Новини світу мікро- та наноелектроніки

Canada invests $120m to support semiconductor manufacturing and commercialization

Semiconductor today - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 10:46
Through ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada), the Canadian government is investing $120m into FABrIC (Fabrication of Integrated Components for the Internet’s Edge) network, which is a five-year project totalling over $220m to advance domestic semiconductor manufacturing and commercialization capabilities...

Luminus launches high-efficacy mid-power MP-5050 LEDs

Semiconductor today - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 10:24
Luminus Devices Inc of Sunnyvale, CA, USA – which designs and makes LEDs and solid-state technology (SST) light sources for illumination markets – has launched the mid-power MP-5050-240E and MP-5050-810E LEDs, which deliver what is claimed to be unmatched efficacy of 233 lumens per watt at a correlated colour temperature (CCT) of 4000K at 70 CRI (color-rendering index) and 1 Watt, exceeding the standards in outdoor and industrial lighting applications...

Accenture Acquires Cientra to Expand Silicon Design Capabilities

ELE Times - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 10:23

Accenture has acquired Cientra, a silicon design and engineering services company, offering custom silicon solutions for global clients. The terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.

Founded in 2015, Cientra is headquartered in New Jersey, U.S. and has offices in Frankfurt, Germany as well as in Bangalore, Hyderabad and New Delhi, India. The company brings consulting expertise in embedded IoT and application-specific integrated circuit design and verification capabilities, which augments Accenture’s silicon design experience and further enhances its ability to help clients accelerate semiconductor innovation required to support growing data computing needs.

“Everything from data center expansion to cloud computing, wireless technologies, edge computing and the proliferation of AI, are driving demand for next-generation silicon products,” said Karthik Narain, group chief executive—Technology at Accenture. “Our acquisition of Cientra is our latest move to expand our silicon design and engineering capabilities and it underscores our commitment to helping our clients maximize value and reinvent themselves in this space.”

Cientra has deep experience in engineering, development and testing across hardware, software and networks, in the automotive, telecommunications and high-tech industries. The company brings approximately 530 experienced engineers and practitioners to Accenture’s Advanced Technology Centers in India.

“Since inception, Cientra has been dedicated to building top talent and fostering continuous innovation, developing product solutions that drive value for our clients,” said Anil Kempanna, CEO, Cientra. “Joining Accenture provides exciting opportunities to expand globally and scale our capabilities to create new avenues of growth for our clients as well as our people.”

This acquisition follows the addition of Excelmax Technologies, a Bangalore, India-based semiconductor design services provider, earlier this week, and XtremeEDA, an Ottawa, Canada-based silicon design services company, in 2022.

The post Accenture Acquires Cientra to Expand Silicon Design Capabilities appeared first on ELE Times.

EPC Space showcasing rad-hard solutions at NSREC 2024

Semiconductor today - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 10:22
At the IEEE Nuclear & Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC 2024) in Ottawa, Canada (22–26 July), EPC Space LLC of Haverhill, MA, USA is presenting its latest radiation-hardened (rad-hard) gallium nitride (GaN)-on-silicon technology, highlighting solutions designed to meet the rigorous demands of space applications...

E-Fill Electric Presents Wish List for EV Charging Industry in the Upcoming Union Budget

ELE Times - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 10:11

E-Fill Electric (EFEV Charging Solutions Pvt. Ltd.), a pioneering name in India’s EV charging sector, has outlined its wish list for the forthcoming Union Budget, emphasizing key actions to promote the adoption and infrastructure development of electric vehicles (EVs) across the country.

Mayank Jain, Founder & CEO of E-Fill Electric, highlighted several key priorities aimed at fostering a robust EV charging ecosystem:

  1. Increased Allocation for FAME Scheme: E-Fill Electric urges the government to enhance allocation under the FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles) scheme to accelerate EV adoption and manufacturing capabilities in India.
  2. Tax Incentives for EV Charging Businesses: Lowering GST on EV charging equipment and operational costs shall ensure affordability and promote widespread deployment of charging infrastructure.
  3. Investment in Skilled Workforce: E-Fill Electric stresses the importance of investing in training programs to develop a skilled workforce proficient in EV charging installation, maintenance, and repair, vital for sustaining the industry’s growth.
  4. Streamlined Land Acquisition Procedures: The Company recommends measures to streamline land acquisition procedures for EV charging companies, potentially through designated zones or expedited approvals, to facilitate speedy infrastructure expansion.
  5. Public-Private Partnerships: E-Fill Electric advocates for incentivising partnerships between public and private entities to expedite the development and deployment of EV charging infrastructure nationwide.
  6. Research and Development Incentives: The budget should incentivise research and development in EV charging technology, including support for indigenous manufacturing of charging equipment to encourage innovation and self-reliance.
  7. Subsidies for EV Chargers: E-Fill Electric suggests introducing subsidies or low-interest loan schemes to encourage individuals and businesses to install EV chargers at homes and workplaces, enhancing convenience and accessibility.
  8. Grid Modernization: Prioritizing grid modernisation projects is essential to accommodate the increased electricity demand from EVs, ensuring reliable and sustainable power supply.

Mr. Mayank Jain expressed confidence that these measures, if implemented, will not only boost the EV ecosystem but also align with India’s vision of sustainable and inclusive mobility solutions.

The post E-Fill Electric Presents Wish List for EV Charging Industry in the Upcoming Union Budget appeared first on ELE Times.

ROHM Offers LogiCoA: the Industry’s First* Analog-Digital Fusion Control Power Supply Solution

ELE Times - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 09:11

Provides functions equivalent to a fully digital control power supply with low power consumption

ROHM has established LogiCoA, a power supply solution for small to medium-power industrial and consumer equipment (30W to 1kW class). It provides the same functionality as fully digital control power supplies at low power consumption and cost equivalent to analog power types.

Analog controlled power supplies are commonly used in industrial robotics and semiconductor manufacturing equipment that operate in the medium power range. However, in recent years these power supplies are also required to provide a high level of reliability and precise control that make it difficult to meet market demands with analog-only configurations. On the other hand, while fully digitally controlled power supplies enable fine control and settings, they are not widely adopted in the small to medium power range due to the high power consumption and cost of the digital controller. To address this issue, ROHM developed the LogiCoA power solution that leverages the strengths of both analog and digital technologies. High-performance low power LogiCoA MCUs are utilized to facilitate control of a variety of power supply topologies.

The LogiCoA brand embodies a design philosophy of fusing digital elements to maximize the performance of analog circuits. ROHM’s LogiCoA power solution is the industry’s first* “analog-digital fusion control” power supply that combines a digital control block centered around the LogiCoA MCU with analog circuitry comprised of silicon MOSFETs and other power devices.

In a fully digital control power supply, the functions handled by digital controllers such as high-speed CPUs or DSPs can be processed by low-bit MCUs, making it possible to achieve increased functionality that is difficult to realize with an analog control power supply at low power consumption and cost. This solution allows for the correction of performance variations in peripheral components according to the power supply circuit by storing various settings such as current and voltage values in the LogiCoA MCU. As a result, there is no need to consider design margins unlike with analog control power supplies, contributing to smaller power supplies that provide greater reliability. On top, as operation log data can be recorded in the MCU’s nonvolatile memory, it is ideal for power supplies in industrial equipment that require logging as a backup in case of malfunction.

The evaluation reference design REF66009 allows users to experience the LogiCoA power supply solution in a non-isolated buck converter circuit. Various tools necessary for evaluation are also offered, including circuit diagrams, PCB layouts, parts lists, sample software, and support documents, while actual device evaluation is possible using the optional LogiCoA001-EVK-001 evaluation board.

Going forward, ROHM will continue to develop LogiCoA MCUs to support various power supply topologies, contributing to achieving a sustainable society by making the power supply block (which accounts for the majority of power loss in applications) more energy-efficient and compact.

LogiCoA Brand

LogiCoA is a brand that embodies a design philosophy of fusing digital elements to maximize the performance of analog circuits. By combining the advantages of analog circuitry with those of digital control, it is possible to maximize the potential of circuit topologies, contributing to more efficient power utilization. As LogiCoA is a design concept that can be applied not only to the power supply field, but also to power solutions as a whole, ROHM is considering its application in future products and solutions.

Details of the LogiCoA Power Supply Reference Design

The REF66009 evaluation reference design offered on ROHM’s website allows users to verify the functionality of the LogiCoA MCU along with the basic operation of the LogiCoA power supply solution using a non-isolated 12V buck converter circuit. Sample software available on the reference design page makes it possible to confirm the sequence control of execution tasks and the monitoring of various parameters in the actual set using the LogiCoA001-EVK-001 reference board. For more information on the reference board, please contact a sales representative or the contact page on ROHM’s website.

Application Examples

  • Industrial robots
  • Semiconductor manufacturing equipment
  • Gaming applications

Supports mounting in a wide range of general industrial equipment and consumer devices (30W to 1kW).

About the LogiCoA MCU

ROHM is developing LogiCoA MCUs optimized for integrated analog-digital control such as LogiCoA power supply solutions. Features include a built-in 3ch analog comparator that can be linked to a timer and D/A converter that enables digital control of various parameters to support different power supply topologies.

■ LogiCoA MCU Specifications (Tentative)

Availability: Now (LogiCoA MCU samples)

Terminology

Fully Digital Control Power Supply

A power supply controlled using digital technology. High-speed CPUs and DSPs can be used to precisely monitor and control various parameters such as voltage and current, improving power supply efficiency and reliability. What’s more, functions that are difficult to perform with analog control can be achieved, such as acquiring operation log data. However, CPUs and DSPs are expensive and consume a large amount of power, which can be a bottleneck in terms of costs and energy efficiency.

Analog Control Power Supply

A power supply configuration consisting of analog components. This type has become mainstream for power supplies 1kW and below due to its simplicity and low power consumption. On the other hand, implementing advanced functionality such as setting arbitrary parameters and logging data is difficult, requiring fully digital control that entails high costs and power consumption.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Responsible for executing programs and processing data. Handles calculations and processing as well as carrying out instructions according to a program.

DSP

A device that digitizes analog signals and performs operations such as analysis, filtering, and amplification on the converted digital signals. Flexible enough for high-speed processing and various applications, it plays an important role in circuits that handle digital signals, such as audio and image processing in addition to power supplies.

The post ROHM Offers LogiCoA: the Industry’s First* Analog-Digital Fusion Control Power Supply Solution appeared first on ELE Times.

Toshiba Demos New Switching Topology for Non-Isolated DC-DC Converters

AAC - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 02:00
The new topology eliminates the need for a transformer and significantly reduces the number of capacitors in DC-DC converter ICs.

Moved in 12 months ago, finally built a dedicated workbench for the first time

Reddit:Electronics - Чтв, 07/11/2024 - 01:19
Moved in 12 months ago, finally built a dedicated workbench for the first time

I’ve always had a makeshift workbench all my life, finally own a house with space that is just mine to do what I want with.

submitted by /u/dakiller
[link] [comments]

SMT vs. Through-Hole Assembly: Making the Right Choice for Your Project

Electronic lovers - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 23:02

The world of electronic manufacturing changes regularly, and as a result – fabricators must select one of two approaches in fabricating electronic components which are the Surface Mount Technology and Through-Hole Assembly methods. Each method brings its own set of advantages and drawbacks wherein you will have the final say on which manufacturing approach is geared to your standards and budget.

In this article, we’ll be taking a look at the nuances between SMT assembly and Through-Hole Assembly and the criteria that you’ll use as a basis to make the right decision on which manufacturing approach you’ll utilize for your project.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT): An Overview Definition of Surface Mount Technology

To begin our discussion, let’s learn what Surface Mount Technology is. SMT assembly is a process wherein electronic components are mounted directly onto a PCB’s surface through assembly machinery which an operator programs. As a result, this facilitates a fast-paced production which allows the creation of many surface-mounted circuit boards in a short timeframe.

Key Traits of SMT Assembly
  • Faster production setup – Compared to Through-Hole assembly, SMT assembly’s production setup facilitates fast-paced mass-production of printed circuit boards. This trait is what makes it favorable for factories or facilities that are required to mass-produce PCBs for different clients from different niches.

  • High component density, small board size – Printed circuit boards that are made through this method of assembly are far smaller than their through-hole-made counterparts. That’s because the circuit board’s surfaces contain a very high density of electronic components which maximizes the use of the allotted space of the printed circuit boards

  • Flexible application – Compared to through-hole boards, SMT-assembled PCBs are quite ubiquitous as they are utilized in most applications – usually in domestic devices or consumer goods. These items where SMT-assembled circuit boards are integrated into can range from kitchen appliances to your phone.

  • Can facilitate more connections – Aside from their density, SMT-assembled boards are also known for their capability to accommodate more connections as components can be placed on both the front and back sides of the printed circuit board. As a result, there are more connections possible for every printed circuit board that works as intended.

  • Requires specialized tools and expert-leveled operators – SMT-assembled PCBs will require more care in the process of manufacturing them due to the compact sizes of the printed circuits requiring more attention to ensure that the end product isn’t defective. To ensure that outcome, SMT assembly factories will be required to invest in specialized tools for manufacturing, assembly, and repairing, as well as hiring expert operators who will oversee the manufacturing process.

Through-Hole Assembly: An Overview Definition of Through-Hole Assembly

Before we delve into selecting the ideal assembly method for your project, let’s understand what

is through-hole assembly first. The through-hole method of assembling printed circuit boards involves drilling holes into the board’s surface. Once the holes are set, leads are inserted into the drilled holes before the components are installed and soldered on them. This method of assembly is significantly slower due to the added steps in installing the components but still has a key niche to fill in the world of electronics.

The Key Characteristics of Through-Hole Assembly

  • Provides clients with specialized circuit boards – Despite the limited range of designs that through-hole assembled circuits have compared to SMT assembly-made circuit boards, it fares well in electronic setups that require a PCB that can function in specific conditions – say for example, a through-hole assembled PCB that is meant for use in electrical circuit setups that has a high heat dissipation for use in an industrial configuration.

  • Reliable and resilient – Compared to the mass-produced SMT-assembled boards, through-hole assembled PCBs are more reliable due to the components being embedded onto the surface of the board through drilled holes and leads which also keeps the component intact. As a result, through-hole assembled boards have a very robust connection making the PCBs ideal for intense work environments ranging from military and aerospace applications to industrial use. On top of that, through-hole assembled boards sport better durability due to their designs having a high heat and stress tolerance.

  • Easier repair time and adjustability – Unlike their SMT assembly counterparts, the PCBs made by through-hole assembly methods are easier to repair or operate manually. That’s because the key components embedded on the PCB are easier to replace or modify their positioning when necessary. In addition to what’s stated, the parts are easy to discern and identify so if a component on the PCB is defective; all it takes is to remove the defective part and replace it with a functioning version.

Factors to Consider in Selecting the Manufacturing Method

Now that we’ve covered the two methods of assembling circuit boards; let’s cover next the factors that you’ll need to consider in selecting which method best suits your project. Listed below are the factors that could play into choosing whether you will settle for SMT assembly or through-hole assembly for your future PCBs:

1. Costs of your Project

The first factor that comes into play in making the right choice for your PCB project is its cost. Are you willing to invest a lot of money for a specialized printed circuit board or will you settle for a PCB that can be applied in a myriad of situations? You should also determine how much is the total costs of the materials and components that will be used in your project.

These factors related to the project’s costs should help whether you should opt for SMT assembly or through-hole assembly.

2. Performance or Quantity

The next factor that comes into play whether you should choose SMT assembly or through-hole assembly is whether you value the quantity or the performance of the printed circuit board. If your goal is to produce as many printed circuit boards to meet the needs of many devices, then you could opt for SMT assembly.

However, if you value performance more – then you can consider aiming for through-hole assembly instead. Keep in mind though, that SMT-assembled circuit boards do still hold a solid performance which we’ll explore that nuance in the next criteria.

3. Choosing Between Flexibility or Specialization

If you’ve factored in the performance of the PCBs for your project, then another layer of nuance comes into play – which is choosing between flexibility or specialization. If your project aims to turn the PCBs into a size-fits-many solution for different devices then you could opt for SMT assembly. As stated earlier, the best example of a flexible-use printed circuit board are domestic and everyday electronic items that we use such as smartphones, televisions, and the like.

However, if your electronic configuration calls for a specific circuit board; say for example – if your work environment favors a resilient PCB that can withstand intense amounts of workloads, mechanical stress, and electrical flow – you would want to settle with through-hole assembly instead of SMT-assembled boards as they could deteriorate fast in these types of working conditions. Notable examples of these intense work conditions where through-hole PCBs see use are automotive factories and industrial plants; aside from military and aerospace applications.

4. The Project’s Intended Application

The last hurdle you’ll need to factor into your project whether you should settle for SMT assembly or through assembly is the intended application of your project. Is your project intended for use in consumer products or everyday items? If that’s the case then SMT assembled PCBs are your best bet.

However, if your project’s intended use is for specific niches or uses – for example; printed circuit boards for use in high-powered lighting, or to power the avionics inside a plane then utilizing through-hole assembled circuit boards could be the way to go.

Make the Right Decisions to Bring Your Project to Reality

To sum up what we’ve covered – there are two ways a printed circuit board is manufactured; namely through SMT assembly or through-hole assembly. To ensure that your project will work as intended for its target niche, you should consider the costs, quantity, or performance, its role whether it is flexible or specialized, and its intended niche.

Putting together the manufacturing methods and the factors that you need to consider will ensure that your electrical project is brought to reality.

The post SMT vs. Through-Hole Assembly: Making the Right Choice for Your Project appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

Moving Data Through an LTspice Parallel-Load Shift Register

AAC - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 20:00
This article demonstrates the operation of an LTspice shift register and discusses details of its schematic and timing relationships.

PhotonDelta opens office in Silicon Valley

Semiconductor today - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 14:21
Photonic chips industry accelerator PhotonDelta of Eindhoven, The Netherlands (which connects and collaborates with an ecosystem of photonic chip technology organizations worldwide), has opened a new office in North America, with the aim of growing the photonic chip industry by promoting collaboration between European and North American organizations...

AI Smartphones: The Era of the Super Companion in Your Pocket

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 14:16

It has been an exciting year for mobile technology with the advent of AI Smartphones. Each year, like clockwork, I find myself eagerly lining up for the latest smartphone launch, driven by an insatiable curiosity and a bit of a tech addiction. My friends might jest that I switch phones more often than my single malt preferences, but through this annual ritual, I gain a front-row seat to the rapid evolution of technology. Each unboxing becomes a discovery of what’s newly possible at the intersection of hardware and software, particularly as smartphones grow not just smarter but seemingly wiser. The innovation of integrating generative AI in smartphones raises the customer experience bar exponentially.

This fascination isn’t merely about indulging in the latest bells and whistles; it’s about experiencing firsthand how intelligent operating systems are revolutionizing our interactions with mobile devices. As generative AI migrates from vast data centers to the palms of our hands, it transforms smartphones into central hubs of personalized technology and AI-driven companions, reshaping the foundations of mobile user interaction.

At the heart of this revolution is Micron Technology. Our advanced memory and storage products support the immense data demands of generative AI, turning what once seemed like a futuristic vision into today’s reality. These technological advancements are crucial as smartphones begin to transition from passive tools to active personal companions, deeply integrated into the fabric of our daily lives. They offer insightful recommendations and enhance our experiences in ways we are only beginning to imagine.

To truly appreciate the impact of these technologies, one must understand the intricate play between large language models (LLMs) like Llama 2Google Gemini, and ChatGPT, as well as the advanced hardware that supports them. These AI models, which thrive on billions of parameters, demand unprecedented levels of memory capacity and speed—requirements that Micron’s innovative products are designed to meet. Integrating high-capacity, efficient memory systems is not just an improvement; it’s necessary to support the sophisticated AI functions that modern users will come to expect from their devices.

As we stand on the brink of this new era, our relationship with our devices is set to change profoundly. Smartphones will transition from passive tools to active personal companions, deeply integrated into the fabric of our daily lives, making insightful recommendations and enhancing our experiences in ways we are only beginning to imagine. This blog explores how generative AI is driving this monumental shift, redefining the possibilities of smartphone technology and ensuring that users can enjoy a seamless, intuitive, and highly personalized digital experience.

The generative AI advantage: Unlocking the ultimate smartphone companion experience

Generative AI is revolutionizing the capabilities of smartphones by introducing features that were once the domain of science fiction. At its core, generative AI involves using algorithms and models to generate text, images, and even predictions based on extensive data sets on which they have been trained. This transformative technology is making smartphones, not just tools for consumption but instruments of creation and personal assistance.

One of the key features enabled by generative AI is the ability to generate real-time content directly related to user inputs. For example, through AI-powered apps, users can request the generation of digital artwork or manipulate photos and videos in sophisticated ways that go far beyond the current filters and editing tools. Another significant capability is real-time language translation, which is advancing beyond simple text translation to include voice and even real-time video call translations. This allows for a seamless communication experience with almost no language barrier, effectively shrinking the global divide in personal and professional interactions.

Moreover, generative AI enhances personalized recommendations by analyzing user behaviour, preferences, and previous interactions. This data-driven approach allows smartphones to anticipate needs and offer suggestions for everything from daily tasks to complex decision-making processes. It can also guide users through interactive educational content, adapting to their learning pace and style, thus personalizing the educational experience more effectively than ever before.

These features, powered by generative AI, require advanced computational power and significant memory and storage capabilities. The processing occurs on the device itself to ensure responsiveness and data privacy. As these technologies continue to evolve, they promise to enhance how users interact with their devices further, making each smartphone a truly personalized digital companion that learns and grows with its user.

Smartphones that care: How AI is humanizing the mobile experience

The future of AI-enabled smartphones promises a landscape where the line between digital and physical realities blurs, ushering in a new era of interactive and immersive experiences that are currently difficult to imagine. As generative AI continues to evolve, the potential for creating features that transform everyday activities and expand our capabilities is immense.

One of the most exciting prospects is developing extended reality (XR) and spatial computing which is integrated seamlessly with AI. Future smartphones could leverage XR to overlay digital information onto the physical world in real time. Imagine pointing your smartphone at a restaurant and seeing menu recommendations tailored to your taste and dietary preferences pop up in your vision or looking at a piece of furniture and seeing how it would look in your home, configured to your space and color scheme instantly.

Health monitoring is another area ripe for transformation. Future AI smartphones could become proactive health advisors, tracking physical activity and health metrics and predicting potential health issues before they arise. These devices could use advanced sensors and AI-driven analytics to monitor changes in voice tone, breathing patterns, and even eye movements to provide early warnings about health risks such as heart disease or diabetic changes, potentially coordinating directly with medical professionals to provide timely interventions.

Moreover, integrating AI could redefine mobile security, transforming smartphones into highly secure devices that use biometric data like facial recognition, retinal scans, and even behavioural patterns to ensure that access to the device and its applications is intensely personal and completely secure. This could eliminate the need for passwords or traditional security measures, which are vulnerable to breaches.

The concept of an AI companion will likely mature into a fully interactive assistant capable of sophisticated conversation and decision-making assistance. This companion could manage schedules, suggest content, handle mundane tasks, and even offer psychological support, learning continuously from interactions to become more effective and personalized. Furthermore, as generative AI capabilities grow, so will the ability to create and simulate complex virtual environments directly from the device, allowing users to interact with virtual spaces for entertainment, education, or social interaction in unprecedented ways.

Now what does it mean to smartphones’ memory and storage capacities? And what does a phone need to take full advantage of AI applications? As generative AI grows, it becomes even more of a primary innovation driver in the mobile ecosystem. And to support flagships phone’s advanced sensors, cameras, and form factors, high capacity and bandwidth memory and storage is critical. Data is collected and stored on the handset memory and storage, calculated, and processed on the edge (not in the cloud) and translated to valuable and predictive insights.

The future of smartphones equipped with AI technologies offers enhancements of current features and a revolution in how we perceive and interact with our environment. This future is not only about technological advancements but about significantly enhancing human capabilities and experiences, making life more convenient, connected, and healthy. These developments, while complex, require the continued advancement of AI technology paired with significant improvements in hardware, like those provided by Micron, to make these unimagined features a reality.

Memory matters: How Micron’s solutions are unlocking the full potential of AI smartphones and super companions

Micron is at the forefront of defining the future capabilities of AI smartphones, leveraging its leading-edge UFS 4.0 and LPDDR5X DRAM technologies. These innovations are vital for meeting the increasingly complex demands of on-device AI applications, pushing the boundaries of what smartphones can achieve.

The UFS 4.0 technology introduced by Micron sets new standards for storage performance, essential for the fast processing speeds required by AI-driven applications. It achieves a remarkable 4300 megabytes per second (MBps) in sequential read and 4000 MBps in sequential write speeds, doubling the performance of the previous UFS 3.1 standards. This significant increase in data throughput ensures that AI applications can access and process large datasets much faster, reducing latency and enhancing overall device responsiveness​​.

Additionally, Micron’s UFS 4.0 features a compact design with a footprint of just 9×13 millimeters, supporting the development of slimmer and more aesthetically pleasing smartphone designs without compromising performance. The storage solution also includes innovative features like the One-button Refresh, which helps maintain long-term device performance by automating data defragmentation, ensuring that the storage performance remains like-new even after extended use​​.

On the memory side, Micron’s LPDDR5X DRAM is engineered to meet the requirements of advanced AI processing by delivering top speeds of up to 9600 megabits per second (Mbps), which is crucial for handling AI’s extensive computational demands. This speed enhancement, combined with the high-density packaging that allows for increased memory capacity within the same form factor, is critical for AI applications that require rapid access to large volumes of data. ​ It also features 13% Gain with faster Peak Bandwidth and up to 27% power reduction on day of use.

Micron’s advancements enhance smartphones’ raw computational and storage capabilities and enable new AI features by providing the necessary infrastructure to support real-time AI processing on the edge. This strategic focus on developing high-performance and efficient memory and storage solutions firmly positions Micron as a key enabler in the rapidly evolving landscape of AI mobile technology, facilitating the emergence of smartphones that can perform complex AI tasks directly on the device without relying on cloud processing.

The ethical compass: Navigating the moral landscape of AI smartphones

As AI smartphones continue to revolutionize our lives, it’s crucial to acknowledge the ethical considerations that come with these powerful devices. Like a moral compass, we must navigate the complexities of AI technology to ensure it aligns with our values and principles. Privacy and data security are paramount concerns. How will AI smartphones collect, store, and protect our personal information? Transparency and accountability are essential to prevent data breaches and cyber-attacks. Users must be informed about data usage and sharing practices, and measures must be taken to prevent biases and discrimination in AI decision-making. Transparency and explainability are vital in AI-driven processes. Users deserve to understand how AI arrives at its conclusions and make informed decisions. Autonomous decision-making raises questions about free will and moral agency, and AI smartphones must balance user autonomy and AI-driven actions.

The environmental impact of AI smartphones cannot be ignored. Sustainable manufacturing, reduced electronic waste, and energy efficiency are crucial to minimize their ecological footprint. Finally, human-AI collaboration must prioritize human well-being and dignity, enhancing our capabilities without replacing them. By acknowledging these ethical considerations, we can harness the potential of AI smartphones while upholding our values and principles. Like a compass guiding us through uncharted territory, ethical awareness will ensure AI technology serves humanity, not the other way around.

The future in focus: AI smartphones and the dawn of a new era

Imagine this: It’s a crisp Wednesday morning in the not-too-distant future. Your day begins not with a jarring alarm but with a gentle wake-up nudge from your AI-enhanced smartphone, which has analyzed your sleep patterns and knows the exact moment to wake you. As you stir, your phone has already started your coffee maker, selected a nutritious breakfast based on your health goals for the week, and displayed your optimized route to work, avoiding a traffic jam it predicted from historical data and real-time sensors.

While you eat, your smartphone reviews your calendar prioritizes tasks based on urgency and personal productivity patterns and seamlessly integrates your work commitments with personal ones. It reminds you of your daughter’s recital in the evening and schedules a reminder to leave work early. It even suggests a perfect gift for her performance tonight, which you can pick up on your route home—all curated from understanding your past purchases and her current interests.

This scenario isn’t just a futuristic dream; thanks to companies like Micron, it’s on the verge of becoming reality. By advancing AI capabilities through memory and storage solutions innovations like UFS 4.0 and LPDDR5X DRAM, Micron is turning smartphones into personal assistants that manage our digital tasks and enhance our human experiences.

Micron’s vision to “enrich life for all” is deeply embedded in these advancements. With AI on the edge, smartphones are evolving into devices that think, react, predict, and adapt to our needs in more personalized ways. This new generation of smartphones promises to enhance our productivity and leisure, making each interaction more meaningful by staying seamlessly connected to our loved ones and passions while navigating the complexities of our daily lives.

As we embrace these changes, let’s ponder the profound impact of having a device that does more than execute commands—it collaborates, advises, and supports our every decision. With Micron’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of what’s possible, the future is not just about technological advancement but about creating deeper, more meaningful connections with the world around us. How will you harness this power to reshape your day-to-day life? The possibilities are as boundless as your imagination.

The post AI Smartphones: The Era of the Super Companion in Your Pocket appeared first on ELE Times.

Breakthrough 3D-Printed Material Revolutionizes Soft Robotics and Biomedical Devices

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 14:14

Researchers at Penn State have developed a new 3D-printed material designed to advance soft robotics, skin-integrated electronics, and biomedical devices. This material is soft, stretchable, and self-assembled, overcoming many limitations of previous fabrication methods, such as lower conductivity and device failure. According to Tao Zhou, an assistant professor at Penn State, the challenge of developing highly conductive, stretchable conductors has persisted for nearly a decade. While liquid metal-based conductors offered a solution, they required secondary activation methods—like stretching or laser activation—which complicated fabrication and risked device failure.

Zhou explained that their method removes the necessity for secondary activation to attain conductivity. The innovative approach combines liquid metal, a conductive polymer mixture called PEDOT: PSS, and hydrophilic polyurethane. When printed and heated, the liquid metal particles in the material’s bottom layer self-assemble into a conductive pathway, while the top layer oxidizes in an oxygen-rich environment, forming an insulated surface. This structure ensures efficient data transmission to sensors—such as those used for muscle activity recording and strain sensing—while preventing signal leakage that could compromise data accuracy.

“This materials innovation allows for self-assembly that results in high conductivity without secondary activation,” Zhou added. The ability to 3D print this material also simplifies the fabrication of wearable devices. The research team is exploring various potential applications, focusing on assistive technology for individuals with disabilities.

The research, supported by the National Taipei University of Technology-Penn State Collaborative Seed Grant Program, included contributions from doctoral students Salahuddin Ahmed, Marzia Momin, Jiashu Ren, and Hyunjin Lee.

The post Breakthrough 3D-Printed Material Revolutionizes Soft Robotics and Biomedical Devices appeared first on ELE Times.

mSiC Diode Technology: Ruggedness and Reliability

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 13:52

Courtesy: Microchip

Silicon Carbide (SiC) Schottky Barrier Diodes (SBDs) increase efficiency and ruggedness to help create faster and more reliable applications.

Better Efficiency and Reliability Through Silicon Carbide

Silicon Carbide (SiC) Schottky Barrier Diodes (SBDs) increase efficiency and create reliable high-voltage applications. Our rich history and experience allow us to deliver highly reliable SBDs that are designed with high repetitive Unclamped Inductive Switching (UIS) capability at a rated current, which exhibits no degradation. Our mSiC diodes are designed with balanced surge current, forward voltage, thermal resistance and thermal capacitance ratings at low reverse current for lower switching loss to create more efficient power systems.

Because of differences in material properties between SiC and silicon, silicon Schottky diodes are limited to a lower voltage range with higher on-state resistance (RDS(on)) and leakage current. However, SiC Schottky diodes can obtain a much higher breakdown voltage while maintaining low on-resistance and low switching losses, improving ruggedness over traditional silicon Schottky diodes. Our portfolio of mSiC products covers 700V, 1200V, 1700V and 3300V (3.3 kV) SiC Schottky diodes.

In summary, SiC offers the following advantages over silicon:

  • Better reverse current capability
  • Higher temperature stability
  • Higher radiation resistance
Breakdown Voltage

The breakdown voltage of a diode is the voltage at which the diode breaks down and starts conducting current. The breakdown voltage determines the maximum voltage that the diode can withstand before it fails. SiC SBDs exhibit higher breakdown voltages than silicon diodes because of the SiC material’s higher bandgap. This higher breakdown voltage rating allows SiC diodes to withstand higher voltages without damage.

The higher breakdown voltage of SiC diodes is important for several applications including power converters, inverters and motor drives. In these applications, the diodes are often exposed to high voltages. The higher breakdown voltage of SiC diodes allows them to withstand these high voltages without damage, which can lead to improved reliability and performance.

Forward Voltage Drop

The forward voltage drop of a diode is the voltage drop that occurs when the diode is conducting current. This parameter determines the efficiency of the diode. SiC diodes have a lower forward voltage drop than silicon diodes. The higher bandgap means it takes less energy for an electron to move through the material. This lower forward voltage drop allows SiC diodes to be more efficient than silicon.

The lower forward voltage drop is important for several applications including power converters, inverters and motor drives. In these applications, the diodes are often used to convert power from one form to another. The lower forward voltage drop of SiC diodes allows them to be more efficient in these applications, which can lead to reduced costs and improved performance.

Reverse Recovery

Reverse recovery is a phenomenon that occurs when a diode is switched from conducting current to non-conducting current. During reverse recovery, a small amount of current flows in the reverse direction. This current can cause a voltage drop across the diode, which can damage the diode if it is not properly managed.

SiC diodes have a much shorter reverse recovery time, allowing them to switch from conducting current to non-conducting current more quickly, which can reduce the risk of damage. Reverse recovery is an important consideration for any application that uses diodes.

Reverse Current

The reverse current of a diode is the current that flows in the reverse direction when the diode is biased in the reverse direction. This current is a major factor that limits the performance of SiC diodes in high-voltage applications. The reverse current of SiC diodes is typically much higher than that of silicon diodes because the SiC material has a higher bandgap, which causes it to take more energy to break an electron free from its atom. This higher bandgap also means that there are fewer free electrons available to carry current in the reverse direction.

High reverse current can cause several problems in high-voltage applications, causing the diode to overheat and fail. It can also cause the diode to emit noise and interference. There are a few ways to reduce the reverse current of SiC diodes. One way is to use a diode with a higher breakdown voltage. Another way is to use a diode with a lower doping level. However, these techniques can reduce the performance of the diode in other ways.

High Temperature and High Current Stability

High temperature and high current stability are crucial because SiC diodes are often used in a variety of applications that require high currents and temperatures of up to 150°C. The stability of SiC diodes is important for their use in applications with more demanding conditions.

Stability at high temperatures and currents is due to the higher bandgap, which makes SiC more resistant to damage from heat and high current conditions. SiC diodes have a lower concentration of impurities than silicon diodes, making SiC diodes less likely to experience recombination, the process by which an electron and a hole combine to form an atom. Recombination can cause the diode to lose its ability to conduct current, leading to failure.

These attributes make SiC diodes well suited for applications that require high temperatures and currents, such as power converters and inverters, leading to improved reliability and performance in the end equipment.

Start Designing with SiC

Getting started with designing with Silicon Carbide (SiC) involves understanding its benefits and applications. We offer a range of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power products which are the key to faster, more efficient energy solutions.

The post mSiC Diode Technology: Ruggedness and Reliability appeared first on ELE Times.

Improving Line Edge Roughness Using Virtual Fabrication

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 13:34

Courtesy: Lam Research

Line edge roughness (LER) is a variation in the width of a lithographic pattern along one edge of a structure inside a chip. Line edge roughness can be a critical variation source and defect mechanism in advanced logic and memory devices, and can lead to poor device performance or even device failure [1~3]. Deposition-etch cycling is an effective technique to reduce line edge roughness. In this study, we demonstrate how virtual fabrication can provide guidance on how to perform deposition/etch cycling in order to reduce LER.

A typical line and via array pattern with a pitch of 40 nm was established as a test structure in the virtual fabrication software. Pattern critical dimensions (CD) and LER amplitude and correlation length (measures of line edge roughness) were then explored under different experimental conditions.

Figure 1:The virtual process flow of a deposition/etch cycle process used to improve LER. Figure 1 (a-c) 3D view,(d-f) top view of the incoming structure after deposition and etch cycling.

A deposition/etch cycling process was applied in a virtual model to improve the line edge roughness (LER) and critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of the pattern (Figure 1). Virtual metrology was used to measure LER standard deviation (LERSTD), LER correlation length (C) and Via CD range (VCDR) to evaluate the impact of the selected process changes on LER and CDU improvement.

We ran 1,500 virtual experiments using the incoming pattern CD, LER amplitude (A), LER correlation length (C), etch/deposition amount (THK), and number of deposition/etch cycles (NC) as experimental variables. Part of the results of our experiment are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - improving line edge roughnessFigure 2 – improving line edge roughness

Figure 2 shows the trend in the Via CD ranges (VCDR), LER standard deviation (LERSTD), and LER correlation length (C) values with respect to the number of deposition / etch cycles (bottom axis) at different LER A and LER C conditions (top and right axis). Our goal is to minimize VCDR, LERSTD and CL values at the lowest number of deposition / etch cycles. We can draw 3 conclusions from Figure 2.

1) Most of the improvement to LER/VCDR occurs in the first deposition/etch cycle.

2) An increase in the deposition amount (THK, shown in color on Figure 2) has a greater impact on the LER/VCDR improvement than an increase in the number of deposition/etch cycles.

3) The LER correlation length (C) becomes larger after a deposition/etch cycle, but the LER/VCDR improvement is not obvious when the LER correlation length (C) increases.

Figure 3 - improving line edge roughnessFigure 3 – improving line edge roughness

As we mentioned earlier, most of the LER improvement happened in the first deposition/etch cycle, with the remaining deposition/etch cycles producing a much smaller improvement. Contour plots displaying the LER/VCDR improvement on the 1st cycle was fitted and illustrated in Figure 3. From Figure 3, we can draw 2 conclusions:

1). Although less improvement was noticed with a larger incoming LER correlation length (C), improvement still occurred at the via patterns if a thicker film was used during the deposition portion of the cycle when there was a larger LER correlation length (LER C) and lower LER amplitude (LER A).

2). LER/VCDR can be improved using a relatively thicker deposition film at larger incoming LER C conditions.

In this study, a deposition/etch cycling process was simulated to improve LER and CDU performance at advanced nodes by virtual fabrication. The results indicate that most of the LER/VCDR improvement seen during deposition/etch cycling processes occurred during the first deposition/etch cycle. The deposition/etch cycling process is very effective in reducing high frequency noise (when there is a smaller LER correlation length). LER improvements are larger at the via patterns than at the line patterns when a thicker film is deposited, exhibiting as larger LER correlation length values and lower LER amplitude. These results provide quantitative guidance on the optimal selection of deposition/etch amounts and the number of cycles needed, to both reduce LER and lower defects and variability in the production of advanced semiconductor devices.

The post Improving Line Edge Roughness Using Virtual Fabrication appeared first on ELE Times.

Grid Modernization is Integrating Multiple Industries

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 13:14

Change may be a constant in any industry, but the grid and energy industries are experiencing a revolutionary change they have never seen. The grid and energy industries are in the midst of a significant transformation, referred to as grid modernization, driven by the integration of cutting-edge technologies like telecommunications, distributed energy resources, battery storage, solar power, and the ever-present concern of cybersecurity. This fundamental shift presents both challenges and opportunities that will reshape how the world generates, distributes, and consumes electricity.

History of grid modernization

The traditional process that the grid and energy industries have utilized goes back to the late 19th century with the establishment of the first industrial power plants. In the early 20th century, the grid rapidly expanded, but with a focus on centralized power generation using fossil fuels and long-distance transmission lines. The power sources for energy expanded throughout the 20th century to include nuclear, hydroelectric, and some renewables, but the grid and energy industries continued to be separate, isolated entities until the 21st century.

The push for grid modernization came as concerns rose about aging infrastructure, increasing blackouts, and rising environmental impact. In 2003, the United States Department of Energy created dedicated offices to address grid reliability and security. The past two decades have seen a dramatic rise of renewable energy sources like wind and solar and pushes for grid upgrades to handle fluctuating power generation. Grid modernization strives to tackle these problems to ensure a better system moving forward.

Key aspects of grid modernization

Grid modernization is focused on transforming the current electricity delivery system to meet the demands of the 21st century and beyond. Key aspects of this transformation include:

  • Integration of renewables: A core focus is on smoothly bringing renewable energy sources like solar and wind into the power generation mix. This often requires upgrades to handle the variable nature of these power sources.
  • Smart grid technologies: The Smart Grid concept involves using digital technology to monitor, control, and optimize the flow of electricity. This includes smart meters for consumers and advanced grid management systems for utilities.
  • Infrastructure improvements: Aging grid systems need upgrades to improve reliability and efficiency. This can involve replacing outdated equipment, strengthening transmission lines, and investing in new technologies for power distribution.
  • Consumer management: Modernization aims to give consumers more control over their energy use. This might involve tools for monitoring consumption, participating in demand-response programs, and even generating their own power.
  • Resilience and security: The grid needs to be more resistant to outages caused by weather events, cyberattacks, and other threats. This involves building redundancy and implementing advanced security measures.

Overall, grid modernization is a complex undertaking with far-reaching impacts. The goal of this process is to pave the way for a more reliable, efficient, secure, and environmentally sound electricity system for the future.

Challenges of grid modernization

Grid modernization is a necessary step towards a more sustainable and efficient energy future, but it is not without its hurdles to overcome. Some of the challenges that come with this transformation include:

  • Cost: Upgrading the power grid requires significant investment in new technologies, infrastructure, and cybersecurity measures. Utilities need to find ways to finance these improvements while keeping electricity affordable for consumers.
  • Variability of renewables: Renewable energy sources like solar and wind are variable in their output. The grid needs to be able to handle these fluctuations without compromising reliability.
  • Interoperability: Modernization often involves integrating equipment from new technology sources. Ensuring seamless communication and utilization between new and legacy systems requires common standards and protocols, which are still being developed.
  • Cybersecurity: A more digital grid with new data sources creates increasing vulnerabilities to cyberattacks. Robust security measures are essential to protect critical infrastructure.
  • Regulation: The regulatory framework needs to adapt to support grid modernization efforts and incentivize investment and adoption of new technologies
Opportunities with grid modernization

While grid modernization presents a complex challenge, the potential benefits are significant. Overcoming the hurdles and capitalizing on these opportunities creates numerous advantages, including:

  • Clean energy integration: A modernized grid can efficiently integrate renewable energy sources, reducing global reliance on fossil fuels and combating climate change.
  • Consumer empowerment: Consumers can gain more control over their energy use through smart meters and demand-response programs, leading to increased participation in the energy market, potentially even selling excess power back to the grid.
  • Improved grid reliability and efficiency: Modernization can lead to fewer power outages, reduced energy losses, and a more efficient overall system.
  • Economic growth: Investment in a modern grid will drive economic growth and the creation of new jobs in areas like renewable energy technologies, grid construction, and cybersecurity solutions.
  • Innovation: Modernization opens doors for innovation in areas like energy storage, distributed generation, data analytics, cybersecurity, and telecommunications.
The Road Ahead

The transformation of the grid and energy industry is complex and ongoing. Collaboration between utilities, technology companies, policymakers, and consumers are essential to overcome the challenges and seize the opportunities presented by grid modernization. By investing in infrastructure upgrades, developing innovative technologies, and prioritizing cybersecurity, the world can create a more resilient, efficient, and sustainable energy future.

Key to this transition will be the integration of five key technology areas: telecommunications, distributed energy resources, battery storage, solar power, and cybersecurity.

The post Grid Modernization is Integrating Multiple Industries appeared first on ELE Times.

Microchip Technology Expands Processing Portfolio to Include Multi-Core 64-Bit Microprocessors

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 12:53

PIC64GX MPU is the first of several product lines planned for Microchip’s PIC64 portfolio

Real-time, compute intensive applications such as smart embedded vision and Machine Learning (ML) are pushing the boundaries of embedded processing requirements, demanding more power-efficiency, hardware-level security and high reliability at the edge. With the launch of its PIC64 portfolio, Microchip Technology is expanding its computing range to meet the rising demands of today’s embedded designs. Making Microchip a single-vendor solution provider for MPUs, the PIC64 family will be designed to support a broad range of markets that require both real-time and application class processing. PIC64GX MPUs, the first of the new product line to be released, enable intelligent edge designs for the industrial, automotive, communications, IoT, aerospace and defense segments.

“Microchip is a leader in 8- 16- and 32-bit embedded solutions and, as the market evolves, so must our product lines. The addition of our 64-bit MPU portfolio allows us to offer low-, mid- and high-range compute processing solutions,” said Ganesh Moorthy, CEO and President of Microchip Technology. “The PIC64GX MPU is the first of several 64-bit MPUs designed to support the intelligent edge and address a broad range of performance requirements across all market segments.”

The intelligent edge often requires 64-bit heterogenous compute solutions with asymmetric processing to run Linux, real-time operating systems and bare metal in a single processor cluster with secure boot capabilities. Microchip’s PIC64GX family manages mid-range intelligent edge compute requirements using a 64-bit RISC-V quad-core processor with Asymmetric Multiprocessing (AMP) and deterministic latencies. The PIC64GX MPU is the first RISC-V multi-core solution that is AMP capable for mixed-criticality systems. It is designed with a quad-core, Linux-capable Central Processing Unit (CPU) cluster, fifth microcontroller class monitor and 2 MB flexible L2 Cache running at 625 MHz.

The PIC64GX family boasts pin-compatibility with Microchip’s PolarFire SoC FPGA devices, offering a large amount of flexibility in the development of embedded solutions. Additionally, the 64-bit portfolio will leverage Microchip’s easy-to-use ecosystem of tools and supporting software, including a host of powerful processes to help configure, develop, debug and qualify embedded designs.

The PIC64 High-Performance Spaceflight Computing (PIC64-HPSC) family is also being launched as part of Microchip’s first wave of 64-bit offerings. The space-grade, 64-bit multi-core RISC-V MPUs are designed to increase compute performance by more than 100 times while delivering unprecedented radiation and fault tolerance for aerospace and defense applications. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL) announced in August 2022 that it had selected Microchip to develop an HPSC processor as part of its ongoing commercial partnership efforts. The PIC64-HPSC family represents a new era of autonomous space computing for NASA-JPL and the broader defense and commercial aerospace industry.

With the introduction of its PIC64 portfolio, Microchip has become the only embedded solutions provider actively developing a full spectrum of 8-, 16-, 32- and 64-bit microcontrollers (MCUs) and microprocessors (MPUs). Future PIC64 families will include devices based on RISC-V or Arm architectures and embedded designers will be able to take advantage of Microchip’s end-to-end solutions—from silicon to embedded ecosystems—for faster design, debug and verification and a reduced time to market. To learn more, visit the Microchip 64-bit web page.

Development Tools

The PIC64GX family is supported by the PIC64GX Curiosity Evaluation Kit and will feature integration with Microchip’s MPLAB Extensions for VS Code. The PIC64 MPUs are also supported by Linux4Microchip resources and Linux distributors such as Canonical Ubuntu OS, the Yocto Project and Buildroot with support for Zephyr RTOS and associated software stacks.

Pricing and Availability

The PIC64GX Curiosity Kit is now available for designers to get started with evaluation— for additional information and to purchase, contact a Microchip sales representative, authorized worldwide distributor or visit Microchip’s Purchasing and Client Services website, www.microchipdirect.com.

The post Microchip Technology Expands Processing Portfolio to Include Multi-Core 64-Bit Microprocessors appeared first on ELE Times.

Working of SIM & eSIM Remote SIM Provisioning

ELE Times - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 12:14

Courtesy: Infineon

Do you wonder how a traditional SIM works? Today, through this blog, I will talk about the working process of SIM as well as eSIM Remote SIM Provisioning (RSP). So, let’s jump into the techy details.

Working of physical SIM cards

Let’s first take a look at the figure 1 below:

 Cases explaining the working of physical SIM cardsFigure 1: Cases explaining the working of physical SIM cards

Did you understand anything from this given figure? Well, I’ll explain it now.

Traditional SIM cards were owned and issued by a particular network operator. The Figure 1.1 above showcases that an end user signs up a contract with their selected network operator, they pay the amount for the service and gets the physical SIM card (Case (a)).

Later, the same end user signs-up a contract with a different network operator, pays the service charges and gets the new physical SIM card (Case (b)).

Here, we see that if the end user has to use (a) network or (b) network, he needs to swap the SIM cards on their own.

eSIM remote SIM provisioning

After reading about how physical SIM works, you must be wondering how an eSIM differs from traditional SIMs?

Take a look at the image below:

 Remote SIM ProvisioningFigure 2: Remote SIM Provisioning

For remote SIM provisioning, no physical SIM card is required, but an embedded SIM in your handset/device (also called eUICC) – a single eSIM can accommodate and securely store multiple profiles in a single device and each profile comprises operators as well as subscriber’s data.

Let’s see what this figure 2 explains. ­­

At first, in step (a) the end user signs-up a contract with their preferred network operator, pays the required charges, and instead of getting a physical SIM, he receives instructions to connect to operator’s Remote SIM Provisioning system (RSP) [e.g., QR code]. This QR code contains the address of RSP system (SM-DP+ (Subscription Manager Data Preparation) server within the GSMA specifications), which allows the end user to download and install a SIM profile (as shown in step (b)). Once the profile is active, the user can connect to the network successfully (as shown in step (c)).

Important note: In Figure 2, the end user can repeat the process to install more profiles on a single device as shown below in Figure 3. This allows users to switch between profiles 1 and 2 as per their needs.

 Multiple Installed Profiles on eSIMFigure 3: Multiple Installed Profiles on eSIM

Some important terms:

Profile: A profile comprises of the operator data related to a subscription. It includes data like – operator’s credentials and provided third-party applications.

eUICC: Embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card (eUICC) is a secure element in the eSIM solution which can accommodate multiple profiles.

Profiles are always remotely downloaded over-the-air into a eUICC. Although the eUICC is an integral part of the device, the profile remains the property of the operator as it contains items “owned” by the operator (International Mobile Subscriber Identity (ISMI), Integrated Circuit Card ID (ICCID), security algorithms, etc.) and is supplied under licence.

Hence, the eUICC acts as a secure element to store the eSIM Profiles in the device.

We now know how traditional SIM cards VS embedded SIMs (eSIMs) functions differently. In the next blog, I’ll discuss about GSMA M2M solution – The first RSP solution developed by GSM Association (GSMA) for Machine to Machine (M2M) connectivity. 

The post Working of SIM & eSIM Remote SIM Provisioning appeared first on ELE Times.

Qromis recognized with Frost & Sullivan award

Semiconductor today - Срд, 07/10/2024 - 11:41
Qromis Inc of Santa Clara, CA, USA (founded in 2015) has received the Frost & Sullivan 2024 Global Enabling Technology Leadership Award. Frost & Sullivan presents this award each year to a company that develops a pioneering technology that enhances current products and enables new product and application development...

Сторінки

Subscribe to Кафедра Електронної Інженерії підбірка - Новини світу мікро- та наноелектроніки