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Mouser Now Direct Authorized Distributor of Raspberry Pi Products

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 14:51

Mouser Electronics, Inc., the authorized global distributor with the newest electronic components and industrial automation products, now offers design engineers, pro makers, and hobbyists around the world the latest products from Raspberry Pi. Sourced directly from Raspberry Pi, the entire catalog of single-board computers (SBC), embedded devices, and peripherals is available from Mouser, with full traceability/authenticity from the manufacturer.

“Mouser is excited about this expanded partnership with Raspberry Pi,” said Andy Kerr, Mouser Electronics Vice President of Supplier Marketing. “With their line of industrial-ready products, customers across the globe now have access to an expanded offering of innovative, scalable products that are certified, low-cost, powerful and production ready.”

“Mouser’s global reach enables us to extend our customer base to offer powerful and easy-to-use products to people of all skill levels,” said Mike Buffham, Chief Commercial Officer of Raspberry Pi. “Known for their best-in-class distribution, outstanding service and exceptional customer reach, Mouser is a valued strategic partner for us. We look forward to this expansion opportunity.”

Robust and affordable, Raspberry Pi technology has been deployed in tens of thousands of applications in a variety of industries across the world. The compact form factor, ease of use, and availability of expansion options make Raspberry Pi’s devices ideal for simple educational projects, complex maker designs, and industrial applications. With solutions built using Raspberry Pi’s technology, users can access an enterprise-class system without the cost and complexity of traditional hardware products.

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Raspberry Pi products now offered by Mouser include: Compute Module 4

The Compute Module 4 is a system-on-module (SoM) that harnesses the power of the popular Raspberry Pi 4 Model B SBC in a smaller form factor suitable for product integration. The optional dual-band 2.4/5.0GHz Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5.0 have modular compliance certification. This allows the board to be designed into end products with significantly reduced compliance testing, improving both cost and time to market.

RP2040 microcontroller

The RP2040 is a powerful, cost-effective microcontroller based on dual Arm® Cortex®-M0+ processors. This device offers maximum performance at low power, which can be crucial for deeply embedded applications, enabling long-duration operation with relatively small batteries. RP2040 is also ideal for endpoint AI, thanks to the built-in TensorFlow Lite Micro library. This allows the microcontroller to run machine learning (ML) models for sensor-based analysis, such as voice and image recognition and accelerometer-based gesture recognition.

Pico, Pico H, and Pico W

The Pico series is a range of tiny, fast, versatile boards built around RP2040. From light displays and IoT devices to signage and manufacturing processes, the Pico boards can provide the power to control countless home, hobby, and industrial operations. Pico W also includes fully certified 2.4GHz 802.11n Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5.2, making it the perfect solution for IoT applications and projects requiring wireless communication.

Camera Module 3

The Camera Module 3 is a compact add-on camera for Raspberry Pi applications, featuring a 12MP sensor, and offered with standard and wide-angle lenses; with or without an infrared filter.

As a global authorized distributor, Mouser offers the widest selection of the newest semiconductors, electronic components and industrial automation products. Mouser’s customers can expect 100% certified, genuine products that are fully traceable from each of its manufacturer partners. To help speed customers’ designs, Mouser’s website hosts an extensive library of technical resources, including a Technical Resource Center, along with product data sheets, supplier-specific reference designs, application notes, technical design information, engineering tools and other helpful information.

Engineers can stay abreast of today’s exciting product, technology and application news through Mouser’s complimentary e-newsletter. Mouser’s email news and reference subscriptions are customizable to the unique and changing project needs of customers and subscribers. No other distributor gives engineers this much customization and control over the information they receive. Learn about emerging technologies, product trends and more by signing up today at https://sub.info.mouser.com/subscriber.

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ASRock Industrial collaborates with Intel to develop FIDO Device Onboard (FDO)-enabled devices for automated and secure system onboarding

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 14:18

With the rapid growth of IoT value reaching $12.6 trillion in 2030, it calls for smarter solutions to manage onboarding processes in various IoT devices across industrial applications. ASRock Industrial, in collaboration with Intel, is set to usher in a new era of IoT onboarding with the development of FIDO Device Onboarding (FDO)-enabled devices, including the iEP-5000G Industrial IoT Controller powered by Intel Atom x6000E Series Processor. FIDO Alliance is leading the way in scaling a new standard in the industry by releasing the FIDO Device Onboarding (FDO) specification as a groundbreaking solution to address the existing challenges of slow, expensive, and unsecure manual onboarding processes in the IoT domain. ASRock Industrial’s FDO-enabled device can empower users to harness the full potential of improved IoT security and enhanced efficiency through seamless automated onboarding capabilities.

In streamlined steps, the Ownership Voucher (OV) is registered for the target platform, and the device is sent to a retailer or customer. Once powered up and connected to the network, the device auto-provisions itself, enabling a zero-touch onboarding experience. The benefits of ASRock Industrial FDO-enabled devices include zero-touch onboarding past power-ON, ensuring a fast and secure process at lower costs. Furthermore, the FDO-enabled devices offer hardware flexibility and reduce SKU complexity by late binding the device to the cloud.

“Our collaboration with Intel to help ASRock Industrial build FDO-enabled devices such as the iEP-5000G has opened up new marvels that will revolutionize the way devices are provisioned in the IoT landscape,” said James Lee, President of ASRock Industrial. “With the cutting-edge FDO technology, the iEP-5000G sets a new standard for automated secure and seamless device onboarding. We are proud to empower businesses with a solution that simplifies and strengthens the process of connecting and managing devices, a true milestone in ASRock Industrial’s commitment to delivering innovative and future-proof solutions!”

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In response to this exciting joint initiative, ExxonMobil’s Open Process Automation Program Manager, Ryan W. Smeltzer, also expressed his thoughts. He stated, “As ExxonMobil progresses our Open Process Automation program towards field deployment, FIDO Device Onboarding has become a central capability for the deployment of our Distributed Control Nodes. Working with ASRock Industrial to securely onboard, load and manage these devices has further unlocked software innovation, within our automation systems and solution. We thank ASRock Industrial for their continued work, support, and innovation in this space.”

Customers can now have convenient, secure, and automated IoT devices onboarding by choosing ASRock Industrial’s iEP-5000G with the FDO-specification. ASRock Industrial has successful experience in implementing and adopting the FDO onboarding process from the manufacturer to the owner’s side. Customers interested in the FDO implementation can delve into our Solution Brief, explore the iEP-5000G Series, or contact us at www.asrockind.com. We are eager to discuss and share our implementation experiences to accelerate your FDO adoption.

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Statement from the Supervisory Board of STMicroelectronics

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 13:15

Nicolas Dufourcq, Chairman of the Supervisory Board of STMicroelectronics N.V. (NYSE: STM), and Maurizio Tamagnini, Vice-Chairman, have asked Jean-Marc Chery, ST’s President and CEO, to be available for a reappointment in his current role. Mr. Chery has accepted the proposal.

Therefore, the Supervisory Board has decided to propose for shareholder approval at the Company’s 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, the reappointment for a three-year mandate of Jean-Marc Chery as the sole member of the Managing Board and the Company’s President and Chief Executive Officer.

The decision recognizes the importance of the continuity of ST’s strategy, execution and value proposition under Mr. Chery’s leadership.

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Moving to Success: Converging OT and IT With Future proof Industrial Network Infrastructure

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 10:35

Courtesy : MOXA

Today’s companies need to evolve how they interact with, react to, and provide services for their customers if they hope to gain new revenue and value-producing opportunities. Digitalization is a key enabler for industrial applications, and unlocks improvements for two different innovation models:

  • Operation Model Innovation: Increasing operational efficiency and productivity by minimizing machine/asset downtime, improving asset utilization rates, etc. One example is utilizing real-time machine monitoring to better understand machine capabilities to enable improvements in production efficiency and maintenance scheduling.
  • Business Model Innovation: Enhancing competitive advantages and value creation through a fundamental change in how a company delivers value to its customers. For example, some OEM machine manufacturers transformed their business by moving from onetime sales of machines to a machine-as-a-service business model that brings recurring revenue streams over a machine’s lifetime.

No matter which strategy your business chooses, IT/OT convergence is critical to realizing its success. By merging IT and OT systems, businesses can take full advantage of their scattered but valuable data to maximize their technological capabilities and transform their business.

Digitalization brings increased network complexity, so creating one unified network is important to increase efficiency and system reliability while simplifying maintenance. Achieving one single unified network requires two things. Namely, using new technologies such as TSN to consolidate various industrial Ethernet protocols used by different kinds of devices and equipment, and preparing for future network needs and opportunities. This transformation requires time and resources, but businesses still have immediate needs that must be fulfilled. Therefore, we recommend businesses take a step-by-step approach on their digitalization journey and focus on incremental improvements that are also ready for future needs.

In this article, we aim to give practical advice on how to streamline industrial communication networks while futureproofing your investments so you can be ready to harness the benefits of tomorrow.

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Be Prepared for the Future Networking Needs of Your Business ·        To Support Increased Data Connectivity, Streamlined Edge-to-core Solutions Are Required

The rapid growth of IT/OT converged applications is introducing countless numbers of sensors and machines into industrial networks, resulting in more and more data that needs to be transmitted and exchanged. One example is with the emerging application of AI with machine vision, which can be used to improve quality inspection, detection for worker safety, or facility security. This has resulted in IP cameras being adopted on a massive scale in industrial applications. High-resolution cameras can improve performance and accuracy, but also have larger file sizes and video streams that require more bandwidth and increased network performance. This, like many IT/OT converged applications, requires an increasing number of networking devices, but they can be difficult to install in already crowded control cabinets. Additional engineering efforts are also required, putting a significant burden on field engineers. This makes network solutions that can be easily integrated more and more important.

Under such circumstances, ensuring smooth communication for converged networks requires businesses to foresee their future operational requirements and incorporate the flexibility needed to prepare for them. Therefore, we recommend you select solutions with a compact size that fits into control cabinets more easily, and a modular form factor that allows you to add connectivity and capabilities as your needs grow. Making sure you have support for multiple industrial protocols at the edge layer lets you easily enable interoperability and integration with SCADA/HMI systems, providing enhanced operational performance and flexibility. Bandwidth and performance at the distribution and core layer are also important for streamlining edge-to-core data connectivity. Moxa provides a reliable network foundation that enables seamless data transmission and easy integration so you can create futureproof networks that are reliable from the edge to the core.


·        To Face the Growing Risks to Network Security, Layered Protection Is Critical

The convergence of IT and OT networks is happening at the same time as rapid adoption of IIoT technology across both networks. However, this means there is now an increased overall attack surface, as well as additional attack vectors. Cybersecurity risks are exponentially rising, and there are increasing numbers of reports about disrupted operations in industrial control systems (ICS) and mission-critical infrastructures—such as power generation plants—due to a lack of sufficient OT network security that led to unauthorized changes or configurations. Historically, OT devices were physically separated from other networks through air-gapping. But today, IT/OT convergence is dissolving the air gap between ICS and the Internet, exposing OT infrastructure to potential cyberthreats. Administrators now face the challenge of managing existing vulnerabilities hidden inside once-isolated OT networks, but with the added complexity of IT-based threats. However, ensuring your OT network’s security is not the only criteria for a successful industrial application. Ramping up network security is important, but doing so while ensuring your industrial operations can maintain reliable, uninterrupted operation is a must.

To enhance industrial network security while creating a robust network foundation, the core principle is to focus on secure networking with defense-in-depth protection. To begin with, you need to select security-hardened devices that comply with industrial security standards, such as IEC 62443 and NERC CIP. With these building blocks, you will still need to build another layer of protection to guard your network from attacks through practices such as essential network segmentation and proactive threat prevention. Finally, visibility to monitor the security status of the network is a must to help you detect and respond to cyberthreats in a timely manner. Moxa has holistic network security that is designed for the specific needs of industrial networks by offering three layers of defense-in-depth protection, helping businesses ensure both network protection and availability when transitioning to a converged infrastructure.


·        To Handle Growing Networks, Simplifying Network Management Is a Necessity

When IT and OT networks converge, network complexity increases, making it more and more important to have proper network management in place to ensure the network runs smoothly, efficiently, and continuously. A single point of failure could significantly affect the entire OT infrastructure and even IT networking systems, which could cause costly downtime. Service providers need a network management tool that gives them a clear view of the network status at customer sites, shortens troubleshooting times, and enables remote maintenance.

Optimally, an OT network management tool should have these capabilities:

  • Network Visibility: This is by far the most important, but also the most fundamental element. Other helpful features would be monitoring of performance, traffic load, and security status of network devices.
  • Quick Diagnostics: This is the ability to detect downtime and pinpoint the root cause of issues so you can minimize impacts to the business. Notifications for customized events can enable businesses to resolve issues in a timely manner, sometimes before incidents even occur.
  • Easy Maintenance: This includes the ability to remotely back up or restore device configurations and upgrade firmware for devices across a deployment, all from a centralized location. This allows administrators to perform upgrades and fixes without sending out engineers to maintain devices individually on-site, which can be even more difficult if devices are installed in control cabinets or inside machines.

Good network management tools enable you to improve network performance and availability, detect problems and react to them quickly, and make future expansions easier to implement. Moxa offers OT-centric network management solutions that are easy to use and created to address the needs of OT engineers, reducing the efforts needed to tackle the issues that come with increasing network complexity, and can even empower companies to provide improved aftermarket services and even new business models such as machine-as-a-service.


Leverage Futureproof Network Infrastructure to Ensure the Success of Your Digitalization Journey

As you work to merge your IT and OT networks on the path to digitalization, your network infrastructure needs to evolve to meet the new demands that will inevitably emerge. As trusted experts in industrial networking, Moxa is committed to helping businesses take the leap into the next generation of industrial networking by addressing the needs of their various applications and helping them successfully create futureproof industrial network infrastructure that helps them accomplish their innovation goals.


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Intelligent Electronic Devices Market Size Worth USD 22.87 Billion in 2030 | CAGR: 6.81%

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 10:30

According to Adroit Market Research, the global intelligent electronic devices market was valued at USD 12.80 billion in 2021 and by 2030, this market is expected to have grown to USD 22.87 billion, with a CAGR of 6.81%.

The market for IEDs was being driven by the expanding demand for automation and smart solutions across several industries, including power systems, oil and gas, manufacturing, and transportation. These tools were essential to contemporary industrial automation because they provided improved monitoring, control, and protection capabilities.

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More advanced and intelligent IEDs were being created as a result of technological developments in microprocessors, communication protocols, and sensor technologies. These improvements improved the gadgets’ performance and functionality, which encouraged more users to embrace them. Many nations were making significant investments in modernizing their deteriorating power infrastructure and putting smart grid technologies in place. IEDs were crucial in enhancing grid management, efficiency, and reliability as part of this modernization process. To encourage the use of advanced monitoring and control tools like IEDs and to stimulate the use of smart grid systems, governments and regulatory authorities in various areas have implemented guidelines and standards.

View More Information About Intelligent Electronic Devices Market @ https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/4800

IEDs are advanced electronic devices that are utilized in a variety of applications to carry out certain tasks with a high level of automation and intelligence. These tools are often used in industrial and power systems to keep an eye on, regulate, and safeguard processes and electrical equipment. IEDs can acquire data, interpret information, and carry out activities according to established rules or algorithms since they are outfitted with microprocessors, memory, communication interfaces, and specialized software algorithms. They function as a component of larger control and automation systems, providing real-time processing capabilities and frequently having the capacity to connect with other devices.

IEDs keep an eye on electrical characteristics including current, voltage, and frequency to look for anomalies or system flaws. They then act rapidly to isolate the damaged area in order to stop further damage and guarantee that the remainder of the network will continue to receive electricity. To ensure system stability, voltage regulation, and other operating needs, IEDs may automatically regulate a variety of devices, such as circuit breakers and switches. IEDs continually collect data on a variety of parameters, giving operators access to real-time data regarding the performance and health of the power system. IEDs’ high degree of accuracy in measuring electrical quantities makes it possible for accurate invoicing, load monitoring, and energy management.


Advanced monitoring and control systems were needed since renewable energy sources like solar and wind power were being used more and more. IEDs gave us the chance to regulate power fluctuations, distribute energy more effectively, and incorporate renewable energy into existing networks. Governments and utility firms from all over the world were making investments in the creation of smart grids. Building intelligent power distribution networks, guaranteeing grid stability, and enabling demand response programmes all required the use of IEDs. Energy efficiency and demand-side management have received more attention as awareness of energy conservation and sustainability has grown. IEDs provide ways to track and manage energy use in real-time, find ways to save energy, and optimize total energy use.

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Electric vehicles (EVs) are being adopted at a higher rate, and the electrification of transportation has created possibilities for IEDs to establish charging infrastructure, control grid load, and optimize charging patterns. Strong cybersecurity solutions were required because of the increased reliance on networked systems and digital communication. IEDs gave businesses the chance to create cutting-edge cybersecurity technologies to safeguard vital infrastructure from online dangers. IEDs created a massive quantity of data, which gave businesses the chance to create advanced analytics solutions. Big data analytics may be used to enhance system performance, maximize operations, and extract useful insights.

Modern monitoring and control systems were necessary because of the global move towards renewable energy sources like solar and wind. IEDs were successfully employed to control the grid’s conversion to sporadic renewable energy sources. Industries used IEDs for real-time monitoring and optimizations of their electrical systems to reduce energy waste and enhance overall performance as a result of growing concerns about power quality and energy efficiency. IEDs’ integration with IIoT technologies, Industry 4.0 concepts, and seamless data interchange enabled intelligent decision-making that improved the productivity and efficiency of industrial operations.

North America has a substantial market for IEDs, particularly in the United States and Canada. The need for intelligent electronic equipment was fueled by the region’s emphasis on grid modernization, renewable energy integration, and smart grid development. The adoption of smart city projects and a rising focus on energy efficiency also aided industry expansion.

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A New Equipment Platform for a New Era of Chip making

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 10:14

Most semiconductor industry observers know it takes hundreds of process steps to make a chip. They can picture overhead transfer systems speeding orange FOUPs (Front Opening Universal Pods) full of wafers from tool to tool, imagining each process step being executed as quickly as physics allows before the wafers are zipped off to the next machine. They can sense the science behind the high-stakes race to produce the most precisely completed wafers in the shortest possible time.

Fewer observers know that process tools are also a marvel of complexity. Each is based on a platform – a highly engineered set of modular components tailored for particular kinds of process chambers, steps and flows. The platform is painstakingly configured and tuned to achieve the best process step outcomes, which directly impact chip performance, power and yield. The platform can also be configured to accommodate differences in process step times: faster steps can be assigned a single chamber, while slower steps can be spread across multiple chambers. This load balancing helps all of the wafers in the FOUP to be processed in the shortest possible time and cost to help win the race.

The platform is made up of a number of key components:
  • A factory interface that receives FOUPs and wafers
  • A central transfer chamber or mainframe, with one or more robots, that efficiently move wafers between locations
  • One or more process chambers attached to the mainframe
  • A suite of sensors that generates data about operating conditions
  • Powerful real-time control computers and software tools that sequence, monitor and analyze operating conditions

The platform approach allows the system to be configured to the customer’s exact needs. Unit process systems are typically specialized to perform just one step – such as deposition or etch.

In co-optimized Applied Materials systems, consecutive steps such as deposition and etch occur in different systems, but are engineered by the company to deliver the best possible outcomes and performance when used together.

In Applied’s Integrated Materials Solutions, each platform is configured with a variety of chambers that perform a series of consecutive process steps in the same system, under high vacuum. This “factory within a factory” approach provides the highest possible level of cleanliness and control, while reducing transportation “queue times” that add time, risk contamination and increase variability between process steps.

The platform approach is not unique to semiconductor manufacturing. It is frequently used in the auto industry, for example, where a common chassis and drivetrain can be configured with body designs tailored to different vehicle types, such as sedans, small SUVs and passenger vans.

A Legacy of Leadership Platforms

Applied Materials has the world’s largest installed base of around 45,000 wafer manufacturing systems. We ship thousands of new systems each year, and most are based on just four major platforms that were introduced and refined over the past three decades. Just as automakers develop different platforms for passenger vehicles, light trucks and large commercial vehicles, each of Applied’s major platforms enables chipmakers optimize their fabs for particular wafer processing needs and workloads.

Applied Endura®Applied Endura®

Launched in 1990, the Endura platform is one of the most widely adopted deposition systems in the industry. The platform’s staged, ultra-high-vacuum architecture delivers extreme film purity. With its unique ability to integrate multiple process technologies on a single platform, the Endura platform has been chosen to host major innovations in process integration including high-k metal gate transistors, selective tungsten transistor contacts, and a copper barrier seed solution that integrates 7 consecutive process steps to cut interconnect resistance in half.

Applied CenturaApplied Centura

Introduced in 1992, the Centura platform incorporates the high-vacuum capabilities pioneered by Endura along with advanced robotics that increase throughput. The Centura platform is designed with larger facet sizes that support the bigger chambers used in etch, epitaxy, and HDP CVD for example.

Applied ProducerApplied Producer

Launched in 1998, the Producer platform is designed to perform individual process steps at the highest speed, smallest footprint and lowest operating cost. This solution continues to be an industry workhorse for CVD as well as selective etch and treatment technologies. Producer is used in all semiconductor markets, including high-k metal gate and FinFET transistors along with 3D NAND memories.

The Centris platform was introduced in 2010 with the goal of being the smartest and fastest platform for conductor etch applications in memory and logic. Centris included an unprecedented eight process chambers – six for etching and two for plasma cleaning. The compact system increased throughput to 180 wafers per hour and cut production costs by up to 30%. In 2015, Centris became the platform for Applied’s Sym3® etch system, the fastest ramping product in company history.

These four platforms are all still going strong and will continue to play a vital role in furthering our customers’ technology roadmaps.

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New Challenges Call for a New Platform

The semiconductor industry faces a new set of challenges. With traditional 2D scaling slowing in recent years, the industry is increasingly relying on a “new playbook for PPACT” – performance, power, area-cost and time-to-market. The new playbook consists of:

  • New architectures – including GPUs and TPUs that accelerate AI workloads
  • New materials – like pure tungsten transistor contacts that lower wiring resistance
  • New 3D structures – such as gate-all-around transistors and backside power delivery networks
  • New ways to shrink – including Sculpta™ pattern-shaping technology that reduces EUV double-patterning steps
  • And heterogeneous integration – which enables chip designs to be partitioned into chiplets that can be recombined for improved performance, power and cost

Platform innovations will be needed to drive the new playbook. In particular, the new architectures for AI rely on new materials and 3D structures that will be common in the angstrom nodes. There will be a greater need for integrated materials solutions that allow increasingly delicate materials and structures to be created and combined in high vacuum. The ideal platform will enable chipmakers to integrate more process chambers – including significantly different process technologies or architectures – and accommodate more steps than ever before, all in a single flexible, high-throughput system.


The complexity of emerging process recipes is exploding. While unit processes like etch require engineers to optimize as many as 100 different process variables, integrated materials solutions dramatically increase the number of variables and challenge even the most experienced process integration experts. Increasingly, progress depends on sensors, massive data generation and analytical tools that help engineers create sophisticated recipes that result in the best chip performance and power characteristics together with the widest acceptable process margin or “window.” The ideal platform will gather as much actionable data as possible for process engineers and their analytical tools. A more intelligent platform will also help chipmakers maximize productivity across all stages of the process lifecycle, from R&D to ramp and high-volume manufacturing.


The increase in process complexity and steps will add to the challenge of creating a more sustainable semiconductor industry. Without significant innovations, electricity and materials consumption per wafer will continue to increase, and the carbon emissions will grow correspondingly. A more sustainable platform will help reduce the industry’s emissions per wafer.

Applied’s platform design team has been monitoring these trends over the past several years and imagining a new equipment platform for a new era of chipmaking. I look forward to sharing more details at our SEMICON West Technology Breakfast on the morning of July 11 in San Francisco.  I hope to see you there!

MIKE RICE-Applied MaterialsMIKE RICE-
Applied Materials

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New portfolio of isolation devices from TI extends the lifetime of high-voltage applications to 40-plus years

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 10:08
  • Improve signal integrity and reduce power consumption by as much as 80% with pin-to-pin replacement to optocouplers.
  • New opto-emulators improve performance over end-product lifetimes with TI’s proprietary SiO2-based isolation technology.

Today introduced its new opto-emulator portfolio of signal isolation semiconductors, designed to improve signal integrity, consume less power, and extend the lifetime of high-voltage industrial and automotive applications. TI’s inaugural opto-emulators are pin-to-pin compatible with the industry’s most common optocouplers, enabling seamless integration into existing designs while leveraging the unique benefits of silicon dioxide (SiO2)-based isolation technology. For more information, see TI.com/opto-emulators.

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“Today’s push for electrification, coupled with the intricacies of designing high-voltage systems, presents a need for engineers to increase the performance and lifetime of their products while ensuring the right level of isolation,” said Tsedeniya Abraham, general manager of interface products at Texas Instruments. “Our new portfolio of opto-emulators not only addresses the growing need for reliable and affordable isolation but also exemplifies our commitment to investing in high-voltage technologies.”

Increase reliability with TI’s SiO2-based isolation

Optocouplers, which integrate an LED to isolate the signal, have historically been a common choice among engineers. However, optocouplers typically require upfront overdesign to compensate for the inevitable ageing effects of LEDs. TI’s opto-emulators eliminate the need for overdesign by using SiO2 for the isolation barrier, removing the effects of LED ageing altogether. With a high dielectric strength of 500 VRMS/µm, TI’s SiO2 isolation barrier enables the new portfolio of devices to protect end-product designs for more than 40 years. Opto-emulators also provide isolation protection as high as 3,750 VRMS, while reducing power consumption by as much as 80%.

Additionally, the portfolio is able to withstand wide operating temperature ranges from –55°C to 125°C, while providing common-mode transient immunity up to 10 times higher than optocouplers. To learn more about the benefits of TI’s new opto-emulators, read the technical article, “Opto-Emulators Explained: Why You Should Upgrade Your Optocoupler Technology.”

TI’s new opto-emulator portfolio builds on the company’s commitment to helping engineers unlock the power of high voltage. To learn more, see TI.com/highvoltage.

Package, availability and pricing

Preproduction quantities of opto-emulator products are available now at TI.com/opto-emulators.

  • Package options as small as 4.8 mm by 3.5 mm.
  • Evaluation modules start at US$19.00.
  • Multiple payment and shipping options are available.
  • Automotive versions of opto-emulator products are expected to be available in 2024.

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Spirent collaborates with H3C to complete industry’s first large-scale 800G test

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 09:40

Spirent Communications, the leading provider of test and assurance solutions for next-generation devices and networks, has supported H3C in successfully completing the industry’s first large-scale high-density 800G Ethernet test with up to 64 800G ports. The test results validated the reliability and high performance of H3C S9827, H3C’s 800G CPO silicon photonic switch series.

With Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) driving a new wave of network transformation, the resultant large-scale AI workloads require data exchange among tens of thousands of servers executing billions of parallel computations for massive data training. Growing demand for computing power is driving new requirements for high-quality network connections and with 800G and 1.6T expected to become the standard for large-scale training in the future, the performance of next-generation switches is essential for overall network efficiency and response speed.

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This recent test leveraged the industry’s first high-density 800G OSFP and QSFP-DD test platform, the Spirent TestCenter 800G B2 Appliance. The B2 is dedicated to accelerating time-to-market for 800G infrastructure development and adoption, no matter the interconnect strategy, providing customers the flexibility to use a test platform native to their actual network deployments. The B2 test solution offers the density, flexibility and performance features needed to validate the next generation of switches, routers, chipsets, and data centre fabrics. Supporting multi-rate interconnection with switches via cables, optical fibres and other interconnects, the B2 enables testing based on benchmark performance and scale standards.

The H3C S9827 series is a new generation of 800G data centre switches based on CPO silicon photonics technology, and test results showed a total switching capacity of up to 51.2T, with all 64 ports achieving 100 per cent line speed forwarding under different traffic. Each port transmission rate reached 800Gbps, and the integrated CPO silicon photonics technology fully met the high throughput demands for intelligent computing networking, ensuring its suitability for AIGC clusters and other high-performance data centre core switching and related applications, which will help to unleash optimal computing power in the AIGC era.

“We were pleased to support H3C in verifying multiple breakthrough technology solutions for 800G Ethernet,” said Andrew Liu, VP of Sales for Spirent in Greater China. “We have developed a comprehensive, end-to-end 800G testing suite that leverages decades of experience in Ethernet testing. This latest positive 800G test validating the reliability and high performance of H3C S9827, H3C’s 800G CPO silicon photonic switch series, will help ensure successful deployments of this complex new technology and reliable high-speed networks to meet future demand.”

“The 800G high-performance switch, bolstered by CPO technology, will provide higher network capacity for cutting-edge applications such as AIGC and large-scale model training, paving the way for further improvement in the scale and computing power of computing clusters,” said Yutao Li, Vice President of Network Product Line and General Manager of Switch Product Line at H3C. “This joint test fully reflects H3C’s leading technical strength in the field of digital infrastructure. In the future, H3C will also help customers from various industries to comprehensively boost Ethernet performance, unleashing the full potential of computing power.”

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Security for IoT devices

ELE Times - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 09:34

Author : Amit Sethi – Technical Marketing Manager, STMicroelectronics

Security is a critical aspect of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, as IoT devices or nodes are vulnerable to a variety of security threats. IoT devices can be accessed by unauthorized users who can then take control of the device, steal data, or disrupt its normal functioning. Data collected by IoT devices can be breached or stolen, leading to privacy violations, identity theft, and financial losses. IoT devices can be infected with malware, which can take over the device, steal data, and spread it to other devices on the network. Attackers can flood an IoT device with traffic, causing it to crash or become unavailable.

Secure elements are a crucial component in protecting IoT nodes against security threats. They provide a secure and isolated environment for storing sensitive information such as cryptographic keys and credentials and enable secure communication and authentication between IoT devices and the cloud.

Secure elements for IoT nodes come in different forms, including hardware and software-based solutions. Hardware-based secure elements are typically built into the IoT device’s hardware and provide the highest level of security as they are physically tamper-resistant. These secure elements are designed to perform secure key generation, storage, and cryptographic operations, and can also provide secure boot and firmware update capabilities.

Some common features of secure elements for IoT nodes include:

  1. Authentication and encryption: Secure elements enable secure communication between IoT devices and the cloud by providing authentication and encryption capabilities.
  2. Key management: Secure elements enable secure key generation, storage, and management, which are essential for securing communication and data exchange between IoT devices.
  3. Secure boot and firmware updates: Secure elements can provide secure boot and firmware update capabilities, which ensure that the device’s firmware is securely updated and that the device boots up securely.
  4. Tamper resistance: Hardware-based secure elements are designed to be physically tamper-resistant, which makes it difficult for attackers to access the secure data stored within the device.

Overall, secure elements are a critical component of IoT security, and their use can help to protect IoT devices from a wide range of security threats, including data breaches, unauthorized access, and tampering.

STMicroelectronics secure elements are based on industry-standard secure element technology, and they comply with various security certifications. These secure elements are typically used in various applications such as mobile payments, identity management, and secure authentication.

The post Security for IoT devices appeared first on ELE Times.

The Tesla Solar Roof Technology; Revolutionizing Energy Generation

Electronic lovers - Срд, 09/20/2023 - 03:51

In a world increasingly focused on sustainability and renewable energy solutions, Tesla has been at the forefront of innovation. One of their groundbreaking creations is the Tesla Solar Roof, a solar energy system that seamlessly combines energy generation with aesthetic appeal. In this article, we’ll delve into the Tesla Solar Roof system’s functionality, its benefits, and how it contributes to a greener future.\Users\user\Desktop\1.PNG

Understanding Tesla roof technology:

Capturing Sunlight:

As sunlight interacts with the integrated photovoltaic (PV) tiles on your Solar Roof, it initiates a process where solar cells absorb this light, leading to the generation of an electric current. Within the Solar Roof system, essential components like PV tiles, non-PV tiles, and aesthetically enhanced metal flashings work together seamlessly.

Electricity Conversion:

Every element of the Solar Roof efficiently captures sunlight and transforms it into DC (direct current) electricity, subsequently converting it into AC (alternating current) electricity suitable for powering your household devices. This critical conversion occurs within a solar inverter, a pivotal component in the system

Managing Surplus Power:

In cases where your Solar Roof produces excess electricity beyond your immediate needs, there are two effective approaches. You can choose to store the surplus energy in your Powerwall for future utilization, such as charging your electric vehicle, sustaining overnight power, or as a backup during unexpected outages. Alternatively, any surplus energy can be seamlessly returned to your utility grid, making you a contributor to the local power supply.

Components of the Tesla Solar Roof System:

The solar roof mainly consists of Solar Roof tiles, flashings, and a Tesla Solar Inverter.

1. Solar roof tiles

Solar Roof sets itself apart from traditional roof and solar panel systems by integrating both energy-producing and non-energy-producing tiles seamlessly. These tiles are customized to perfectly fit your home’s unique angles and structures, creating a smooth and natural finish. They are precision-engineered using top-notch materials to ensure long-term performance and aesthetic appeal.

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2. Solar inverter:

The Tesla Solar Inverter is equipped with advanced safety features like integrated rapid shutdown, arc fault protection, and ground fault protection. Its installation is made easier by eliminating the need for neutral wires. This inverter efficiently converts the DC power generated by solar modules into usable AC power for your home.


Key properties:

  • Leveraging Powerwall technology for outstanding efficiency and established reliability.
  • Seamlessly integrates with the broader Tesla ecosystem, including the Tesla app, Powerwall, and Wall Connector.
  • Enables convenient over-the-air updates and monitoring via Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and cellular connections.
  • Offers options with 3.8 kW and 7.6 kW models for your specific energy needs

3. Power wall:

Every Solar Roof system includes a Powerwall, which enables you to store the clean energy generated by your Solar Roof. This stored energy can be used at night or in the event of a power outage. The Powerwall+ version comes with an integrated solar inverter and Gateway, ensuring a smooth transition during backups and improved off-grid performance.

\Users\user\Desktop\power wall.PNG

The Powerwall is customizable to meet your home’s unique energy requirements, offering various modes for added functionality. You can easily monitor and activate these modes through the Tesla app. You can use the Tesla app to monitor and manage your solar system’s performance with features and control modes such as:

  • Self-Powered
  • Backup Reserve
  • Energy Exports
  • Time-Based Control
  • Advanced Settings
  • Preconditioning
  • Self-Consumption Only
  • Integration with Charge on Solar

Advantages of Tesla Solar Roof:


Choosing to install a Solar Roof not only provides your home with an integrated solar and energy storage system but also enhances its visual aesthetics. Whether observed up close or from afar, the seamless combination of glass solar tiles and steel roofing tiles adds a visually pleasing element that complements and elevates your home’s inherent architectural charm.


Durability and Longevity:

The Solar Roof system comprises both glass solar tiles and top-grade steel roofing tiles. The glass solar tiles capture solar energy, while the high-quality steel tiles enhance the roof’s strength and resistance to corrosion. Designed to endure a variety of weather conditions, these elements guarantee durability and long-term protection for your home.


Easy maintenance:

To maintain your solar system’s efficiency, you can clean the panels by rinsing them with a garden hose or using a non-abrasive sponge with soapy water. This simple cleaning routine, performed once or twice a year, can enhance solar production by 3% to 5%.

\Users\user\Desktop\solar roof specs.PNG

Tesla mobile App:

Tesla solar roof system can be maintained and regulated through Tesla mobile app specified for solar roof system. Solar power production, usage, and storage can be easily managed through mobile app via Wi-Fi linkage.

\Users\user\Desktop\tesla mobile app.PNG

Cost efficiency:

Solar energy is both an eco-friendly and cost-effective method for generating electricity. Tesla offers the lowest-priced solar solutions with a price match guarantee, allowing homeowners to not only save money but also potentially earn from their solar systems. The energy generated by your Tesla solar panels directly powers your home, reducing your reliance on purchased electricity. Additionally, many utility companies provide credits for surplus energy produced during the day, a process known as Net Energy Metering (NEM).


Investing in solar panels is an investment in your home’s future, as it continues to deliver clean energy savings over the long term. Paying for a solar system upfront is a wise investment that can eventually pay for itself, providing the highest long-term value compared to other financing options. By configuring your Powerwall in Time-Based Control mode, you can automatically reduce your use of costly utility electricity without impacting your lifestyle.

\Users\user\Desktop\average solar roof costs.PNG

Service and warranty:

  1. The manufacturer guarantees your solar panels to maintain at least 80% of their nameplate power capacity for a minimum of 25 years. If needed, Tesla will handle your claim and any associated labor expenses at our expense.

  2. Your entire Tesla solar system is protected by a comprehensive 10-year warranty. Throughout this period, upon your request, Tesla will address your claims and cover any associated labor costs. This warranty encompasses various components of your solar system, including the Powerwall, solar inverter, and roof mounting, including leak-related issues.

Real-life success stories:

The team of proficient energy experts at Tesla has effectively deployed approximately 4.0 GW of solar power systems on nearly 480,000 rooftops. This collective effort has generated over 25.0 terawatt-hours (TWhs) of clean and sustainable energy. 

\Users\user\Desktop\D8-Customer-Stories-Arizona.jpeg Phoenix, Arizona Balancing Family Comfort with Cost Efficiency: “A Financial Approach”.
\Users\user\Desktop\customer-stories-rich.png Sarasota, Florida

(System size: 19.825 kW)

Preparing for Retirement: “The Importance of Securing Your Savings”.
\Users\user\Desktop\customer-stories-luis.png Chester, New Jersey

(System size: 14 kW)

Savings and energy security: “Smartest home investment”.


In summary, the Tesla Solar Roof represents more than just a roofing solution; it embodies a statement. It signifies the harmonious coexistence of cutting-edge technology, aesthetic allure, and environmental responsibility. Its efficiency, durability, and sustainability make it a forward-looking investment that aligns seamlessly with the worldwide transition towards cleaner energy sources.

The post The Tesla Solar Roof Technology; Revolutionizing Energy Generation appeared first on Electronics Lovers ~ Technology We Love.

Disassembling the Echo Studio, Amazon’s Apple HomePod foe

EDN Network - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 17:30

Back in late February, within my teardown of an Apple HomePod mini smart speaker, I wrote:

I recently stumbled across a technique for cost-effectively obtaining teardown candidates, which I definitely plan to continue employing in the future (in fact, I’ve now got two more victims queued up in my office which I acquired the same way, although I’m not going to spoil the surprise by telling you about them yet).

In early June, while dissecting my second victim, a first-generation full-size HomePod, I summarized the aforementioned acquisition technique:

I picked up a couple of “for parts only” devices with frayed power cords on eBay for substantial discounts from the fully functional (whether brand new or used) price. One of them ended up still being fully functional; a bit of electrical tape sheltered the frayed segments from further degradation. The other went “under the knife”. Today, I’ll showcase one of the “two more victims” I previously foreshadowed.

Victim #2 wouldn’t fully boot, the result of either a bad logic board or a firmware update gone awry. And today, we’re going to take a look at victim #3, ironically a direct competitor to the HomePod. It’s a high-end Amazon Echo Studio smart speaker; here’s a stock shot to start us off:

That one, matching the one you’ll learn about in detail today, is “Charcoal” in color. The device also comes in white…err…“Glacier”. Here’s a conceptual image of its multi-transducer insides:

The story of how I came to obtain a device which normally sells for $199.99 (sometimes found on sale for $159.99) for only $49.99 is a bit convoluted but also educational—I’ll revisit the big-picture topic later as it relates to other similar-configured devices, specifically computers. So, I hope you’ll indulge my brief detour before diving into the device’s guts. As with its predecessors, this smart speaker was listed on eBay “for parts only”. And in something of a first after more than a quarter century of my being active on eBay, after I bought it the seller reached out to me to be sure I knew what I was (and wasn’t) getting before he sent it to me.

A funny (at least to me) aside: in sitting down to write this piece just now, I finally took a close look at the seller’s eBay username (“starpawn19”) followed by a visit to his eBay storefront (“Star Pawn of New Port Richey”). He runs a pawn shop, which I’d actually already suspected. He told me that someone sold one of his employees the Echo Studio, but the employee forgot to tell the seller (before leaving) to unregister the smart speaker from his or her Amazon account, and the phone number the seller gave the pawn shop ended up being inactive.

After doing a bit more research, there’s likely more to the tale than I was told (I’m not at all suggesting that “starpawn19” was being deceptive, mind you, only not fully knowledgeable). Amazon keeps a record of each customer account that each of its Echo devices (each with a unique device ID) has ever been registered with (in fact, if you buy a new device direct from Amazon, you often have the option for it to come pre-registered). If all that had happened, as had been related to me, was that the previous registered user forgot to unregister it first, I think (although information found online is contradictory, and the Amazon support reps I spoke with in fruitlessly striving to resurrect my new toy were tight-lipped) that a factory reset (which I tried) would enable its association with a new account. If, on the other hand, a previous user ever reports it lost or stolen (or if, apparently, Amazon thinks you’ve been nasty to its delivery personnel!) it gets unregistered and all subsequent activation attempts will fail, as I discovered:

The only recourse that “Contact Customer Service” offered me was to return the unit to the seller for a refund…which of course wasn’t an option available to me, since I knew about its compromised condition upfront. So, what happened? One of two things, I’m guessing. Either:

  • Whoever sold the device to “starpawn19” had previously stolen it from someone else or,
  • Whoever sold the device to “starpawn19” hadn’t been happy with the price they got for it and subsequently decided to get revenge by reporting it lost or stolen to Amazon.

With that backgrounder over, let’s get to tearing down, shall we? I’ll begin with a few overview images (albeit no typical box shots, sorry; it didn’t come in retail packaging), as-usual accompanied by the obligatory 0.75″ (19.1 mm) diameter U.S. penny for dimension comparison purposes but absent (I realized in retrospect) the detachable power cord. The Echo Studio is 8.1” high and 6.9” in diameter (206 mm x 175 mm), weighing 7.7 lbs. (3.5 kg). Here’s a front view:

Because I don’t want it to feel left out:

Now a back view:

A closeup of the backside connections reveals the power port in the center, flanked by a micro-USB connector to the left (with no documented user function) and a multipurpose 3.5 mm audio input jack on the right, capable of accepting both TRS analog plugs and incoming optical S/PDIF digital streams.

Like Apple’s HomePod, the Echo Studio contains a mix of speaker counts and sizes, capable of reproducing various audio frequency ranges, and variously located in the device. But the implementation details are quite different in both cases. Here’s a look at the internals of the first-generation HomePod (recall that the second-generation successor has only five midrange/tweeter combo transducers, versus the seven in this initial-version design):

Compare it against the “x-ray” image of the Echo Studio at the beginning of this article. Several deviations particularly jump out at me:

  • Apple employed a single speaker configuration to tackle both midrange and high frequencies, whereas Amazon used distinct drivers for each frequency span: three 2” midranges and a 1” high-frequency tweeter.
  • Apple’s woofer points upward, out the top of the HomePod, whereas Amazon’s 5” driver is downward firing. That said, both designs leverage porting (Amazon calls them “apertures”, one in front and the other in back) to enhance bass response.

  • The varying speaker counts and locations affect both bill-of-materials costs and sound reproduction capabilities. Recall that bass frequencies are omnidirectional; you can put a subwoofer pretty much anywhere in a room, with optimum location guided by acoustic response characteristics versus proximity to your ears. Conversely, high frequencies are unidirectional; your best results come from pointing each tweeter directly at your head (note, for example, its front-and-center location in the Echo Studio). Midrange frequencies have intermediary transducer location requirements.
  • The Echo Studio was also designed for surround sound reproduction. That explains, for example, the fact that one of its three midrange drivers points directly upward, to support Dolby Atmos’ “height” channel(s). The other two midrange drivers point to either side. And like its other modern Echo siblings, two Echo Studios can be paired together to more fully reproduce left and right channel “stereo” sound, as well as (paired with an Echo Sub) to further enhance the system’s low bass response.

Here’s our first look at the top of the Echo Studio, with the grille for the upward-firing midrange in the middle and an array of seven microphones spaced around the outer ring. Recall that the HomePod’s six (first-gen) then four (second-gen) mics were around the middle of the device.

Left-to-right along the lower edge of the ring are four switches: mute, volume down and up, and the multifunction “action” button. And, in the space between the speaker grill and outer ring, a string of multi-color LEDs shines through in various operating modes, with varying colors and patterns indicating current device status (bright red, for example, signifies mute activation).

Now for the Echo Studio’s rubberized “foot”:

including that unique DSN (device serial number) that I mentioned earlier:

and which I’m betting is our pathway inside:


Before continuing, I want to give credit to the folks at iFixit, who (as far as I know) never did a proper teardown of the Echo Studio but whose various repair manuals were still invaluable disassembly guides (in the spirit of giving back, you’ll find comments from yours truly posted to this one). I’ll also point you to a teardown video I found while doing preparatory research:

I don’t speak Hindi, so the narration was of no use to me, but the visuals were still helpful!

Anyhoo….onward. Amazon really gave my Torx driver set quite a workout; I’m not sure that I’ve ever encountered so many different screw head types and sizes in the same device. First, getting the plastic bottom off required removing 15 of them:

Lift off the bottom plate:

Disconnect the wiring harness and a flex PCB cable:

And the deed is done; we’re in!

Let’s first focus on the PCB-plus-power assembly attached to the inside of the bottom plate:

Remove four screws:

and the PCB comes free:

The IC to the right of the flex PCB connector is the Texas Instruments’ OPA1679 quad audio op amp. Flip the PCB over:

and you’ll find another, smaller IC below the audio input jack, presumably also from TI considering its two-line marking:

TI 12

but whose identity escapes me. Ideas, readers? (I’m also guessing, by the way, that the optical S/DPIF receiver is built into the audio input jack? And where does the DAC for the digital S/PDIF audio input, or alternatively the ADC for the analog audio input, reside? Keep reading…)

Here’s another shot of this same PCB from a different vantage point before we proceed:

And now for that wiring harness:

Now for the PCB inside the device, which we saw earlier and which (many of you have likely already figured out, given the massive transformer, passives, and all the thermal paste) handles DC power generation and distribution:

Remove one more screw and disconnect one more wiring harness:

And the PCB lifts right out, leaving a baseplate behind:

I strove mightily to chip away at and remove all that thermal paste while leaving everything around and underneath it (and embedded within it) intact, but eventually bailed on the idea. Sorry, folks; if anyone knows how to cost-effectively dissolve this stubborn stuff without marring everything else, I’m happy to give it a shot. Speaking of shots, here are some more:

About that baseplate:

The plastic ring around it, held in place by a single screw, needs to come out first:

And now for the baseplate itself, which does double-duty (on its other site) in redirecting the woofer’s output through the smart speaker’s two side “apertures”:

Bless you, iFixit registered user Jeff Roske, for suggesting in an iFixit guide comment (step 6, to be exact) that “Power supply baseplate must be rotated clockwise, ~1cm at outside edge, to release catch tabs before lifting out of unit” and, in the process, saving my sanity (I only wish it hadn’t taken me five minutes’ worth of frustration before I saw Jeff’s wise words):

Woof woof, look what’s underneath!

And I bet you know what my next step will be…

Finally, we get our first glimpse at the system’s “brains”, i.e., its main board:

Here are closeups of the insides’ four quadrants, as oriented above. Left:



And bottom:

Specifically, to get the system board out, we’re first going to have to disconnect a bunch of wiring harnesses and flex PCB cables. Here they are, sequentially clockwise around the board starting at the left side, and in both their connected and disconnected states:

Pausing the cadence briefly at this point, I encountered something I don’t think I’ve seen in a teardown before; a zip tie bundling multiple harnesses together to tidy up the insides!

And here’s another organizing entity, a harness restraint along one side:


Up top are also two antenna feeds that need to be unsnapped:

Now over to the right:

Next to go were sixteen total screws, eight of them shiny and screwed into metal underneath, the other eight black and anchored to underneath plastic:

Houston, we have a liftoff”:

Here’s the side of the system board that you’ve previously seen in its installed (pointed downward, to be precise) state, which I’ll call “side 1”:

And here’s when-installed upward-facing system board “side 2”:

Time for some closeups and Faraday cage removals. Side 1 first; keeping to the prior clockwise cadence, I’ll start with the left-quadrant circuitry, which includes (among other things) a Texas Instruments LM73605 step-down voltage converter:

Now the top:


And finally, the Faraday cage-dominated landscape at bottom:

Again, you already know what comes next, right?

That’s MediaTek’s MT7668 wireless connectivity controller at the center. Quoting from the product page on the manufacturer website: it’s a “Highly integrated single chip combining 2×2 dual-band 802.11ac Wi-Fi with MU-MIMO and latest Bluetooth 5.0 radios together in a single package.” The only wireless protocol NOT documented is Zigbee, support for which keen-eyed readers may have already noticed was mentioned in the smart speaker “foot” markings earlier. And by the way, if you hadn’t already noticed, in addition to the earlier noted external antenna wiring feeds, there are PCB-embedded antennae to either side of the Faraday cage (also visible on the other side of the PCB).

Speaking of which…now for the system board side 2. Already-exposed IC at left (a Texas Instruments TPA3129D2 class D audio amplifier) first:

At top (and top left) left is a clutch of ICs only some of which I’ve been able to ID:

The upper-left Faraday cage hides, I believe, the Zigbee controller. Its markings are:


and through a convoluted process involving Google Image search followed by a bunch of dead-end (and dead-page) searches that ended up bearing (hopefully not-rotten) fruit, I think it’s Silicon Labs’ EFR32MG21:

Now for the remainder of the ICs in this region:

The IC at the very top, with the silver rectangular “patch” atop it (which I at first thought was a sticker but can’t seem to peel off, so…) seemingly covering a same-size gold region underneath, is one of the puzzlers. Above the silver patch are the following faintly (so I may not be spot-on with my discernment) stamped lines:


Below the silver section are also two marked lines, the first stamped and the second embossed:


And next to the chip is this odd structure I’ve not encountered before, with a loop atop it:

Any ideas, folks?

To its lower right is another puzzler, marked as follows:

TI 13

Fortunately, the remainder aren’t as obscure. Directly below the “silver patch” IC is Cirrus Logic’s CS42526 2-in, 6-out multi-channel codec with an integrated S/PDIF receiver (hearkening back to my earlier S/PDIF discussion related to the bottom-panel PCB). And next to its lower-right corner are two Texas Instruments THS4532 dual differential amplifiers.

Last but not least, there are the Faraday cage-rich right and lower quadrants:

Let’s tackle the cage-free IC at the right edge first: it’s another Texas Instruments TPA3129D2 class D audio amplifier, the mate of its mirror-image at left. Above and two Cages to its left is nonvolatile storage, a Sandisk SDINBDG4-8G 8 GByte industrial NAND e.MMC flash memory:

To its right, underneath the large rectangular Faraday cage, is (curiously) another MediaTek Wi-Fi-plus-Bluetooth controller IC, the MT7658, which is online documentation-bereft in comparison to its MT7668 cousin on the other side of the PCB, mentioned earlier, but which I’ve seen before.

And what about that large square Faraday cage at the bottom? Glad you asked:

Underneath the lid, in the upper right and left corners, are two Samsung K4A4G165WE-BCRC 4 Gbit DDR4 SDRAMs. And underneath them both, befitting the thermal paste augmentation, is the system “brains”, MediaTek’s MT8516 application processor.

Remember that earlier mentioned LED ring, and those up-top buttons and mics? They suggest we’ve got one PCB to go, plus we haven’t seen any midrange or tweeter transducers yet. Next let’s get out those two shiny metal brackets:

Two screws for each attach to the side:

And one screw for each attach to the assemblage above (or below, in the Echo Studio’s current upside-down orientation, if you prefer):

And with impediments now removed, they lift right out:

Next up for removal is the baseplate underneath (more accurately: above) the now-absent metal braces and system board:

More speakers! Finally!

At this point, I hypothesized that I’d need to get the top of the Echo Studio off in order to proceed any further. Holding it in place, however, were 14 screws accessible only from underneath the top, only a subset of which are shown here:

Why? Those speakers. The midranges in particular had really strong magnets, which tended to intercept and cling to screws en route from their original locations to the outside world:

Those same magnets, I discovered complete with colorful accompanying language, would also yank Torx bits right out of my driver handle. I eventually bailed (temporarily) on my iFixit driver kit and went with a set of long-shaft single-piece Torx screwdrivers instead. Here’s the end result as it relates to the top speaker grill, alongside my various implements of destruction:

And here’s the now-exposed upward-directed midrange speaker:

Four more screws removed, less “momentously” than before, set it free:

Now for that top outer ring. With the screws originally holding it in place no longer present, I was able to pop it free using only my thumbnail:

The translucent ring around the underside for the LEDs to shine through is likely obvious (hold that thought), as are the “springs” for the four buttons. The one on the left, if you look closely, is different than the other three: there’s a cutout in it. Again, hold that thought:

Two easily removed screws are all that still hold the LED PCB in place:

Here’s an initial overview shot of the LED PCB standalone, and of its top with the ring of 24 LEDs around its middle, an immediately obvious feature.

Keen-eyed readers may have also already noticed the seven MEMS microphone ports, one of which is missing its gasket (stuck instead to the underside of the top outer ring, which you’ll now notice if you go back and look at the earlier photo of it). Let’s now do some closeups, beginning with the top:

The “mute” switch, at far right in this photo, is different than the others because it has dedicated LEDs alongside it that illuminate red when the mics are in a muted state (in addition to the entire ring going red, as mentioned earlier). And what’s that next to the “action” switch on the far left? Remember the cutout I mentioned in the accompanying switch? It’s an ambient light sensor that enables dynamic calibration of the LEDs’ brightness to the room’s current illumination level. The IC below it, judging from the logo, is sourced by Toshiba Semiconductor, part of its LCX low-voltage CMOS logic line, but I can’t definitively ID it. Here are the markings:


The chips at right:

are a Texas Instruments LP5036 36-channel I2C RGB LED driver and, below it, another TI chip unknown in function and labeled as follows:

T 0C8

That same two-chip combo is also present on the left side of the PCB:

The bottom of the top side of the PCB is comparatively unmemorable:

as is the underside of the PCB, aside from the bulk of the MEMS microphones’ housings:

We’re still not the rest of the way inside, but keep the faith; I still see a few screws up top:

Turns out the Echo Studio is comprised of two separate shells, the outer doing double-duty as front and side speakers’ grills (and, along with the top pieces’ colors, the sole differentiators between “Charcoal” and “Glacier” variants, come to think of it), which now slide apart:

Here’s what the outer-shell grilles for the front tweeter and side midranges look like from the inside:

No speaker, therefore no grill, in back, of course:

They correspond to the inner-shell locations of the left midrange:

Right midrange:

And front tweeter:

Again, the backside is bare:

Speaking of which…the midranges are identical to the top-mounted one you already saw. But let’s take a closer look at that tweeter:

In closing, one final set of images. In peering through the hole left from the tweeter’s removal:

I happened to notice the two antenna wires, one white and the other black, that I’d briefly showed you earlier. I realized I hadn’t yet discerned where they ended up and decided to rectify that omission before wrapping up:

This is the inside of the inner shell, looking toward the top and back of the device from the bottom. The antennas are in the back left (black wire) and right (white wire) of the Echo Studio, next to and “behind” the midrange drivers:

My guesses are as follows:

  • One of them is for 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi (black?), the other for 5 GHz (white?).
  • The 2.4 GHz one multitasks between Wi-Fi and Zigbee duties, and
  • The Bluetooth antennae are the PCB-embedded ones noted earlier.

Agree or disagree? And related: I’m still baffled as to why the design includes two Wi-Fi-plus-Bluetooth controller SoCs, MediaTek’s MT7658 and MT7668, plus a dedicated Zigbee controller. If you have any insights on this, or thoughts on anything else I’ve covered in this massive missive, I as-always welcome them in the comments!

Brian Dipert is the Editor-in-Chief of the Edge AI and Vision Alliance, and a Senior Analyst at BDTI and Editor-in-Chief of InsideDSP, the company’s online newsletter.

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The post Disassembling the Echo Studio, Amazon’s Apple HomePod foe appeared first on EDN.

Rohde & Schwarz and IMST demonstrate active antenna array OTA-testing for satellite terminals at the EuMW 2023

ELE Times - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 15:12

Active antenna arrays with beamforming capabilities are a key technology for establishing links between satellite terminals and end devices on the ground. At the European Microwave Week (EuMW) 2023 in Berlin, Rohde & Schwarz and IMST will showcase a solution for over-the-air (OTA) measurements of electrically large beamforming antenna arrays for various SATCOM applications.

New satellite constellations in low Earth orbit (LEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO) or geostationary orbit (GEO) allow uninterrupted connectivity on land, at sea and in the air. Besides classic A&D satellite applications, the new orbits will enable new services such as global tracking, internet of things (IoT), remote sensing or nonterrestrial networks (NTN), which will drive demand for SATCOM infrastructure testing in the coming years.

Rohde & Schwarz has joined forces with IMST to demonstrate a powerful solution for SATCOM terminal testing at the EuMW in Berlin. Testing the performance of satellite terminal systems and components with appropriate signals under realistic over-the-air conditions is crucial. SATCOM infrastructure size, formfactor, weight and performance are all challenging for SATCOM terminal manufacturers.

At the EuMW, Rohde & Schwarz and IMST will showcase a test solution that uses the compact R&S ATS1800C CATR based test chamber from Rohde & Schwarz for OTA measurements to characterize a SANTANA IV antenna array module from IMST. The R&S ATS1800C has a high-quality CATR reflector that creates a large quiet zone (QZ) for much higher measurement certainty relative to other solutions. The R&S ZNA vector network analyzer can comprehensively test and reliably characterize DUTs. R&S AMS32 software measures technical parameters such as magnitude and phase of far field and near field
distributions, as well as metrics such as error vector magnitude (EVM) to characterize the digitally-modulated transceiver performance.

The SANTANA IV module (FKZ 50RK1925) is a smart antenna terminal designed by IMST. It is equipped with electronically controlled antenna beam steering that allows the beam shape and pointing direction to be electronically adjusted without any moving mechanical parts. The TX antenna array has 64 elements that support dual linear or circular polarization. The array was designed for an operating frequency range from 29.5 GHz to 30 GHz, which can be used for applications such as SATCOM-on-the-move (SOTM). The single
64-element module can be used as a base module for larger arrays.

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OMRON Device & Module Solutions Business Charts Out Strategy for Growth in India

ELE Times - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 14:45

OMRON Device & Module Solutions business, a leading provider of electronic components, has announced its strategic growth plan for India. Focused on four key growth domains, the company aims to strengthen its presence via working together with market & technology leaders to create advanced solutions catering to varied industry needs in these domains.

The growth domains charted out by the company are DC Infra, DC Drive, High Frequency Equipment and Remote/Virtual Reality. The key industries identified under these growth domains are electric vehicles (EV), mobility, energy infrastructure (EV charging and Photo Voltaic – PV charging stations & inverters), and semiconductor testing and inspection systems.

1.Vinod Raphael, Country Business Head, OMRON DMS Business, India at Electronica

“OMRON’s forte is connecting & switching, and we aim to work together with market leaders in these segments to create advanced solutions answering to pertinent needs of society. Recognizing the immense potential of India’s fast-growing electronics industry, with this strategy, we aim level up our efforts to contribute towards its future growth. This is also in sync with our vision -Shaping the Future 2030,” says Vinod Raphael, Country Business Head, OMRON Device & Module Solutions Business, India.

As per Vinod, OMRON is working together with market & technology leaders in these domains and aim to work together with them to support creation of advanced applications and solutions that ultimately create value for an existing societal issue with a deeper and wider impact or for solving newer social issues. “These players are well versed with the market & technology needs. Hence, new & futuristic products and solutions created along with them will help us penetrate deeper into the target markets in these growth domains,” he added.

Regarding the DC drive domain, OMRON aims to provide safe and efficient DC disconnection for Solar/PV, Energy Storage System (ESS), farming, power tools and robotics industries. Recognizing the critical importance of establishing a robust & safe charging network to facilitate the widespread adoption of electric vehicles, under DC Infra, the company strives to empower makers to develop high- safety & quality as well as compact charging solutions for electric vehicles. This will contribute to the growth of India’s electric vehicle ecosystem. Energyapplications like Photo Voltaic (PV) inverters is another focus industry for OMRON under this domain to support the growing adoption of cleaner, sustainable & solar energy based renewable energy solutions. Under High Frequency Equipment domain, the company is reaching out to semiconductor manufacturers to enable them with advanced “testing” solutions that will expedite the quality and add immense value to the performance of their semiconductor-based solutions.

3.OMRON at ElectronicaFurther sharing more details, Vinod shares, “Along with this pivotal growth-domain strategy, we will continue to work on strategically enhancing our distribution expanse to cater to the local needs of India in the mobility and home appliances sectors.”

For Mobility, OMRON aims to enhance its pace in providing cutting-edge solutions for green vehicles, connected & smart transportation systems, and autonomous driving technologies. By offering advanced electronic components and systems, the company aims to enhance the safety, efficiency, and comfort of future mobility solutions.

As OMRON embarks on this new strategic direction, it reinforces its commitment to provide one of the most balanced & holistic value proposition in terms of Quality, Cost, Delivery and Service to its customers harnessing the potential of these four growth domains, driving technological advancements, empowering local industries, and fostering sustainable development in India.

The company showcased its range of solutions at the ongoing South Asia’s leading trade fair for electronic components, systems, applications and solutions – ELECTRONICA India, at Bengaluru held from Sep 13 to 15, 2023.

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About OMRON Corporation and its Device & Module Solutions Business

OMRON Corporation is a global leader in the field of automation based on its core technology of “Sensing & Control + Think.” Since its founding in 1933, OMRON has continued to contribute to the development of society by solving social issues through industrial automation, healthcare, social systems, and device & module solutions. It has about 30,000 employees worldwide, working to provide products and services in around 120 countries and regions.

Started in 2003, OMRON Device & Module Solutions business in India is a leading provider of advanced electronic components in the country. The portfolio includes high-quality, high precision & performance

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STMicroelectronics’ wireless microcontrollers make Sindcon smart meters more efficient and sustainable

ELE Times - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 14:41

STMicroelectronics, a global semiconductor leader serving customers across the spectrum of electronics applications, announced its collaboration with Sindcon (Singapore) IoT Technology Pte Ltd, a smart meter provider based in Singapore. The project is adding STM32WLE5 LoRaWAN® wireless microcontrollers from ST into Sindcon’s network of more than 50,000 water, gas, and energy meters in Jakarta, Indonesia.

“The STM32WLE5 microcontroller (MCU) uses a long-range, low-power wireless radio operating on the LoRaWAN network to enable remote meter reading that addresses Jakarta’s diverse and expansive landscape of urban and forested terrain,” said Paolo Oteri, APeC (Asia Pacific excluding China) Marketing Director at STMicroelectronics. “As a small system-on-chip (SoC), the STM32 wireless microcontroller also lets customers like Sindcon pack more features into their smart meters, without increasing the size or form factor of their product.”

“Sindcon’s smart meters in Jakarta are located inside private apartments, residential areas, industrial water utilities, and shopping malls, making meter-reading challenging and expensive. We selected the STM32WLE5 for its high integration benefits to our customers and because it enhances performance, size, security, and power consumption,” said Chen Deyu, CEO (Chief Executive Officer) at Sindcon.

The project will be Sindcon’s first deployment in Indonesia using the highly integrated STM32WLE5CC wireless MCU from ST, a Sub-GHz wireless microcontroller featuring an Arm® Cortex®-M4 core operating at 48 MHz. The MCU contains 256 Kbytes of Flash memory, 64 Kbytes of SRAM, LoRa® modulation, and AES 256-bit encryption.

With the STM32WLE5, Sindcon’s retrofitted meters contain an advanced battery management system that can support accurate remote readings for up to 10 years.

The meters are currently being retrofitted and will be fully installed by the end of 2023.

Save the date and experience the demo at Industrial Transformation Asia-Pacific (ITAP), a Hannover MESSE event from 18 – 20 October 2023 at the Singapore Expo.

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Anritsu Partners with MPI and ATV Systems to Showcase 6G AiP Measurements at European Microwave Week 2023 in Berlin

ELE Times - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 14:26

Anritsu Company, in partnership with MPI and ATV, will be showcasing state-of-the-art 6G Antenna in Package (AiP) measurements at EuMW 2023 in Berlin. The solution comprises a VectorStar VNA that sweeps from 70 kHz to 220 GHz with patented NLTL technology-based millimeter-wave (mmWave) extenders. The mmWave extenders convert up/down signals to 220 GHz and are so small that they can be easily mounted on a robotic arm that performs a scan around the AiP in a pre-programmed, high-resolution step yielding accurate antenna radiation pattern measurements at D and G band frequencies. The robotic arm and the probe station are provided by MPI and ATV systems who excel in their respective domains of probe stations/probes and measurement automation expertise.

The AiP can be probed/fed from either the side of the antenna, which can be placed on a glass substrate or any other material, or it can be probed from the bottom so that the probing does not interfere with the radiation of the antenna. The special Titan Probes used for probing the AiP is connected to the VectorStar mmWave modules.

They can be single ended or differential depending upon the application.

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Best Battery Scooty in USA

ELE Times - Втр, 09/19/2023 - 14:07

In an era where sustainable and eco-friendly transportation options are gaining momentum, battery-powered scooters are taking centre stage as a convenient, clean, and efficient mode of commuting. With the electric scooter market growing rapidly, it’s crucial to distinguish the best battery scooters available in the USA. In this blog, we’ll delve into some of the top contenders in this exciting electric revolution.

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1. Tesla Model M

When it comes to innovative electric vehicles, Tesla stands as a beacon of technological prowess. The Tesla Model M electric scooter reflects the company’s commitment to excellence. With its sleek design and cutting-edge technology, the Model M offers an exceptional riding experience. Equipped with a high-capacity battery, it boasts an impressive range on a single charge. Additionally, the scooter features swift acceleration and a regenerative braking system, catering to those who seek both style and performance in their electric scooter.

2. Segway Ninebot MAX

Segway, renowned for its pioneering work in personal transportation, has produced another gem with the Ninebot MAX electric scooter. This scooter is celebrated for its outstanding battery life, capable of travelling up to 40 miles on a single charge. Its robust build and large, air-filled tires provide a comfortable and stable ride, making it a versatile choice for a variety of terrains. Safety is paramount with the Ninebot MAX, which includes front and rear lights, reflectors, and a reliable braking system.

3. Boosted Rev

Boosted, recognized for its electric skateboards, ventured into the electric scooter market with the Boosted Rev. This scooter is the perfect fusion of power and portability, ideal for urban commuters navigating through bustling city streets. The Boosted Rev boasts a long-lasting battery and dual motors capable of reaching speeds of up to 24 mph. Its sturdy construction and user-friendly controls make it a top choice for those who value quality and performance.

4. Razor EcoSmart Metro HD Electric Scooter

Razor, famous for its traditional kick scooters, has made a smooth transition into the electric scooter arena with the EcoSmart Metro HD. This scooter seamlessly combines eco-friendliness with affordability. Powered by a high-torque motor and a long-lasting battery, it’s a superb choice for short commutes and running errands. What sets it apart is its retro design and comfortable seat, providing riders with a unique and enjoyable experience.

5. Xiaomi Mi Electric Scooter

Xiaomi, known for offering high-quality tech products at competitive prices, has made its mark in the electric scooter market with the Mi Electric Scooter. This scooter is lightweight and foldable, making it exceptionally portable and ideal for city living. Despite its compact size, the Mi Electric Scooter delivers a decent battery life and a top speed of 15.5 mph, catering to urban commuters seeking convenience and efficiency.

6. Zero 10

For those seeking a robust and high-performance electric scooter, the Zero 10X might be the ultimate choice. This scooter is engineered for power and durability, featuring dual motors and an extensive-range battery. With a top speed of 40 mph and the ability to conquer off-road terrain, the Zero 10X is an adventurer’s dream. It’s designed for individuals who crave speed and versatility in their electric scooter.

The electric scooter market in the USA is flourishing, offering consumers a plethora of options tailored to various preferences and needs. Whether you prioritize range, speed, portability, or affordability, there’s a battery scooter that aligns with your desires. As we continue to embrace eco-friendly transportation solutions, these electric scooters represent a significant stride toward a greener and more sustainable future on the streets of America.

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What is moment of inertia?

EDN Network - Пн, 09/18/2023 - 17:00

In a state of bewilderment one fine day, I asked a group of three mechanical engineers at this company where I was then employed if they could please explain to me the concept of “moment of inertia”. To my utter astonishment, none of them could offer an explanation. None of them knew!

Since then, though, I think I’ve found out.

Sir Isaac Newton taught us (please forgive my paraphrasing) that for linear motion of some object, we have F = m*A which means that a mass “m” will undergo a changing linear velocity at some value of acceleration “A” under the influence of an applied force “F”.

Figure 1 Linear motion on a frictionless surface where force is equal to mass multiplied by acceleration. Source: John Dunn

There is an analogous equation for rotary motion. We have T = J*Θ where “T” is the torque applied to some object having a moment of inertia “J” which experiences a rotary acceleration called “Θ” which can be measured in units of radians per second squared.

Figure 2 Rotary Motion where the torque applied to an object is equal to its moment of inertia about the rotation axis multiplied by its rotary acceleration. Source: John Dunn

In a rotary motor, the armature will have some particular moment of inertia. There will also be a motor coefficient of torque designated kt. The torque that gets created within that motor will be kt multiplied by the armature current. In short, we will have T = kt*I where I is the armature current.

Writing further, we have kt*I = J* Θ which rearranges to Θ = kt I / J = Angular acceleration.

Angular acceleration is directly proportional to the applied armature current times the coefficient of torque and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia.

John Dunn is an electronics consultant, and a graduate of The Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (BSEE) and of New York University (MSEE).

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Infineon presents XENSIV™ tire pressure sensor with intelligent features for tire pressure monitoring systems

ELE Times - Пн, 09/18/2023 - 13:55

Infineon Technologies AG (FSE: IFX / OTCQX: IFNNY) combines its proven automotive expertise with its patented glass-silicon-glass MEMS sensor for the automotive tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) market to launch the XENSIV™ SP49 tire pressure monitoring sensor. The sensor integrates MEMS sensors and ASIC and provides smart tire features that enable advanced tire pressure monitoring systems. It features a powerful 32-bit Arm® M0+ core, a large flash memory and RAM, Low Power Monitoring (LPM), and optimized fast acceleration sensing. The SP49 is ideally suited for intelligent tire functions such as on-tire auto-position sensing, tire inflation assistance, tire blowout detection, and load detection.

The SP49 is a pin-to-pin replacement for Infineon’s last generation SP40 TPMS products. With its hardware master/slave I²C interface and software-simulated UART, SPI and PWM interfaces, the SP49 is ideal for sub-1GHz and scalable for BLE TPMS. Available at ASIL-A, the sensor offers a high level of integration and is optimized to perform all functions required to implement a modern TPMS module. With its integrated microcontroller, sensors and convenient peripherals, the SP49 requires only a few passive components to form a complete TPMS sensor unit. The device is designed for low power consumption, making it ideal for battery-powered applications.

In addition to the ability to generate a wake-up from the integrated interval timer, the SP49 products are suitable for stand-alone remote pressure sensing solutions that require low power consumption. In these applications, the LF receiver with wake-up capability and best-in-class sensitivity enables on-demand measurements.


The XENSIV tire pressure sensor can be ordered now. More information is available at www.infineon.com/tire-pressure-sensor-tpms/sp49 .

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