another option is to employ the function generator test to screen every transformer sample during production. This test is very similar to the types of tests commonly used to test and screen transformer turn ratios between windings, so no special equipment is required. In the example, only passing transformers with a CMRR less than –38 dB offer a high probability that all units will pass EMI when assembled into a power converter system.

The transformer’s impact on EMI

Debugging EMI issues is fraught with many obstacles and difficulties. The simple measurement technique described in this Power Tip can save you significant time and frustration on the solder bench and in the lab. For your next isolated power-supply design, take a few minutes to measure the CMRR of your power transformers before soldering them into the circuit boards, and then compare the CMRR to the resulting EMI. You will gain a better understanding of the transformer’s impact on EMI, and what level of transformer CMRR will pass EMI in your system.

Brian King is a Systems Manager and Senior Member Technical Staff at Texas Instruments. With over 26 years of experience in power supply design, he has supported over 1300 business opportunities and has designed over 750 unique power supplies using a broad range of TI power supply controllers. Brian has published over 45 articles related to power supply design, and since 2016 has been the lead organizer and content curator for the Texas Instruments Power Supply Design Seminar (PSDS) series.


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RadioWaves Introduces Wi-Fi 6e/7 Point-to-Point Antennas

ELE Times - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 15:27

New Wi-Fi 6e/7 Point-to-Point Antennas Ensure Reliable Usage for Multiple Devices

RadioWaves, an Infinite Electronics brand and a manufacturer of high-quality microwave antennas and accessories, has just introduced a new line of 6 GHz point-to-point antennas for accessing the newest Wi-Fi 6e or Wi-Fi 7 frequency bands.

RadioWaves’ new Wi-Fi 6e/7 point-to-point antennas feature type-N female and RP-SMA male connector options for MIMO applications.

The portfolio contains parabolic antennas with frequency ranges from 4.9 GHz to 7.125 GHz, granting access to the latest Wi-Fi 6e and upcoming Wi-Fi 7 bands.

RadioWaves’ offering includes collapsible and rigid parabolic antennas with 1-foot, 2-foot and 3-foot sizes available. These parabolic antennas are engineered with dual slant and V/H polarization with quick adjustments.

“Our customers need to access the latest 6 GHz bands, including those used in Wi-Fi 6e and Wi-Fi 7, to handle the increasing demands of multiple devices operating at once, without sacrificing their network performance. That’s why we’ve designed these point-to-point antennas − to help their networks reach greater channel bandwidth, increased AP capacity and more efficient bandwidth sharing,” said Kevin Hietpas, Antenna Product Line Manager.

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Optical Spectrum Analyzer MS9740B Enhances High-Power Laser Diode Measurement Function

ELE Times - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 15:22

Contributing to Laser Diode chip production efficiency improvement

Anritsu Corporation (President Hirokazu Hamada) introduces the measurement function (MS9740B-020) for Optical Spectrum Analyzer MS9740B that evaluates a pulsed Laser Diode (LD) chip.
New solution reduces the test time for pulsed LD chip, contributing to improved production efficiency of high-power LD chip.

Development Background

LD chip manufacturers and optical equipment vendors evaluate the optical spectrum of LD chips during manufacturing.

Market demand for high-power LD chips is driven by higher communication bit rates and longer LiDAR detection ranges. In addition, new use cases, such as External Laser Small Pluggable (ELSFP) modules for Co-packaged Optics applications, are expected to accelerate demand. The continuous wave (CW) output from a high-power LD chip suffers power drift and wavelength shift as the chip temperature rises. This is prevented by suppressing the temperature rise by using pulsed LD chips. However, current testing of pulsed LD chips during production takes longer because an external trigger signal is required to synchronize with the pulsed LD chip.

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Product Outline and Features
  • Reduced tact time for pulsed LD chips
    The new MS97040B-020 solution accelerates optical spectrum evaluation by eliminating the need for a trigger signal.
  • Assured measurement reproducibility for even high-power LD chips
    This solution assures measurement reproducibility of ±1.4 dB* for Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR). Low SMSR variation improves the LD chip yield and helps production efficiency.

*±1.8 dB with MS9740B-020 installed

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Top 10 Electric Vehicle Companies in the USA

ELE Times - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 15:14

In the United States, a wide range of electric vehicle (EV) companies flourish, including both emerging startups and long-established automakers. These American EV companies spearhead innovation and technological advancements, focusing on the improvement of batteries, motors, and charging infrastructure. With a growing interest in EVs among the American population, these companies strategically position themselves to seize opportunities in the expanding market. The EV industry in the United States experiences robust growth, witnessing the emergence of new EV companies and electric car manufacturers. Renowned players like Tesla, Rivian, and Lucid Motors have solidified their presence in the American EV industry. Presented below is a compilation of the top 10 Electric Vehicle companies in the USA:

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1. Tesla

 Tesla’s dominance on the list arises from a range of compelling factors that set them apart. They have emerged as leaders in electric vehicle manufacturing, offering a diverse lineup of cars and battery energy storage systems for residential and grid-scale applications. Furthermore, Tesla solidifies its industry influence by supplying vehicle powertrain components to other automakers. Founded in 2003, Tesla has achieved remarkable financial success, with an impressive revenue of USD 81.5 billion in 2022. With a global presence encompassing approximately 48,016 offices and a workforce of around 127,855 employees as of December 2022, Tesla’s vision extends beyond automobiles to comprehensive solutions for sustainable energy generation and storage. Committed to constant innovation and ambitious business expansion, Tesla aims to produce 1.8 million cars by the end of 2023, firmly establishing itself as the leading electric vehicle company in the United States. With a market capitalization of USD 790.94 billion as of June 2023 and a notable growth rate of 103.34%, Tesla confidently advances towards its goals while maintaining its market-leading position.

2. Lucid Motors 

 Lucid Motors, established in 2007, is a prominent American electric vehicle manufacturer. Their flagship offering, the Lucid Air, an upscale electric sedan, was first unveiled in December 2016 and is scheduled for production in 2020. Lucid Motors has achieved considerable revenue of USD 60.82 billion as of 2022 and proudly maintains a distinguished workforce of around 7,200 employees as of December 2022. The company’s primary focus lies in developing the most advanced electric vehicles on a global scale, aiming to position itself as a frontrunner in the luxury electric vehicle market.

3. Nikola 

 Established in 2015 by Trevor Milton, a renowned off-road vehicle designer, Nikola Corporation is an American electric vehicle manufacturer. With investments surpassing $1 billion from renowned supporters such as Bosch, General Electric, and IT execution firm Stifel Nicolaus, Nikola has firmly established itself as a significant contender in the industry. As of 2022, the company has recorded a revenue of USD 11.1 million and has a workforce of approximately 1,310 individuals as of December 2022. Nikola’s mission is to redefine the ownership experience and revolutionize perceptions of transportation. Nikola is making steady progress towards its objectives, as evidenced by its market capitalization of USD 788.47 million as of June 2023.

4. Ford Motor Company 

 Ford made its foray into the electric vehicle (EV) market with the introduction of the Ford Focus Electric, which initially offered a modest range of up to 115 miles. However, the company created a significant impact with the launch of the Mustang Mach-E in 2021. Although traditional Mustang enthusiasts initially expressed resistance towards using the Mustang name for an electric SUV, the Mach-E quickly garnered praise and emerged as one of the most impressive EVs on the market. In fact, it received the prestigious Edmunds Top Rated Luxury EV award for 2021. Ford’s EV segment currently generates revenue of 41.5, solidifying its presence in the EV industry.

5. General Motors

Headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, USA, General Motors (GM) is a prominent global automotive manufacturer. Widely recognized for its extensive lineup of electric models, GM made a significant mark with the introduction of the Chevy Bolt, which became the first affordable electric car to offer a range exceeding 200 miles. With operations spanning more than 100 countries, GM maintains a substantial international presence and serves as a major employer in the United States, employing over 155,000 individuals. Committed to pioneering sustainability, GM has set ambitious goals to reduce its environmental footprint and actively promotes social responsibility.

6. Canoo 

Founded in 2017 by former BMW executive Ulrich Kranz, Canoo Holdings Ltd. is an electric vehicle company driven by a visionary goal. Canoo strives to be a global leader in autonomous electric transportation, focusing on creating the most efficient EVs. Canoo, with current revenue of USD 510.55 million, strives to redefine the ownership experience for customers and revolutionize perceptions of transportation. The company has shown considerable advancement in achieving its goals, evident in its market capitalization of USD 213.80 as of June 2023.

7. Lordsstown Motors 

Lordstown Motors Corporation, an electric vehicle company, was established in 2019 by Steve Burns, a former executive at General Motors. Backed by significant investments totalling over $675 million from prominent investors like General Motors and Workhorse Group, Lordstown has achieved a current revenue of USD 383.00 K as of the end of March 2023. As of December 2022, the company employs around 296 individuals.

8. Hyzon Motors

 Hyzon Motors Inc., founded in 2017 by former Honda executive Hisashi Tsugami, operates as an electric vehicle company. The company has achieved notable success, securing investments exceeding $200 million from prominent investors like Toyota Tsusho and Sumitomo Corporation. As of 2023, Hyzon’s revenue stands at USD 3.73 million, while employing approximately 170 individuals as of June 2023. Hyzon is steadily advancing towards its objectives, evident by its market capitalization of 233.07 million USD as of June 2023.

9. Hyliion 

 Hyliion Inc., established in 2015 by former NASA engineer Thomas Healy, operates as an electric vehicle company. The company has achieved considerable success, securing investments exceeding $200 million from prominent investors such as Carl Icahn and Danaher Corporation. In 2020, Hyliion recorded revenue of 2.1 million USD, while currently employing around 250 individuals as of 2023. Hyliion is making notable progress towards its objectives, as indicated by its market capitalization of $303.79 million as of June 2023.

10. Proterra

Proterra, an American electric vehicle manufacturer, was founded in 2004 by Dale Hill, known for his previous work designing battery-powered golf carts. The company has achieved significant success, securing investments exceeding $600 million from prominent entities like General Motors and Volvo. In 2020, Proterra generated a revenue of USD 118.3 million and presently has a workforce of approximately 816 individuals as of December 202. Proterra is steadily progressing towards its objectives, as indicated by its market capitalization of $257.05 million as of June 2023.



In conclusion, the electric vehicle market in the USA is undergoing a rapid growth phase, propelled by a multitude of companies dedicated to manufacturing exceptional and innovative EVs. The industry’s expansion is primarily fueled by an increased focus on sustainability and reducing carbon emissions. As competition among these companies intensifies, it stimulates greater innovation and technological advancements, thereby driving further progress in the electric vehicle sector.

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Inbase Technologies Launches Boom Box – The Compact Bluetooth Speaker with Wireless Karaoke Mic

ELE Times - Tue, 07/18/2023 - 15:10

Inbase Technologies, a leading brand in mobile accessories, just launched a very unique compact Bluetooth Speaker with a wireless karaoke mic – Boom Box. Designed for those seeking a little more from the usual wireless portable speakers, Inbase Boom Box delivers just that. Packed with a great sound and a loud wireless karaoke mic, this speaker comes with 3 different voice modes for the next-level karaoke experience.

Inbase Boom Box is a great & unique gift item ideal for listening to music, announcements in small gatherings, classroom teaching, practicing singing and more. To keep your karaoke night and your kids engaged, it comes with 3 voice mode changers. Now available across all leading retail outlets and e-commerce portals, at an exclusive launch price of INR 2299. The Inbase Boombox comes in 4 trendy colors – Sunshine Blue, Graphite Black, Baby Pink and Misty Grey.

Nitesh Kumbhat, Co-Founder, Inbase, stated, “At Inbase, we are passionate about using technology to enrich lives in simple yet meaningful ways. Inbase Boombox is our take on making a portable speaker more useful and practical. We endeavor to change the way wireless portable speakers work by adding more value to it. This is a convenient product with everyday use.

Specification and Features:

The Boom Box combines the functionality of a Bluetooth speaker with a wireless Karaoke microphone, offering the best of both worlds. It offers a range of sound modes, allowing users to switch between normal, bass, alto, and soprano for different effects. The power-packed deep bass ensures mesmerizing sound quality, immersing listeners in their favorite songs. The Boom Box is versatile and suitable for a variety of uses, including singing, announcements, classrooms, and small events. Additionally, it provides an all-in-one karaoke experience by enabling music playback from various sources.

The Boom Box packs power and portability into an ultra-compact design. Its easy-to-carry and store form factor makes it the ideal choice for on-the-go use. The speaker ensures premium audio quality for singing and speaking engagements. Users can enjoy up to 5 hours of playtime on a single charge, providing extended entertainment sessions. The type C charging feature ensures fast and convenient charging to minimize downtime. The Boom Box is available in three trendy colors, adding a touch of style to any environment.

Price and Availability:

The Inbase Boom Box is now available at an exclusive launch price of INR 2299. Customers can purchase it from leading retail outlets as well as popular online platforms, including Amazon, Flipkart, and the official Inbase website.

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