Новини світу мікро- та наноелектроніки

Nonlinearities of Darlington airflow sensor and VFC compensate each other

EDN Network - Срд, 05/03/2023 - 17:43

Self-heated thermal airflow sensors are simple, cheap, rugged, and sensitive. However, they exhibit an airspeed to sensor temperature response (King’s Law) that is very nonlinear, as shown in Figure 1

Figure 1 The TO-92 junction temperature delta versus air speed at 320mW showing the nonlinear relationship between airflow and sensor temperature.

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The Figure 1 curve conforms to the empirical formula below, relating junction temperature to power dissipation and airspeed for a self-heated transistor in TO-92:

Tj = Pd(Zj + 1/(Cs + K√Sa))

Tj = junction temperature rise above ambient (oC)
Pd = junction power dissipation (W)
Zj = junction-to-case thermal impedance = 44°C/W
Cs = still-air case-to-ambient conductivity = 6.4 mW/°C
K = “King’s Law” thermal diffusion constant = 0.75 mW/°C/√fpm
Sa = air speed in fpm

Figure 2 shows a practical thermal sensor circuit organized around a Darlington transistor pair: Q1 and Q2.

Figure 2 The self-heated Darlington thermal airflow sensor.

Q1 plays the role of self-heated sensor. Its Vbe tempco converts temperature into voltage at -1.5mV/oC. LM10 200mV reference A1 regulates Q1 current to 0.2V/R3 = 67 mA, thereby forcing Q1’s power dissipation to a constant 67 mA * 4.8 V = 320 mW. The resulting ambient versus junction temperature differential provides an airspeed readout as it cools from 64oC at 0 fpm, to 22oC at 2000 fpm, with a corresponding 63 mV rise in Vbe from 654 mV at 0 fpm to 717 mV at 2000 fpm.

Meanwhile, Q2 provides airspeed-independent ambient temperature compensation.

Feedback through R4 and the accompanying resistor network set a 0-2000 fpm = 0-5 V scale factor with R6 providing zero-flow adjustment. But if meaningful conversion and acquisition of the flow signal are to happen, something will have to be done about that hideous nonlinearity. 

Figure 3 is that something.

Figure 3 The nonlinear VFC is shown, with U1 configured in a 555 astable topology and a Vin resistor network, providing a solution for the previous nonlinearity.

U1 is configured in a fairly typical 555 astable topology, except that the Vin resistor network acts to offset Vthr proportionately to Vin. Thus, as Vin moves from 0 to 5 V, corresponding to an airspeed excursion from 0 to 2000 fpm, the maxima of the Vthr timing ramp begin moving from just barely above the 2/3V+ threshold (corresponding to ~0 Hz), while the minima approach that limit (corresponding to ~2000 Hz). So, as Vin increases in response to increasing airspeed, the timing ramp at pin 6 has a steadily decreasing amplitude. This increases the rate of Hz versus fpm to cancel the opposite behavior of King’s Law (Figure 4’s red curve).

The resultant strongly nonlinear V to F conversion curve provides reasonable linearity compensation of Figure 2’s sensor strongly nonlinear response, as shown in Figure 4’s blue curve to yield a net 1 Hz = 1 fpm calibration.

Figure 4 The linearized VFC airflow response (blue) where the increasing rate of Hz versus fpm cancels the nonlinear effects of King’s Law to yield a 1 Hz = 1 fpm calibration.

Finally, Figure 3’s Q1 PNP current source probably needs a word of explanation. Its ~-2mV/ oC Vbe temperature dependence, in combination with the surrounding Rs, causes its collector current to have an ~+0.3%/oC tempco, which would seem to be a bad thing for conversion accuracy. But it’s just the opposite, Q1’s tempco improves the accuracy of the air speed measurement by compensating for the variation of air density with temperature.

According to ol’ Jacques Clapeyron’s 1834 Ideal Gas Law (PV = nRT), air density (molecules per unit volume = n/V), and therefore heat capacity per unit volume, is inversely proportional to absolute temperature (n/V = P/R/T). Therefore, an accurate measurement of air speed, which is proportional to air volume, implies a direct relationship to absolute temperature, equaling about +0.3%/oC at “room” temperature. Rising ambient temperature causes Q1’s rising collector current to speed up U1’s oscillation frequency by just that factor.

So. Kudos to Q1.

Stephen Woodward’s relationship with EDN’s DI column goes back quite a ways. In all, a total of 64 submissions have been accepted since his first contribution was published in 1974.

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Universal purpose optoelectronic logic element with input optical switching of AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR functions

EDN Network - Втр, 05/02/2023 - 18:28

The optoelectronic logic element AND, OR and XOR is considered, the output signal of which can be inverted when the input control signal is applied, thereby converting the logic element into NAND, NOR and XNOR.

Among the assortment of logic chips, there are known chips whose power can be turned on or off by feeding a control signal to one of the inputs of the chip.

The principle of creating a universal optoelectronic logic element with input optical switching of AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR functions will be discussed below.

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The optoelectronic logic element, Figure 1, contains three input control switches of optoelectronic pairs U1.1, U2.1 … U6.1 (optronic pairs are highlighted in color for clarity), made on transistors Q1, Q3 and Q5.

Figure 1 Optoelectronic logic element of universal purpose with optical switching of output functions.

In the absence of input signals, current flows through the LEDs of the optocoupler pairs U2.1, U4.1 and U6.1. When high-level signals are applied to the inputs X1, X2 and F (Mode), the optocouplers switch: current flows through the LEDs of the optocouplers U1.1, U3.1 and U5.1.

When high-level signals are applied to the inputs X1, X2 or F (Mode), the optocoupler pairs switch: current flows through the LEDs of the optocoupler pairs U1.1, U3.1 or U5, respectively, to the input signal.

The receiving part of the logic element contains photodiodes of optocouplers, resistors, as well as output stages on transistors Q2, Q4 and Q6.

When the “Log. 1” and/or “Log. 0” level signals are applied to the control inputs X1, X2 or F (Mode), the signals at the outputs Y1 AND, Y2 OR and Y3 XOR change in accordance with Table 1.

Table 1 Truth table of a universal purpose optoelectronic logic element with optical switching of output functions.

Another simpler version of the implementation of a universal purpose optoelectronic logic element with an input optical switching of functions is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 A simpler implementation of a universal purpose optoelectronic logic element with an input optical switching of functions.

The input and receiving parts of the device can be powered from separate power sources (to provide galvanic isolation of input and output) or a single power source.

Such an optoelectronic logic element can be placed in a conventional case DIP10, Figure 3.

Figure 3 Possible type of the housing of a universal optoelectronic logic element chip.

For a visual indication of the involved input F, instead of the diode D3, an LED (Mode indicator) shown in Figures 1 and 2 can be used.

Michael A. Shustov is a doctor of technical sciences, candidate of chemical sciences and the author of over 750 printed works in the field of electronics, chemistry, physics, geology, medicine, and history.

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TSMC upends 3-nm roadmap with three new nodes

EDN Network - Втр, 05/02/2023 - 15:00

TSMC’s 3-nm fabrication nodes mark the final generation of FinFET-based manufacturing processes as the foundry’s 2-nm process nodes will incorporate nanosheets, also known as gate-all-around (GAA) transistors. The mega-fab’s recent 2023 North America Technology Symposium provided ample information on the latest for 3-nm chip manufacturing process nodes.

The information about the baseline 3-nm node, N3, which is currently in production, and details about an enhanced version, N3E, to be launched in the second half of 2023, was made available last year. The N3 node features up to 25 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) layers while using double-patterning on some of them to facilitate higher logic and SRAM transistor density than TSMC’s N5 fabrication node.

On the other hand, N3E utilizes up to 19 EUV layers while not relying on EUV double patterning, which reduces fabrication complexity and costs. However, while N3E offers a wider process window and better yields, it provides lower logic density than N3. As a result, it’s less attractive for chip designs aiming for density and area gains.

Now TSMC is adding new variants to the N3 roadmap to further diversify the 3-nm process technology to meet chip designers’ diverse needs. Below is a brief outline of the three nodes TSMC unveiled at the symposium in Santa Clara, California: N3P, N3X and N3AE.

Figure 1 The 3-nm fabrication nodes have been diversified into a range of processes to meet the needs of a wide range of chips. Source: TSMC

  1. N3P fabrication node

N3P, a refinement of N3E, lowers power consumption and bolsters performance and density by adjusting the optical performance of its scanners. In other words, it’s an optical shrink of N3E, providing 5% more speed at the same leakage, 5-10% power reduction at the same speed, and 1.04X more chip density.

N3P’s key objective is to optimize transistor density by building on N3E and improving transistor characteristics. TSMC claims that this 3-nm will boost transistor density by 4% for a mixed-chip design, which according to the foundry, is a chip consisting of 50% logic, 30% SRAM, and 20% analog circuits. N3P, projected to be one of TSMC’s most popular N3 nodes, will be available in the second half of 2024.

  1. N3X fabrication node

N3X, tailored for high-performance computing devices like CPUs and GPUs, offers at least 5% higher clock speeds than N3P. While more tolerant of higher voltages, this node enables IC designers to crank up the clock speeds in exchange for higher overall leakage. According to TSMC, the N3X will support around 1.2 V, which is quite high for a 3-nm chip fabrication process.

N3X is a performance-focused node tailored for high-performance computing (HPC) processors for whom power leakage is less of an issue. These processors are commonly used in server-grade hardware with hefty cooling systems. Still, chip designers will have to make an effort to keep these power-hungry processors in check.

It’s also worth noting that N3X will offer the same transistor density as N3P, and its key value proposition is prioritizing performance and maximum clock frequencies for HPC applications. TSMC sources claim that N3X will be production ready in 2025. According to some industry insiders, Intel’s Celestial GPUs will be among the first to use the N3X fabrication node.

Figure 2 The N3P and N3X nodes diversify the fabrication process in terms of chip density and higher voltage tolerance, respectively. Source: TSMC

  1. N3AE fabrication node

N3AE or “Auto Early” enables automotive applications on advanced chip manufacturing process technology. It offers automotive process design kits (PDKs) based on N3E and will be available in 2023. The fully automotive-qualified N3AE process will be unveiled in 2025.

Editor’s Note: This is part 1 of the blog series about TSMC’s new fabrication nodes and associated technologies. Part 2 will delve into TSMC’s roadmap for N2 process nodes.

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Google’s Chromecast with Google TV: Car accessory similarity, and a post-teardown resurrection opportunity?

EDN Network - Пн, 05/01/2023 - 19:59

I’ve long used, written about and even dismantled various models (and generations of models) of Roku streaming devices. As I write these words, in fact, there are five of ‘em residing in various rooms of my abode. But my office is Roku-less—not reflective of any particular anti-Roku bias, mind you; I’m just striving for evaluation diversity. Instead, connected to a multi-input HDMI switch (and from there to an ancient but still functional large-screen LCD computer monitor) there’s a Google Chromecast with Google TV, which from now on I’ll mostly refer to as the CGTV to keep character count down, and which longstanding readers with long memories may remember made my 2020 holiday shopping-recommendations list:

Specifically, mine’s one of the original 4K resolution-capable units introduced in September 2020, not the newer (September 2022) and less expensive ($29.99 vs $49.99) albeit “only” 1080p-max “HD” model. As I mentioned in that late-2020 writeup, I’d actually paid $89.99 for mine, bundled with 6 months of Netflix service…which unexpectedly ended up getting extended to a year of Netflix service. I like the CGTV a lot; I wish it supported the Android Xfinity Stream app (I can’t help but chuckle when I see Google tech support suggesting that folks sideload the app instead), but right next to it is an Xbox 360 acting as a Comcast-fed Media Center Extender that’s connected to another input of that same HDMI switch, so no biggie.

I actually purchased two CGTV hardware-plus-service bundles; I planned on using the other one when traveling, until I realized that unlike Rokus, there’s no integrated web browser that enables you to log a CGTV into hotel Wi-Fi. Sigh. Regardless, I got a year’s worth of Netflix with that one, too. Do the math and, yes, I only recently started paying for Netflix again ;-). But wait, there’s more! My Google Store account was limited to two “bundles”, but thanks to a separate $10-off coupon, I bought a third 4K CGTV for $39.99, specifically with today’s teardown in mind.

Before diving in, a clarification. You’ve probably already noticed that I’m specifically referring to this as the “Chromecast with Google TV”. This device isn’t solely a streaming media adapter like Google’s conventional Chromecasts (a first-generation one of which I already tore down a few years ago) or even the 4K-compatible Ultra model, all of which are dependent on a tablet, smartphone, computer or other streaming content source. The CGTV, like its Roku siblings, can also act as a streaming adapter, but it’s fundamentally intended to be a standalone device.

Elucidation over, let’s as usual begin with some outer box shots:

Open the lid and the first thing you’ll see inside are two smaller boxes, one obviously labeled as containing the CGTV, the other holding the companion remote control:

Underneath them is a bit of literature:

And underneath that are the power adapter and cable, along with a set of AAA batteries for the remote control:

Here are some images of the various box-content bits, in some cases, accompanied by a 0.75″ (19.1 mm) diameter and 0.06” (1.52 mm) thick U.S. penny for size comparison purposes:

Note the 5V/1.5A power requirement of the CGTV:

Now about that remote control…

It’s somewhat unique in that it comprehends both Bluetooth and IR (infrared) protocols, along with containing a microphone for voice control as an alternative to the various front buttons. Bluetooth is for connectivity to the CGTV, which is nice because it doesn’t require line-of-sight. And since the CGTV’s HDMI 2.0 output supports the CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) protocol, you can also use the remote to manage power on/off, volume and input selection for a HDMI-connected TV or soundbar (assuming, of course, that it’s also HDMI-CEC cognizant). Alternatively, if the TV or soundbar is IR-based, the CGTV’s remote can also directly manage it; the CGTV software embeds common control code sets, which you configure in the device settings for your specific IR-based product. Here are photos of it absent its protective baggie:

Sorry, folks, but that’s all you’re going to see of the remote. I want to keep it intact as a spare, just in case the primary ever gets lost between the sofa cushions, doncha know.

On to the CGTV:

The product dimensions, direct from Google’s published specs, are “6.4 x 2.4 x 0.5 in (162 mm x 61 mm x 12.5 mm), not including cables or accessories” and the weight is “56.7 g (2 oz)”. A majority of that total 6.4” length, perhaps obviously is the HDMI cable; the main body is 3” long. Here are some overview shots:

And here’s a closeup of the bottom-side product markings, including the all-important FCC IC, A4RGZRNL (the FCC ID for the newer “HD” version of the CGTV, conversely, is A4RG454V):

Wireless protocols supported by the CGTV, thereby explaining the FCC certification necessity, include (again from Google’s published specs):

  • 11ac Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz/5 GHz) with WPA2 support (for network connectivity)
  • Bluetooth 4.2 (for the remote control)

Before I forget, by the way, you can also network-connect the CGTV via wired Ethernet. How, you might ask, since there’s no Ethernet port on the device itself? Well, Google also sells a separate $19.99 accessory power adapter with integrated Ethernet connectivity:

Alternatively, I’ve personally tested and confirmed that a USB-C hub (one with an Ethernet port, of course) can also be used to implement wired network connectivity, assuming it also supplies sufficient power to the CGTV. This approach offers the added bonus of supplementing (via the hub’s integrated USB ports for flash “thumb” drives, SD slots for memory cards, and the like) the CGTV’s limited available (especially after O/S updates and apps) on-board storage capacity.

Back to our patient. You’ve likely already noticed the seam around the sides. That’s our path to the insides. My unit ended up being more sturdily glued, therefore less easy to crack open, than this one apparently was, but with patience as my guide I finally got inside with minimal cosmetic-or-more collateral damage (at least I think so; keep reading):

Check out all that blue thermal paste! Note that we’re looking at the (supposed) top of the device, which I mention in the spirit of “heat rises”. That said, given that the CGTV is designed to dangle from the horizontally (right-side-up or upside-down; I’ve encountered both) or vertically aligned HDMI connector of a television, orientation cues are somewhat meaningless.

The topside heatsink covering the PCB is held in place by four screws:

Remove them and the heatsink wriggles right off, revealing…yay, more thermal paste!

Next, let’s detach the HDMI cable (which represents yet another departure from the earlier-linked other teardown video, for which the attachment mechanism was seemingly more complex; this one popped right off):

With all six screws and the HDMI cable removed, the PCB comes right out of the remaining bottom half of the case:

Interestingly, particularly given my earlier orientation-is-essentially-meaningless observation, there’s no thermal paste between the heat sink and case insides this bottom-side time:

Although, once you wriggle the heatsink off, you’ll once again find plenty of paste inside:

Let’s get it off, aided by some rubbing alcohol, although it flaked off pretty much all by itself using only a fingernail:

At center is the system SoC, Amlogic’s S905. I find its inclusion curious, for both selection and location reasons. It’s the exact same processor found in the Spotify Car Thing, the subject of one of last month’s teardowns. And it’s on the underside of the PCB—recall my earlier “heat rises” and “no bottom-side heatsink-to-case paste” comments, somewhat counterbalanced by my earlier “orientation is somewhat meaningless for something that dangles” comment. That said, we’ll soon see how else Google tackles the SoC heat dissipation challenge.

Below the Amlogic S905 is a Hynix H9HCNNNBKUMLHR-NME 16 Gbit LPDDR4-3733 SDRAM. And to the left, sequentially left-to-right, are the power-and-status LED, the hardware reset switch, and the underside of the USB-C connector.

Speaking of sides, after flipping the PCB back over to its topside:

and cleaning off the paste as much as possible:

several more ICs come into view. The first, in the upper right quadrant of the PCB, was paste-less from the start; it’s a Samsung KLM8G1GETF-B041 8 GByte eMMC flash memory. Again, this is eerily similar to the recently dissected Spotify Car Thing, which also included eMMC-based nonvolatile storage, albeit 4 GBytes in capacity and sourced from Toshiba/Kioxia in that case. Conversely, there’s more deviation in the volatile memory realm; the Car Thing’s SDRAM was 4 Gbit in capacity, 933 MHz in speed, DDR3L in technology type, and Etron-sourced.

Below the eMMC is the CGTV’s wireless connectivity nexus, a Broadcom-then-Cypress Semiconductor-now-Infineon Technologies BCM43598 “single-chip IEEE 802.11 b/g/n MAC/baseband/radio with integrated Bluetooth 5.1 compliance”, quoting from the datasheet. Below it, as well as above the eMMC, are the two associated PCB-embedded antennae. And to the right of both chips is another blue blob of thermal paste, whose function may not be intuitively obvious. Its location corresponds to that, on the other side of the PCB, of the Amlogic S905, and embedded in it are various passives commonly found intermingled in the ball grid array (in this particular case) or other pinout layout underneath CPUs. I therefore deduce that it’s a topside (again, “heat rises”) supplemental means of removing heat generated by the SoC.

Finally, what of the “resurrection opportunity” mention in the title of this teardown? As you may have already noticed, I didn’t have to rip the top off any Faraday Cages this time; more generally, my disassembly of the device (including the pry-apart of the two halves of the clamshell case) was non-destructive…at least I think it was. I’m going to wait until this writeup is published, in case I need to snap any additional and/or replacement photos, etc., then I’ll clean off the rest of the old thermal paste and replace it with fresh grey goo, put the insides back in place and glue the two halves of the case back together, and see if it lives again.

An appropriate aspiration given that I’m writing these words on the eve of the fourth Sunday of Lent, yes? Keep an eye out for a success-or-not epilogue in the comments. And speaking of which, I as-always welcome your thoughts there, too!

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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EDA toolmakers prep for TSMC’s N3E and N2 nodes

EDN Network - Пн, 05/01/2023 - 13:29

TSMC is bolstering its existing relationships with EDA companies by having their design tools certified for its N3E and N2 process nodes. Top EDA firms have announced a range of new certifications and collaborations with long-time partner TSMC coinciding with the TSMC 2023 North America Technology Symposium.

At the event, TSMC provided details about its 3-nm and 2-nm chip manufacturing process nodes called N3 and N2, respectively. While N3 is a baseline node, N3E is an enhanced version with reduced cost and better yield; it’s expected to be introduced in the second half of 2023. On the other hand, the N2 process node is on track for production in 2025.

The readiness of digital and custom/analog EDA flows and related process design kits (PDKs) for these advanced nodes will be crucial for TSMC in successfully launching these advanced process nodes. The trio of large EDA houses seem onboard, and below is a synopsis of their undertakings to prepare for the N3E and N2 process nodes.

  1. Cadence

Cadence Design Systems claims its digital and custom/analog flows have been certified to support TSMC’s new Design Rule Manual (DRM) for the fab’s N3E and N2 nodes. The two companies have jointly delivered PDKs for N3E and N2 processes to facilitate mobile, artificial intelligence (AI), and hyperscale computing IC designs at these advanced nodes. Cadence has collaborated with TSMC on its complete RTL-to-GDS flow for use with TSMC’s N3E and N2 nodes.

Figure 1 The digital implementation and signoff flow supports a variety of new design features, including native hybrid cell row optimization from synthesis to signoff engineering change order (ECO) for optimal power, performance and area (PPA), cell pin alignment, and connection support. Source: Cadence

Cadence has also announced the tapeout of its 16G UCIe 2.5D advanced package IP on TSMC’s N3E process node. The UCIe IP facilitates chiplet for die-to-die communication, which is becoming increasingly critical in AI and machine learning (ML), mobile, automotive, storage and networking applications, currently driving the need to move from monolithic integration to system-in-package (SiP) chiplets.

  1. Siemens EDA

Siemens EDA’s Calibre nmPlatform tool for IC verification sign-off is fully certified for TSMC’s N3E and N2 processes. The two companies have also joined hands to certify Siemens’ mPower analog software for transistor-level electromigration and IR drop (EM/IR) sign-off for TSMC’s N3E process.

Figure 2 The Calibre platform for IC verification sign-off has been certified for TSMC’s N3E and N2 nodes. Source: Siemens EDA

Then there is the Analog FastSPICE platform for circuit verification of nanometer analog, RF, mixed-signal, memory, and custom digital circuits, which has achieved TSMC certification for the foundry’s N5A, N3E, and N2 processes. The EDA toolmaker has also upgraded its Tanner software, which helps IC designers lay out analog and mixed-signal ICs.

  1. Synopsys

Synopsys will deliver digital and custom design EDA flows on TSMC’s most advanced node, the N2 process, which leverages nanosheet transistors to offer up to 15% speed improvement at the same power or 30% power reduction at the same speed when compared with TSMC’s N3E process.

Sanjay Bali, VP of Strategy and Product Management for the EDA Group at Synopsys, acknowledged that the latest N2 process is pushing the edge of design physics. He said collaboration on N2 builds on the company’s certified EDA and IP solutions for TSMC’s 3-nm process technology with several dozen successful tapeouts. For example, Bali mentioned the in-chip process, voltage and temperature (PVT) monitor IP to boost N3 designs.

In October 2022, Synopsys provided details of its certifications for TSMC’s N3E process. Besides certified design flows and IP readiness, Synopsys is working closely with TSMC to scale physical verification in the cloud while using the Synopsys IC Validator product for N3E on the Synopsys Cloud software-as-a-service offering. That allows chip designers to access unlimited CPU capacity in the cloud for faster physical verification iterations.

Figure 3 IC Validator, a physical verification signoff solution, offers distributed processing scalability to over 4,000 CPU cores. Source: Synopsys

For AI-driven design enablement, Synopsys’ DSO.ai technology and Fusion Compiler have also been validated for multiple N3E test cases with better PPA and faster design closure.

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Electronic lovers - Ндл, 04/30/2023 - 03:36

Internet of things or (IOT) is revolutionary technology that has the capability to transform the way we view our world. IoT is defined as the network of devices, buildings and other objects that have embedded sensors, such connectivity that allows exchanging data and communication with various devices and or people. Internet of things has been around for many decades but it has been gaining a lot of attention in this age, this advanced technology is developing every single day. A quick fact about IoT is that predictors have estimated that the use of IoT technology will increase to 13.7% in the upcoming years.


IoT has been providing aid to human life from the comfort of our homes to industrial and environmental fields. To simplify our living styles many devices are built on IoT, we see smart devices, smart houses and a lot of other smart gadgets that are IoT based. Following is the list of few projects that use IoT technology.


Facial recognition and detection systems are forms of artificial technology that can recognize and or detect human faces. Facial recognition bots involves the making of AI robots that have the capability to identify different voices and facial features that could works as a prime function for privacy feature, personal identification, emotion detection and other essential features that could become even bigger if they are worked upon.


Smart parking system is a very important part of a smart city, using IoT for smart parking would enable less traffic and confusion as users would be easily guided to vacant parking spots. This system gives you a picture of the area you want to park your vehicle at, then you will be easily notified if there is a vacant spot where you can park.


Sometimes people neglect their routine checkups so IoT technology comes in very important for such cases, some patients rather than neglecting their checkups or forgetting them they just can’t go to a doctor for this purpose, IoT provides patients help in such a way that they can sit and enjoy the comfort of their homes and check their vitals and if there is a problem with the person’s vitals a doctor connected to the patient is immediately notified via IoT induced devices.


This heading also falls in the healthcare field, this system uses accelerometer and gyro sensor to detect a patient’s movements. Sometimes due to old age or any other medical factor patients tend to use a wheelchair, using IoT technology there is a detection system built in the wheelchairs to detect any jerk or fall, upon detection of a jerk an alarm is generated which could maybe stop someone from being in a bigger problem.


Crime rates are the highest at night and therefore robots that can patrol at night are very essential, these robots can detect any wrong activity by having built in vision that can help them in seeing at night and a 360 degrees view, in case of any false activity these robots can generate alarms and take pictures of the scene. This system helps a lot in guarding any kind of property.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/RakshanaG/Night-Patrolling-Robot


Smart grid is a system by which a track or a record could be kept of the power generated to the power consumed, this could be very useful in controlling power supply.


Travelling is an integral part of life and carrying baggage with you is also very important to carry your belongings with you. In case of any theft or if your baggage gets lost detectors are used that sends the location, the coordinates of your bag to your mobile phone. This has created a lot ease in the tourism industry.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/ParameswarKanuparthi/Baggage-Tracking-using-IoT


Mining is one of thre hardest jobs, miners have to work in such a place where they could be faced with any sort of dangerous problems, to avoid such risks a microcontrolled based circuit is installed in the worker’s helmet which tracks the surroundings of the mining site. There is also a tracking system that can transfer data via IoT network, the worker’s location could also be traced in real time to avoid being stuck in an unavoidable problem.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/iamkishandadhania/IoT-based-Smart-Helmet-for-Industrial-Workers


Most of the times street lights are left turned on even during the day time. Street light monitoring system sense movement around itself through LDR sensors and it turns itself on or off when its needed. This saves a lot of electricity wastage.


Smart traffic mangement is a system that could easily tackle all the problems revoloving around traffic. This system can mange all the traffic problems and offer special pathways that are needed in case of rush hours and or emergencies.



Smart alarm clocks not only wake you up but also provide a text to speech synthesizer and more features. It modernizes your night side table also provides a new way to wake you up in the morning and helps you geta better sleep.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/rahulr56/iotapp-alarm-clock


Due to the growing population there is an increase in the need of food, this system enables farmers to check on their crops from anywhere, it enables the farmers to irrigate a piece of land or spray bunch of fertilizers on their fields via IoT.


In such an age where both a man and woman works this sytem is best for working couples, this systems provides a cry detecting mechanism, live video, it also monitors the temperature of the cradle where the baby is put in, this makes life very relaxed for working couples as they can keep up with their baby from afar.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/ahmedelsensar11/Baby-Monitoring-System


Smart garage systems enables you to open or close your garages through some clicks from your mobile phones, without this IoT technology it will take you atleast 4-5 minutes to open or close your garage which will waste a lot of your time especially when you are in hurry.

SOURCE CODE:https://github.com/nidhishree32/Smart-Garage-using-Bolt-IoT-and-Arduino


Liquid level mangement using IoT technology helps in detection of the levels of liquid on industrial scale to keep it away from flooding, it also helps in the detection of leaks in pipelines that also is very important to avoid water loss.

IoT products have eased our lives to a great extent, they are not just limited to our homes but they go as far as to industrial levels. IoT products can bring even more ease to our lives that is if we work upon such projects mentioned above. This technology could save a lot of lives in cases of risks and emergencies. Internet of things has been advancing daily and in the future it will change the way we are running the world now.

The post TOP 15 IOT PROJECTS | 2023 appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

Arduino Opta PLC Pros & Cons

Electronic lovers - Ндл, 04/30/2023 - 02:48

The continuous COVID-19 pandemic has caused economies around the world to experience financial hardship. Industries have been impacted as a result, and businesses have been pressured to adopt new technology and processes to stay competitive during these tough times. There has been increasing discussion in the automation sector about whether Arduino can replace PLC in order to develop a first programme and support businesses through the economic downturn. In this essay, we’ll examine Arduino’s potential as a PLC replacement and how it may help organisations in the present business environment.

Unlocking the Potential of PLC

PLCs are a type of gadget used in automation to manage and watch over industrial processes. It is extensively utilised in manufacturing, packing, and other sectors where exact machinery control is necessary. PLCs are made to perform reliably in challenging industrial environments for lengthy periods of time. They have the ability to manage alarms, monitor sensors, and regulate motors, among other things.

Contrarily, Arduino is a free and open-source hardware and software platform for creating electronic projects. It is a well-liked tool for making electronic prototypes among DIY enthusiasts and amateurs. Arduino boards are a great choice for novices who are just beginning to learn about electronics because they are inexpensive and simple to use. However, some industry professionals contend that Arduino can potentially be utilised as a PLC substitute.

The Incredible Impact of Arduino as a PLC

Cost-effectiveness is one of the key benefits of utilising Arduino as a PLC substitute. PLCs can be very expensive, both initially and in terms of upkeep. On the contrary hand, Arduino boards are reasonably priced and provide features that PLCs do. For small and medium-sized enterprises that do not have the funds to invest in pricey automation technology, this profitability can be extremely helpful.

Flexibility is another benefit of adopting Arduino as a PLC substitute. PLCs are made to carry out particular duties, whereas Arduino can be configured to carry out a variety of jobs. Due to its adaptability, Arduino is a more flexible alternative that enables companies to tailor their automation systems to suit their particular requirements. For companies that need specialised automation equipment, this can be extremely advantageous.

Uncovering the Limitations of Arduino

However, utilising Arduino as a PLC substitute has several drawbacks. The biggest disadvantage is reliability. Although Arduino boards are dependable for DIY and educational projects, they might not be appropriate for commercial applications that need to run continuously. Unlike Arduino boards, which may eventually face reliability problems, PLCs are made to function reliably for extended periods of time. Additionally, whereas Arduino boards might not be as tough, PLCs are frequently built to survive harsh industrial settings.

Despite these drawbacks, numerous companies have used Arduino as a PLC substitute with success. Installing the Arduino software and connecting your board to your computer are prerequisites for writing your first programme with the Arduino platform. Then, using the C++-based Arduino programming language, you must write your code. Your automation system can be operational after the programme has uploaded the code to the board.


To sum up, in order for firms to stay competitive, the protracted recession has compelled them to adopt new technology and processes. Although PLCs are frequently used in automation, they can be costly and may not be appropriate for all types of enterprises. Contrarily, Arduino provides a flexible and affordable alternative to PLCs, making it a great choice for companies that need specialised automation technology. Despite the fact that PLCs may be more reliable, numerous firms have used Arduino with success in their automation systems. Installing the software, writing your code, and uploading it to your board are all steps in the Arduino programming process. For companies wanting to survive, Arduino can be a fantastic alternative with the correct programming knowledge and skills.

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Weekly discussion, complaint, and rant thread

Reddit:Electronics - Сбт, 04/29/2023 - 18:00

Open to anything, including discussions, complaints, and rants.

Sub rules do not apply, so don't bother reporting incivility, off-topic, or spam.

Reddit-wide rules do apply.

To see the newest posts, sort the comments by "new" (instead of "best" or "top").

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650-V SiC diode touts increased reliability

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 17:54

Nexperia’s PSC1065K SiC Schottky diode comes in a real-2-pin (R2P) TO-220-2 plastic package that enhances reliability in high-voltage applications at temperatures up to 175 °C. This industrial-grade device has a repetitive peak reverse voltage (VRRM) of 650 V, forward current (IF) of 10 A, and non-repetitive peak forward current (IFSM) as high as 440 A.

The merged PiN Schottky (MPS) structure of the PSC1065K adds robustness against surge currents and eliminates the need for additional protection circuitry. Additionally, the PSC1065K offers temperature-independent capacitive switching and zero forward and reverse recovery behavior. These features reduce system complexity and enable hardware designers to achieve higher efficiency with smaller form factors in rugged high-power applications.

Nexperia offers its 650-V, 10-A SiC Schottky diodes in four high-voltage compliant R2P packages with higher creepage distance. These R2P packages include DPAK, D2PAK, TO-247-2, and TO-220-2, designated the PSC1065-H, -J, -L, and –K, respectively. Applications for these devices include switched-mode power supplies, AC/DC and DC/DC converters, battery-charging infrastructure, uninterruptible power supplies, and photovoltaic inverters.

PSC1065K product page


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Timing chips aid in-car connectivity

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 17:53

Two MEMS-based oscillators, the SiT1623 and SiT1625 from SiTime, provide a high-temperature, low-power timing reference for automotive connectivity protocols. Both of the AEC-Q100 qualified devices perform under extreme conditions and provide the robust system performance and stability required in harsh automotive environments.

Grade 1 oscillators operate over a temperature range of -40°C to +125°C and can be used for automotive ADAS, electronic control units, and infotainment systems. The SiT1623 offers 9 commonly used fixed frequencies between 8 MHz and 50 MHz, while the SiT1625 offers a choice of 12 fixed frequencies between 8 MHz and 100 MHz. Frequency stability for both parts is ±25 PPM (85°C), ±30 ppm (105°C), and ±50 ppm (125°C). RMS phase jitter is 750 fs for the SiT1623, dropping to 500 fs for the SiT1625.

The SiT1623 and SiT1625 consume 1.8 mA and 2.3 mA, respectively, when operating at 1.8 V. Four industry-standard packaging options are available: 1.6×1.2 mm, 2.0×1.6 mm, 2.5×2.0 mm, and 3.2×2.5 mm.

Engineering samples of the SiT1623 and SiT1625 oscillators are available now to qualified customers. General sampling will be available in July 2023. Volume production is expected in early 2024.

SiT1623 product page

SiT1625 product page


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Receiver offers flexible spectrum monitoring

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 17:53

The R&S ESMW monitoring receiver covers a frequency range of 8 kHz to 40 GHz with a real-time bandwidth of up to 2 GHz. Useful for fixed and mobile spectrum monitoring, the instrument’s ITU-compliant RF performance and modular upgradability enable it to measure both current and future wideband signals in high-density spectrum environments.

The ESMW calculates real-time spectrum by applying FFT signal processing with at least 50% overlap. Signals as short as 75 ns can be reliably detected with 100% probability of intercept (POI) and full amplitude accuracy. A panorama scan option for the ESMW enables the instrument to perform spectral scans with speeds of up to 2.6 THz/s and adjustable frequency resolution. With a real-time bandwidth of 2 GHz, panorama scans are perceived as almost real-time operation.

In addition to standalone operation, the ultra-wideband ESMW can be used to upgrade existing R&S radio monitoring systems thanks to backward compatibility with the company’s ESMD and ESME wideband monitoring receivers. Its open remote-control interfaces and well-documented output data formats also enable integration into various third-party systems.

ESMW product page

Rohde & Schwarz 

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GRF expands lineup of broadband gain blocks

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 17:53

Guerrilla RF announced the release of two high-linearity gain blocks for infrastructure applications, such as 5G base stations, automotive telematics, and cellular repeaters. Extending the gain coverage of GRF’s existing portfolio of general-purpose RF/microwave gain blocks, the GRF2010 and GRF2011 GaAs pHEMT amplifiers provide nominal gain levels of 10 dB and 15 dB. Since all of the gain blocks come in 1.5×1.5-mm DFN-6 packages, existing designs can be modified to achieve different levels of gain, linearity, and noise figure.

When operating with a nominal 5-V bias and single match covering 400 MHz to 4000 MHz, the GRF2010 draws 90 mA of current while delivering a gain of 10 dB, OIP3 linearity of 36 dBm, OP1dB compression level of 20 dBm, and a noise figure of 3.1 dB. The GRF2011, with a single match tune of 700 MHz to 3800 MHz, increases the gain offering to 15.2 dB with OIP3 linearity of 40 dBm, OP1dB compression of 22.7 dBm, and a lower noise figure of 2 dB. Both devices can be tuned to operate over lower frequencies reaching down to 50 MHz.

Samples and evaluation boards for the GRF2010 and GRF2011 gain blocks are available now, with prices starting at $0.85 each in lots of 10,000 units.

GRF2010 product page

GRF2011 product page

Guerrilla RF 

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GDDR6 PHY core delivers up to 24 Gb/s

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 17:51

A 24-Gb/s Graphics Double Data Rate 6 (GDDR6) PHY IP core from Rambus enables a high-bandwidth memory interface for AI/ML, graphics, and networking applications. At 24 Gb/s per pin, the GDDR6 PHY offers a maximum bandwidth of 96 GB/s for each GDDR6 memory device. It can be paired with the Rambus GDDR6 digital controller IP to provide a complete GDDR6 memory interface subsystem.

Available in advanced FinFET nodes for ASIC or SoC integration, the GDDR6 PHY IP core is fully compliant with the JEDEC GDDR6 (JESD250C) standard and supports two independent 16-bit–wide channels. The PHY leverages the manufacturer’s high-speed signal integrity and power integrity expertise and is optimized for systems requiring high-bandwidth and low latency, such as generative AI.

A DFI 3.1 style interface allows easy integration of the PHY core with the memory controller. While the Rambus GDDR6 PHY and GDDR6 controller can be used together, these cores can also be licensed separately to work with third-party GDDR6 controller or PHY solutions. The Rambus GDDR6 PHY is supplied as a fully characterized hard macro (GDSII), along with complete design views and documentation.

GDDR6 PHY product page  

GDDR6 controller product page  


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Bosch: The new kid on the silicon carbide block

EDN Network - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 13:50

Silicon carbide (SiC) technology continues to make headlines, and the latest byte has come with Bosch’s acquisition of a U.S. fab in Roseville, California. More importantly, Bosch will invest $1.5 billion to upgrade TSI Semiconductor’s manufacturing facility, and by 2026, the fab will start producing 200-mm SiC wafers.

That resonates with the proposition echoed at APEC 2023 in Orlando, Florida in March: Take old silicon fabs and upgrade them with SiC-specific tools. Here, it’s worth mentioning that the front end of SiC manufacturing isn’t much different from silicon power devices like IGBTs.

TSI, founded in 1984, produces large volumes of chips on 200-mm silicon wafers for applications ranging from mobility to telecommunications to energy. It has a workforce of 250 people, and after the retooling phase, the fab will have roughly 10,000 square meters of clean-room space.

Source: Bosch

The deal also underscores a critical fact: Bosch is bolstering its semiconductor business in general and SiC investment in particular. In summer 2022, the German manufacturing giant announced to invest 3 billion euros in its semiconductor business in Europe. Bosch has also hinted about being a contender for the federal U.S. funds from the CHIPS and Science Act as well as state and local incentives. Furthermore, it has been stated that the initial $1.5 billion investment in SiC manufacturing in Roseville is only the starting point.

Earlier in 2021, Bosch began working on SiC components while using proprietary processes to mass-produce them at its Reutlingen plant near Stuttgart. The company expects to have extended its clean-room space in Reutlingen from roughly 35,000 to more than 44,000 square meters by the end of 2025.

Bosch’s move is significant at a time when there is a huge demand for electric vehicles (EVs), and SiC semiconductors are increasingly becoming a technology choice for EV inverters and other crucial building blocks like on-board charging (OBC). The United States is the second largest automobile market, and given the rapid uptick in demand for SiC semiconductors, this deal comes at a pivotal time.

Moreover, at a time when the substrate and wafer costs have become a major stumbling block in SiC’s mass advancement, a new player joining the fray may accelerate the efforts for creating the economy of scale for SiC wafers.

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DIY 4s Lipo

Reddit:Electronics - Птн, 04/28/2023 - 11:08
DIY 4s Lipo

So I bodged this monstrosity together, 4 unknown brand 10000mah pouch cells harvested from fried power banks (they were the same model and kept on failing the same way, decided to stop asking the manufacturer for replacements under warranty).

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