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16-bit audio ADC detects breaking glass

EDN Network - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 16:29

Asahi Kasei’s AK5707 ADC packs an acoustic activity analyzer (AAA) that can be configured to detect specific types of acoustic events, such as breaking glass. This integrated analog acoustic event detector makes the AK5707 16-bit monaural ADC well-suited for IoT security applications, like wireless cameras and smart doorbells.

Consuming just 34 µA, the AK5707’s AAA block listens for acoustic events that fit user-customizable profiles. Upon detection, the AAA activates the ADC and initiates recording to an integrated audio buffer. Simultaneously, it generates an interrupt to wake the external SoC.

Unlike typical loudness-based detection, the AAA constantly tracks the current noise floor and adjusts its detection parameters in response. AAA detection not only reduces false positives, but also increases battery life in noisier environments. Asahi Kasei offers a suite of detection profiles for the AAA, including glass-break, alarm patterns, crying baby, and human voice. These profiles are configurable, with multiple acoustic parameters set by the user.

The 16-bit, 48-kHz ADC block of the AK5707, which can be powered on and off independently of the AAA, achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 dB, while consuming only 200 µA. Built-in AC coupling capacitors allow for a 3.2 mm2 PCB area, including one external capacitor.

The AK5707 comes in a tiny 1.53×1.58-mm WLCSP. It is currently sampling, with mass production scheduled to begin in September 2024.

AK5707 product page

Asahi Kasei Microdevices 

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Reference design serves Lunar Lake CPU

EDN Network - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 16:29

Cirrus Logic, Intel, and Microsoft are developing a reference design that teams Intel’s forthcoming Lunar Lake processor with Cirrus audio and power devices. The reference platform will help developers create more immersive audio for laptop PCs, while reducing heat generation and extending battery life to enable smaller, thinner designs.

Claiming to bring best-in-class audio to more PCs, the reference design employs the Cirrus Logic CS42L43 SmartHIFI codec, CS35L56 audio amplifier, and CP9314 switched-capacitor power converter. The codec and audio amplifiers deliver louder bass, clearer voice, and lower distortion to both the speaker and the headset. The power converter promises to reduce power and heat, as well as fan noise.

In addition, the audio design will assist with the transition to the MIPI SoundWire interface and Microsoft’s ACX (audio class extension) framework. Along with built-in security features, the design supports next-generation features like spatial audio. It is scalable across different processors, speakers, and notebook designs, allowing OEMs to implement audio subsystems that scale in channel count and features.

Intel’s Lunar Lake processor for portable PCs is expected to launch later this year.

Cirrus Logic 



Find more datasheets on products like this one at Datasheets.com, searchable by category, part #, description, manufacturer, and more.

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Rohde & Schwarz drives roll-out of NTN NB-IoT technology with new GCF-certified conformance test cases

ELE Times - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 14:23

Conformance approval is a major step in bringing devices for the Internet of things (IoT) to the market. To ensure that these devices work properly, they need to be certified by testing laboratories accredited by certification bodies such as GCF, PTCRB or CTIA. With the successful verification of the 3GPP Rel. 17 NTN NB-IoT test cases in work item 333 at the CAG #77 meeting, using the R&S CMW500, the Global Certification Forum was able to activate the work item, kicking off conformance testing for NTN NB-IoT devices.

With this accomplishment, Rohde & Schwarz together with tier 1 chipset vendors like Qualcomm Technologies, Mediatek, and Sony Semiconductor Israel’s Altair and their respective platforms have contributed significantly to the adoption of non-terrestrial network-based IoT use cases spanning multiple sectors such as smartphone, consumer, automotive, agriculture, maritime, logistics, and mining. The NTN NB-IoT protocol test cases of work item 333 cover NTN-specific signaling aspects for NB-IoT devices as specified in 3GPP Rel.17 TS 36.523-1.

Rohde & Schwarz has equipped its market-leading NB-IoT solution with 3GPP Rel. 17 NTN features to provide the ecosystem with R&D, production, and conformance testing functions. The protocol conformance test cases were developed using the R&S CMW500 radio communication tester, which allows engineers to assess their NTN NB-IoT devices under realistic conditions, establishing a real-time, comprehensive connection with the simulated satellite network and testing the relevant signaling and RF scenarios in line with the 3GPP Rel. 17 specification. The test solution emulates geosynchronous orbit (GSO) and geostationary orbit (GEO) as well as low earth orbit (LEO) constellations. It helps engineers to verify NTN device challenges like time and frequency synchronization due to prolonged delay and Doppler effect, low Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR), power saving mechanisms, satellite ephemerides, and GNSS acquisition, to name just a few of the core features.

The official GCF platform R&S CMW-IoT is a single box solution for conformance testing including PCT, RRM and RF. In addition to this, the single box also supports carrier acceptance testing.

The post Rohde & Schwarz drives roll-out of NTN NB-IoT technology with new GCF-certified conformance test cases appeared first on ELE Times.

Technovos’ announces latest innovation GaadE- Electric Wheelbarrow to revolutionise sustainable mobility landscape

ELE Times - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 14:17

With latest ground-breaking innovation, Technovos is proactively paving the way for a new era of Green Mobility Solutions, amalgamating automotive capacity to eliminate manual labour-intensive tasks.

Technovos- a leading developer of sustainable mobility solutions disrupting the Cleantech and Agritech landscape has recently launched its latest yet innovative offering the GaadE Electric Wheelbarrow to redefine manual-material handling tasks. The launch signifies a revolutionary stride in labour-intensive tasks, reshaping the peripheral of diverse industries.

Challenging conventions and breaking the boundaries of possibilities in the realm of agriculture, logistics, construction and many more, the Wheelbarrow stands at the edge of sustainability convergence. Moving beyond the limits of being an electric motor-driven upgrade of its traditional counterparts, it embodies an inaugural fusion of cutting-edge technology and eco-friendliness.

Thrilled with the launch of its latest offering, Bharath Anantha Srinivas, CEO and Founder of Technovos, commented, “In a world where technological innovation continues to dominate every facet of our daily lives, Technovos aims to become the catalyst for revolutionising the Agritech and Sustainable mobility space. With our latest product, the dynamic Electric Wheelbarrow, we’ve crafted a breakthrough in the realm of material movement, being the premier platform to offer a purpose-driven electric wheelbarrow, designed to exude excellence from concept development to integration and assembly.”

With Electric Propulsion at its forefront, it employs a 4KW 3Phase Induction motor which helps in efficiently transporting substantial loads. Utilising advanced sensors and AI algorithms, it has opened the doors to self-navigation, along with obstacle avoidance and precise manoeuvring. Furthermore, it boasts a loading capacity to move 80% of the applications to minimise the need for human effort.

Accelerating green mobility to an elevated level, it operates with zero-emissions and energy-efficient mechanisms, emerging as the gateway to fostering a sustainable environment.

Offering an opportunity to partake in a future driven by automation, the introduction of electric wheelbarrows in the Precision AgriTech segment is a game-changing innovation. Being a labour-intensive sector, it will deliver farmers and agronomists an escape from manual lifting, opening doors to a versatile and efficient solution that is designed to improve farm operations, whilst enhancing crop management.

With multifaceted warehouse operations, the seamless integration of the GaadE- Electric Wheel-Barrow marks a significant leap forward in material handling and sustainability endeavours. This ingenious solution is poised to transform the warehousing and logistic industries, with access to streamlined operations and reduced costs, whilst enhancing the notions of industrial safety and environmental responsibility.

In the absence of a purpose-built machine for the hyper-local segment, Technovos has carved a distinctive niche with the augment of India’s premier purpose-driven Electric Wheelbarrow. With the launch of this innovative solution, the company has showcased its commitment to becoming the vanguard developer of sustainable mobility solutions that address the gap of implausible material movement methods in an array of markets. Autonomous wheelbarrow after this Electric wheelbarrow is the next innovation planned by Technovos.

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Infineon and Worksport collaborate to reduce weight and cost of portable power stations with GaN

ELE Times - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 14:00

Infineon Technologies has announced a collaboration with Worksport Ltd. Worksport will use Infineon’s GaN power semiconductors GS-065-060-5-B-A in the converters for its portable power stations to increase efficiency and power density. Enabled by Infineon’s GaN transistors, the power converters will be lighter and smaller in size with reduced system costs. In addition, Infineon will support Worksport in the optimization of circuits and layout design to further reduce size and increase power density.

“Infineon’s high-quality standard and solid supply chain provide us with the best components to ensure power-dense converters for our COR system product line and contribute to a first-class end product performance,” said Worksport CEO Steven Rossi. The company’s COR battery system can be integrated into a pickup truck or recharged by any solar panel or wall outlet. By replacing the former silicon switch in the power converter with Infineon’s GaN power semiconductors and operating the transistors at higher switching frequency, Worksport will be able to reduce the battery system weight by 33 percent and system costs by up to 25 percent.

The working relationship with Infineon will also help Worksport to reduce CO2 in the manufacturing process. GaN is proving itself as a game-changing technology across many markets and applications. For example, in data centers, GaN solutions have a global energy savings potential of 21 TWh annually, 10 million tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent. “In order to further drive electrification and decarbonization, the industry’s power designs require innovation,” said Johannes Schoiswohl, Business Line Head GaN Systems of Infineon’s Power & Sensor Systems Division. “With our GaN power semiconductors we enable Worksport to create the next generation portable power stations that users require.”

Infineon’s GS-065-060-5-B-A is an Automotive-grade 650 V enhancement mode GaN-on-Silicon power transistor. It offers very low junction-to-case thermal resistance for demanding high-power applications such as on-board chargers, industrial motor drives and solar inverters. Furthermore, it features simple gate drive requirements (0 V to 6 V) and a transient tolerant gate drive (-20 / +10 V).


The GS-065-060-5-B-A is available in a bottom-cooled, low-inductance GaNPX® package.

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Toward the metaverse: Rohde & Schwarz and Slalom join forces to realize 5G-enabled AR-animated avatar calls

ELE Times - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 09:12

The metaverse and extended reality (XR) applications are considered critical to unlocking the full consumer potential of the 5G technology. Rigorous testing is crucial to ensure the performance and market acceptance of these immersive experiences. Rohde & Schwarz and Slalom have collaborated to address this need, developing essential tools to test XR use cases thoroughly prior to market launch. At Mobile World Congress 2024, visitors can experience a first demonstration of how to enable tomorrow’s augmented reality.

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) closely examined extended reality (XR) applications with Release 17. This was pivotal in identifying the current limitations and potential enhancements in today’s 5G specifications, paving the way for 5G-Advanced, which will be addressed in Release 18. One of the key areas for 5G-Advanced is the development of animated avatar calls that use augmented reality. This is considered a stepping stone toward a broader integration of the metaverse.

Rohde & Schwarz, a leader in test and measurement solutions, has partnered with Slalom, a next-generation professional services company creating value at the intersection of business, technology, and humanity, to create a state-of-the-art lab environment. This collaboration has resulted in a test bed for XR-based use cases. At the test bed’s core is the R&S CMX500 5G one-box signaling tester from Rohde & Schwarz. This innovative setup empowers network operators to evaluate XR-based applications and services in a controlled environment, ensuring optimal performance and quality of experience (QoE) for their subscribers even before mainstream deployment.

The animated avatar, developed by Slalom, renders on a cloud computing architecture, which is seamlessly integrated with the R&S CMX500. The R&S CMX500 emulates a 5G network to establish a Voice over New Radio (VoNR) connection to the end-user device. The end-user experience is brought to life using a Motorola Edge 40 Pro 5G smartphone connected to Lenovo ThinkReality A3 Smart Glasses, where the avatar is displayed. The system also features a loopback of audio samples, laying the groundwork for future audio quality assessments based on the POLQA algorithm. A key aspect of the avatar’s animation is head movement emulation, which is designed to convey attentiveness during calls. The accurate rendering and timely display of such details on the end-user device are among the key performance indicators that are being further investigated by both companies.

Christoph Pointner, Senior Vice President for Mobile Radio Testers at Rohde & Schwarz says: “We are thrilled to enhance our application testing capabilities through our collaboration with Slalom. This partnership lays a robust foundation for the wireless ecosystem, accelerating the market introduction of XR-based applications and services to pave the way for the metaverse.”

Sam Andrews, General Manager at Slalom says: “In partnership with Rohde & Schwarz, we have developed an innovative concept where we can assess and measure the end-to-end quality of XR experiences that considers network, device, and application to create seamless outcomes for end users and unlock new opportunities for enterprises.” Jason Inskeep, Advanced & Converged Architectures / Mobile / 5G at Slalom, adds: “At Slalom, we believe that being able to architect a true end-to-end integrated solution – from the network to the application layer to the end user – is fundamental to helping our customers achieve resiliency and efficiency at scale, unlock new revenue streams and create amazing customer experiences.”

This collaboration between Rohde & Schwarz and Slalom opens the way to virtual interactions that are more immersive and personal. For consumers, this innovation promises an enhanced sense of presence and engagement during voice calls.

Rohde & Schwarz and Slalom will demonstrate the test bed for AR-animated avatar calls at the Mobile World Congress 2024 at the Rohde & Schwarz booth 5A80 in hall 5 of Fira Gran Via in Barcelona.

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SmartViser and Anritsu unite to optimise testing for Energy Labelling regulation for smartphones and tablets with Strategic Partnership

ELE Times - Птн, 02/09/2024 - 08:00

Anritsu Corporation a global provider of innovative test and measurement solutions now enable advanced AI (Artificial Intelligence) capabilities for solving difficult problems in wireless communications systems using DeepSig’s proven AI machine learning (ML) technology.  Radio Spectrum is a valuable asset that needs to be managed, shared, and utilized optimally in wireless networks.  New radio frequencies required to enable 6G Use Cases are becoming increasingly scarce, and there is increased attention towards the development of novel spectrum-sharing techniques.  Traditional RF sensing techniques face limitations in dynamically changing wireless environments, and more advanced monitoring and signal characterization is required.

Anritsu has addressed this challenge by partnering with Deepsig to deliver a groundbreaking solution that integrates the capabilities of the Anritsu MS2090A Field Master Pro Spectrum Analyser with DeepSig’s wireless signal detection and classification software, which is based on its patented Artificial Intelligence (AI) deep learning algorithms.  Employing a deep learning, data-driven approach allows Anritsu to rapidly incorporate new radio signal models into their capabilities using DeepSig’s ML training tools. RF signals of interest from diverse new sources like drones and IOT devices can be learned quickly and accurately in days, rather than months, to meet fast-changing customer requirements. These advanced technologies also form the foundation for AI-native RF sensing for 6G. This integrated solution will empower customers to enhance network performance, optimize spectrum utilization, and achieve real-time adaptation to changing RF conditions.

The post SmartViser and Anritsu unite to optimise testing for Energy Labelling regulation for smartphones and tablets with Strategic Partnership appeared first on ELE Times.

Parsing PWM (DAC) performance: Part 2—Rail-to-rail outputs

EDN Network - Чтв, 02/08/2024 - 17:30

Editor’s Note: This a four-part series of DIs proposing improvements in the performance of a “traditional” PWM—one whose output is a duty cycle-variable rectangular pulse which requires filtering by a low-pass analog filter to produce a DAC. This second part addresses the inability of “rail-to-rail” op amps’ output swing to encompass supply rail voltages.

Part 1 can be found here.

Recently, there has been a spate of design ideas (DIs) published that deal with microprocessor (µP)-generated pulse width modulators driving low-pass filters to produce DACs. Approaches have been introduced which address ripple attenuation, settling time minimization, and limitations in accuracy. This is the second in a series of DIs proposing improvements in PWM-based DAC performance. Each of the series’ part’s recommendations are, and will be, implementable independently of the others. This DI addresses the inability of “rail-to-rail” op amps’ output swings to encompass their supply rail voltages. Recognizing that an op amp is needed to buffer a filter from a DC load to prevent load-induced errors, and that these devices are useful in implementing more effective analog filters, there is a legitimate interest in mitigating or eliminating this imperfection.

Wow the engineering world with your unique design: Design Ideas Submission Guide

It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that swing (well, sort of…)

The common mode input voltages of many rail-to-rail op amps may be 100 mV above their positive and below their negative supply rails, but none have an output common mode voltage range which includes those rails. The OPA376, 2376, and 4376 rail-rail family with its excellent input offset voltage and bias current ratings are no different. The SC70-5, SOT23-5, and SO-8 package versions reach within 40 mV of the rails with a 10 kΩ load from -40°C to 125°C, and within 50 mV with a 2 kΩ load. There are various means of dealing with this limitation.

In the spirit of “Doctor, it hurts when I do this”, “Then don’t do that!”: software could simply prevent the setting of duty cycles which would drive the op amp too near a supply rail. This is rather unsatisfactory if the code which generates the duty cycle values expects that the values of zero and full scale (FS) will be executable. So, suppose an op amp can swing to within X mV of both its positive rail (VDD) and ground; instead of programing the PWM counter with a value of DC, program it with DC’ = DC · (1 – α) + α · FS/2, where α = X mV · 2 / VDD.

If that calculation imposes an unacceptable software burden, there is a related analog approach. In Figure 1, set R = r · α / (1 – α). The full range of DC values is now restricted to a range that the op amp output can replicate.

Figure 1 A purely analog means of avoiding op amp input voltages so close to the supply rails that the output cannot replicate them.

If the resistors have a 0.1% tolerance, the maximum offset error is a little greater than 2-15· VDD. The gain error is larger though: a little less than 2-10 · VDD. With adequate calculation resolution, the method of scaling the duty cycle count in software leads to smaller errors than the purely analog one.

In some applications, it is imperative that a DAC can swing to ground. In others, it must also be able to reach the µP’s positive rail, VDD. To accomplish this, voltage(s) beyond (a) supply rail(s) must be generated. But in no case can the supply voltages’ range exceed that recommended for the op amp, which is 5.5 V for the OPAx376 family. This necessitates different solutions for the common VDD supply values of 1.8, 2.5, 3.3 and 5.0 V. We will now follow with a series of schematics that contain solutions for each of these voltages…

The circuitry for the op amp positive rail (OP+) can be ignored in favor of VDD if the DAC needn’t swing to VDD. Texas Instruments’ LM7705 provides a complete and elegant means of generating a voltage that is only slightly more negative than ground, thereby allowing the op amp output to reach 0 V (Figure 2). This charge pump accepts a supply voltage of from 3 to 5.25 V and provides a regulated output of -230 mV at up to 20 mA. The LM7705 offer features beyond those of a simple charge pump inverter (which requires an external oscillator) in that:

  1. An inverter sets the negative rail supply voltage to be the negative of the positive supply voltage. At VDD = 3 V and above, 3 V – (-3 V) exceeds the OPAx376’s family’s maximum differential supply voltage VOpRange of 5.5 V. The LM7705 provides just enough negative voltage and no more than is needed.
  2. The LM7705 has a smaller footprint and incorporates an oscillator and a regulated DC output into a single IC.

Figure 2 This simple and inexpensive inverting charge pump provides a regulated -0.23 V for a rail-to-rail op amp’s negative supply so that the op amp output can swing to, and even below, ground.

But an application might also require swinging to the positive rail. The need to avoid supply voltage ranges exceeding 5.5 V for the OPAx376 leads to different solutions for different values of VDD (always assumed to be within +/- 5% of nominal value). The simplest solution is for the case of VDD equal to 1.8 V (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Solution for staying within the supply operating range for the OPAx376 where VDD = 1.8 V.

The LM2664 is a voltage inverter generating -VDD from + VDD. With the addition of D1, D2, C3 and C4, a voltage of 2 · VDD – 2 · Vd is generated where Vd is the voltage drop across the diodes. OA+ is enough above VDD to allow the op amp output to include the positive rail. The difference between OA+ and OA- is safely within supply operating range (VOpRange) for the OPAx376. If your VDD is between 1.8 and 5.5 V and is less than 1/3 of the VOpRange of your op amp, this simple and cheap circuit could be all you need. But if not…

As shown in Figure 4, the same circuit is the basis for operation from a 2.5V supply, but accommodations must be made to meet VOpRange for the OPAx376. This is accomplished by adding D3 and D4 to incur voltage drops.

Figure 4 Solution for staying within the supply operating range for the OPAx376 where VDD = 2.5 V.

Combinations of +/-5% variations in VDD, tolerances in diode voltage drops, and variations over temperature and load of the above circuit’s output voltages warn against applying the strategy of adding more diodes in series for the case where VDD increases to 3.3V (Figure 5).

Figure 5 Solution for staying within the supply operating range for the OPAx376 where VDD = 3.3 V.

Here the LM2664 performs the same function as it did for a VDD of 1.8 and 2.5 V. But it powers a cheap op amp IC which functions as a positive and a negative voltage regulator. The R6 / R7 divider ensures that the LM358BI operates within its common mode input range. (Its VOpRange is greater than 30 V!) OA+ and OA- voltages are approximately 100 mV beyond VDD = 3.3 V +/-5% and ground. Q1 and Q2 are placed in feedback loops to reduce the regulator output impedance. Since the op amp rails should be decoupled with ground-referenced .1 µF capacitors, this reduced impedance increases the loop’s high frequency break point. The result could be unstable were it not for the combination of C5 and R3 and that of C6 and R1. These pairs filter out the high phase-shift, high frequency feedback taken from the emitters and ensure that only mid frequencies down to DC are being regulated, thus establishing stability. In this circuit, the resistors are 1% tolerance parts.

As shown in Figure 6, the circuit for a 5 V VDD is similar to that for 3.3 V, but simpler. Here the higher Pump+ voltage means that there are no worries about input common mode operation, and we can dispense with R6 and R7. The passive components that make up the regulators are now identical.

Figure 6 Solution for staying within the supply operating range for the OPAx376 where VDD = 5 V.

Encompassing supply rail voltages

In this DI, several different approaches have been presented for producing DACs whose voltage swings encompass supply rails, or at least mitigate the problems associated with those that don’t. Hopefully, one or more are suitable for your application.

Christopher Paul has worked in various engineering positions in the communications industry for over 40 years.

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Rohde & Schwarz Unveils Wi-Fi 7 Test Solutions for Seamless 5G Integration

ELE Times - Чтв, 02/08/2024 - 12:12

Step into the future of wireless technology with Rohde & Schwarz’s latest innovation in Wi-Fi 7 test solutions, aimed at enhancing device development for ultra-high-definition video streaming, VR, AR, and beyond.

As the telecommunications landscape embraces the era of 5G technology, the integration of non-3GPP networks like public, home, and enterprise WLAN hotspots with the 5G core is of paramount importance. This integration paves the way for the future of smartphones and wireless devices, heavily reliant on advanced WLAN technologies such as Wi-Fi 7, promising greater power and efficiency but posing challenges of complexity.
Addressing these emerging needs, Rohde & Schwarz has unveiled its cutting-edge Wi-Fi 7 test solutions. These solutions are tailored to tackle the growing test challenges associated with next-generation WLAN technologies and their coexistence with existing LTE and 5G standards. Equipped with Wi-Fi 7 testing capabilities, the multi-technology multi-channel signalling tester enables R&D engineers to streamline the testing process for wireless devices across both cellular and non-cellular standards, thus optimizing the development process.

Key features of these solutions include new Wi-Fi 7 capabilities, testing of RF TX/RX characteristics of WLAN devices under real conditions, support for Multi-Link-Operation (MLO), flexibility across multiple radio technologies for Wi-Fi 7-specific tests, and the ability to test WLAN offloading and Voice over WLAN for seamless service continuity and high-quality voice experiences over WLAN networks.

Wi-Fi 7, also known as IEEE 802.11be, marks a significant leap forward in WLAN technology, aimed at supporting extremely high data throughput for applications like ultra-high-definition video streaming, virtual reality, and augmented reality. With enhancements such as increased channel bandwidth (up to 320 MHz), up to 16 spatial streams, and advanced 4096 QAM modulation, Wi-Fi 7 sets the stage for the future of wireless connectivity.

Rohde & Schwarz’s Wi-Fi 7 test solutions are meticulously designed to meet these advanced specifications, underscoring the company’s commitment to supporting the evolution of WLAN technologies. Optimized for efficient RF measurements in non-signaling mode for device production, the tester supports a wide range of cellular and non-cellular technologies, including Wi-Fi 6E, Wi-Fi 7, and 5G NR FR1, with bandwidth capabilities up to 500 MHz, positioning itself as a forward-looking solution for both R&D and production needs.

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Neon lamp blunder

EDN Network - Срд, 02/07/2024 - 16:26

There was this test system that comprised a huge row of equipment racks into which various items of test equipment would be mounted. Those items were a digital multimeter, an oscilloscope, several signal generators and so forth. Each section of the rack assembly had a neon lamp mounted at its base which was supposed to indicate that 400 Hz AC line voltage was turned on or turned off for the equipment mounted in that rack section.

Planned essentially as follows in Figure 1, the idea did not work.

Figure 1 Neon lamp indicator plan where line voltage was always present and applied to the equipment installed within each section via a power relay where singular SPST contact set operated that section’s neon lamp.

Line voltage was always present but would be applied to installed equipment within each section via a power relay of which one SPST contact set was to operate that section’s neon lamp. The problem was that each section’s neon lamp would always stay lit, no matter the state of the relay and the state of equipment power application.

No neon lamp would ever go dark.

There was much ado about this with all kinds of accusations and posturing, finger pointing, scoldings, searching for a fall guy and so forth but the problem itself was never solved. What had been overlooked is shown as follows in Figure 2.

Figure 2 The culprit was the stray capacitance from the wiring harness that each SPST contact was wired through that kept each neon lamp visibly lit.

Each SPST contact was wired through a harness which imposed a stray capacitance across the contacts of the intended switch. When the SPST was set to be open, that stray capacitance provided a low enough impedance for AC current to flow anyway and that current level was sufficient to keep the neon lamp visibly lit.

Brilliant, huh?

John Dunn is an electronics consultant, and a graduate of The Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (BSEE) and of New York University (MSEE).

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Rohde & Schwarz presents its Wi-Fi 7 multi-channel single-box test solutions for R&D and production at MWC 2024

ELE Times - Срд, 02/07/2024 - 13:45

As 5G technology evolves, non-3GPP networks such as public, home and enterprise WLAN hotspots will be more and more interlinked with the 5G core. As a result, tomorrow’s smartphones will rely even more on the next generations of WLAN technology, which will be more powerful and efficient, but also more complex. At Mobile World Congress 2024 in Barcelona, Rohde & Schwarz will be showcasing its latest Wi-Fi 7 test solutions for R&D and production to meet the ever-increasing test challenges posed by the technology and the parallel operation with LTE and 5G cellular standards.

Rohde & Schwarz will display its R&S CMX500 multi-technology multi-channel signaling tester at MWC 2024 with newly added Wi-Fi 7 testing capabilities. With this functionality, the one-box tester allows R&D engineers of wireless devices to comprehensively test their design’s operation in cellular and non-cellular standards of the latest generation in a single instrument setup. In addition to this, the R&S CMP180 radio communication tester will verify a signal waveform of 480 MHz bandwidth in loopback mode, attesting to be a future-proof solution for users in R&D and production, even beyond the requirements of Wi-Fi 7.

Challenges of next-generation WLAN testing

While the market for the sixth generation of Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.11ax, is still growing, the development of Wi-Fi 7, or IEEE 802.11be, is in full swing. Wi-Fi 7 is the next generation of Wi-Fi technology, designed for extremely high data throughput. With tens of gigabits of data per second and low latency, it meets the growing demand for ultra-high-definition video streaming, virtual reality and augmented reality applications. Key elements to achieve higher throughput are an increased channel bandwidth of 320 MHz, up to 16 spatial streams and 4096 QAM modulation. In addition, for a yet-to-be-defined Wi-Fi 8 (IEEE 802.11bn) standard, even wider channel bandwidths are in discussion. Rohde & Schwarz meets these challenging characteristics with its solutions for testing Wi-Fi 7 and beyond, showcased at MWC Barcelona.

R&S CMX500 features new Wi-Fi 7 capabilities for R&D

During the development of WLAN devices, measurements of the RF TX and RX characteristics must be conducted under real-world conditions in signaling mode. The R&S CMX500 one-box tester is a multi-technology multi-channel signaling tester that is now available with integrated Wi-Fi 7 test functionality. Especially in Wi-Fi 7 where Multi-Link-Operation (MLO) is a key feature, a test environment that provides multiple RF chains is crucial. The tester’s flexibility, support for multiple radio technologies, and embedded IP test capabilities make it a versatile solution for a wide range of Wi-Fi 7-specific tests, such as 2×2 MIMO, 6 GHz band with out-of-band discovery, coexistence and E2E test capabilities.

Testing WLAN offloading with Voice over WLAN in a single box

WLAN offloading is the process of delivering data originally intended for cellular networks over WLAN. It helps reduce the amount of data carried on the cellular bands, freeing up bandwidth for other users. It is also used to ensure service continuity in scenarios where cellular coverage is insufficient, but a WLAN hotspot is available to take over the connection. For example, the handover between a cellular network and WLAN during a voice call, often referred to as Voice over WLAN, aims to provide subscribers with an uninterrupted voice call experience.

At MWC, Rohde & Schwarz will demonstrate the R&S CMX500 and its ability to test seamless traffic offloading and interworking between cellular 5G and WLAN with a single box solution. The newly integrated Non-3GPP Interworking Function (N3IWF) gateway in the R&S CMX500 makes it an easy-to-use solution for testing WLAN offloading with Voice over WLAN, enabling device manufacturers and operators to efficiently test these applications. In addition, the integrated POLQA voice quality measurement function of the R&S CMX500 offers a comprehensive and cost-effective solution to ensure the quality of experience for voice over WLAN applications at an early stage.

Future-proof R&S CMP180 R&D and production tester

In the production phase of WLAN devices, all RF measurements are performed in non-signaling mode to save time. Rohde & Schwarz has optimized the R&S CMP180 radio communication tester for this purpose. The instrument supports many cellular and non-cellular technologies including Wi-Fi 6E, Wi-Fi 7 and 5G NR FR1 up to 8 GHz in frequency with bandwidths up to 500 MHz. Leveraging the wide bandwidth, the R&S CMP180 will demonstrate at MWC its ability to verify a WLAN waveform with 480 MHz bandwidth in loopback mode, a potential waveform candidate for the yet-to-be-defined Wi-Fi 8 (IEEE 802.11bn) standard. This feature shows that the cost-effective instrument is future-proof for users not only in production but also in R&D.

Two analyzers, two generators and two sets of eight RF ports are integrated in the R&S CMP180 to support 2×2 MIMO testing in a single box. Two R&S CMP180 instruments can be combined and scaled to support four analyzers and generators for efficient testing of 4×4 MIMO access points.

Rohde & Schwarz will present its comprehensive test solutions for next-generation WLAN at the Mobile World Congress 2024 at the Fira Gran Via in Barcelona in hall 5, booth 5A80.

The post Rohde & Schwarz presents its Wi-Fi 7 multi-channel single-box test solutions for R&D and production at MWC 2024 appeared first on ELE Times.

Anritsu Enhances Network Master Pro MT1040A to Provide Support of OpenZR+

ELE Times - Срд, 02/07/2024 - 12:16

Enables accurate evaluation of a network using OpenZR+ transceivers with excellent cooling performance of the measurement module

Anritsu Corporation introduces the 400G (QSFP-DD) multi-rate module MU104014B that supports the new interface standard OpenZR+, as a module of the Network Master Pro MT1040A. OpenZR+ enables low-cost Data Center Interconnects (DCI) and metro network construction.

This measurement solution supports tests for transitioning from high-cost networks using existing WDM[*1] systems to low-cost networks using OpenZR+ transceivers. Through this solution, the MT1040A helps reduce network construction and expansion costs. With excellent heat dissipation and cooling performance, the new measurement module is able to prevent communication failures caused by the heat generated by OpenZR+ transceivers. This enables more accurate measurement of network performance.

Development Background

Datacenters and metro networks are growing at a rapid pace due to the spread of generative AI and cloud services as well as advances in digital transformation (DX) meeting social needs. Particularly, limits on available space, power-supply capacity, and air-conditioning can cause problems in scaling-up the capacity of established medium-scale datacenters so increasing the number of distributed medium datacenters can be more efficient than building new hyperscale datacenters, which is driving demand for DCI between more medium-scale datacenters.

WDM circuits provided from network operators are used widely for DCI but are expensive. To resolve this issue, the 400ZR[*2] standard was established, allowing low-cost network construction. However, the transmission distance of 400ZR is short and its data rate is only 400G. The OpenZR+ standard was created to support a longer transmission distance and data rates ranging from 100G to 400G.

OpenZR+ transceivers are inexpensive compared to the existing WDM systems. OpenZR+ supports various network configurations and is suitable for DCI construction. On the other hand, however, because OpenZR+ is capable of long-haul transmission, some OpenZR+ transceivers consume nearly 1.5 times as much power as the existing 400ZR transceivers and generate more heat. In order to measure an OpenZR+ transceiver accurately without failure, therefore, the measurement module needs to have a transceiver heat dissipation measure in place to suppress the heat generated by the transceiver. This measurement solution answers this need.

Product Overview

Network Master Pro (400G Tester) MT1040A
The MT1040A is a B5 size 400G handheld tester with excellent expandability and operability. It is a touch panel-operated field measurement instrument equipped with a 9-inch screen that is small enough to carry with a single hand. It supports a range of interfaces from 10M up to 400G.

Technical Terms

[*1] WDM
Abbreviation for Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology supporting transmission of multiple optical signals with different wavelengths in one optical cable by simulating multiple cables.

[*2] 400ZR
One interface standard for optical modules used by DCI. Facilitates lower-cost connections between data centers than conventional wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems.

The post Anritsu Enhances Network Master Pro MT1040A to Provide Support of OpenZR+ appeared first on ELE Times.


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